Security studies

Health Security: A Study on Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses (1) are a group of viruses that cause diseases of mammals and birds. The virus in humans causes respiratory infections, which include colds, usually mild, and rarely fatal, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the new CORONA virus that caused the 2019-20 outbreak of the new CORONA virus. It can cause diarrhea in cows and pigs, but in chickens it can cause diseases of the upper respiratory tract. There are no approved vaccines or antivirals for the prevention or treatment of these viruses.

Coronaviruses belong to the straight coronavirus within the coronavirus family within the order of the night viruses.[6][7]Corona viruses are viruses encapsulated with a single-chain reposi dna genome, and have a similar helical venom. The coronavirus genome is about 26 to 32 kilobase, the largest of RNA viruses.

The name “coronavirus” is derived from the coronavirus. CoV is a corona meaning crown or halo, where the name refers to the distinctive appearance of virus molecules (fresions) that appear through an electron microscope, where they have a load of surface protrusions, which they show.

Discovery: Coronaviruses were detected in the 1960s, and the first detected virus was infectious bronchitis virus in chickenand two nasal viruses for patients with coldcalled human coronavirus 229E and HUMAN CORONA VIRUS OC43.[8]Other elements of this family have since been identified including: 2003 CORONAVIRUS, HUMAN CORONA Virus NL63 in 2004, HKU1 virus in 2005, CORONA VIRUS 2012, and the new CORONA virus 2019-nCoV, most of which have a role in causing a serious respiratory infection.

Name and shape: The name “coronavirus” is derived (Arabic: coronavirus). In short, CoV is from corona and (in Greek: “korοnοnν”), meaning a wreath or wreath, as it means crown or aura. The name refers to the distinctive appearance of the veritone (the anti-virus form) that appears through an electron microscope, where it has a large onion surface protrusion, showing it in the form of a king’s crown or solar halo. This formation occurs through viral thorn sabotany (S), proteins that fill the surface of the virus and determine host prognosis.

Several proteins contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses, namely spike s, envelope e, membrane (membrane by the abbreviation M) and nucleocapsid (nucleocapsid). In a specific case of MERS-CoV linked to SARS, a specific future bond range found in S acts as an intermediary for the virus to attach the virus to its cellular receptor, the enzyme conv[9]erting to angiotensin 2 (ACE2). Some coronaviruses (especially members of the Beta Corona virus group) also have a shorter spike-like protein called heerces .[6]

In Arabic, the name coronavirus (1) is more common than other nomenclature, but other labels are more accurate in description, with the name of [ِ 1]the coronavir[ِ 1]us, the coronavirus, [ِ 2][ِ 3]the coronal virus, [ِ 1]the coronal viru[ِ 4][ِ 5][ِ 1]s, the coronal fev[ِ 6]er, the coronal fever[ِ 1].

Transcription: The cycle of infection with THE CORONAvirus: After the virus enters the cell, it removes its fissic and releases its RNA genome into the cytoplasm. The CORONA virus has a 5′ like-for-like hat and a multi-adenine tail at the end of 3′ and this allows its RNA molecule to bind to ribosomes for translation.

The coronavirus is also a protein called RNA polymerase (Riplikaz) encrypted in its genome, which allows the virus genome to be copied and new copies produced using the host cell machine. RNA-based RNA polymerase is the first translated proteins, and when the translation of this polymerase gene is finished the translation by Codon stops, and this is known as overlapping transcription. The messenger rna version that enfers only one gene called a cysterone. The labianoprotein, a protein that is exhaled by the virus genome but does not fit into the structure structure and is expressed [10]in infected cells, is not found in RNA-based polymerase enzymes.

The RNA genome is copied and a long protein is formed in which all proteins are bound together. Coronavirus has a protein that is not structural , peptides, capable of separating proteins from each other in this localized chain. This method of copying and translating viral proteins is a type of genetic economy of the virus that enables it to encode a large number of genes in a relatively small number of nucleotides.[11]

Transmission: Human-to-human transmission of coronaviruses is believed to occur mainly among people close to them during direct contact with respiratory spray caused by sneezing and coughing.[12]


  • Genus: Alpha Coronavirus; Stereotypes: Coronavirus Alpha 1[13][14]
    • Species: Alpaca Coronavirus, Corona Alpha Virus Alpha 1, Human Coronavirus 229E, Human Coronavirus NL63, Wing Wing-Bended Bat Corona Virus 1, HKU8 Wing-wing van, Piggy Epidemic Diarrhoeavirus, HKU2 VRun HKU2, Dark Elve Bat Virus 512
  • Genus beta coronavirus; Stereotypes: Mouse Coronavirus
    • Species: Coronavirus Beta 1, HKU1, Mouse Coronavirus, Pipistrellus Corona Patvirus HKU5, Rosetta HKU9, Coronavirus linked to SARS syndrome, Tylonycteris Bat coronavirus HKU4, Middle East-related coronavirus, HUMAN CORONA VIRUS OC43, Coronavirus (EriCoV), new Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
  • Genus CORONA GAMMA virus; Stereotypes: Bird Coronavirus
    • Species: Bird Coronavirus, White Whale Coronavirus SW1, Duck Coronavirus, Infectious Bronchitis Virus
  • Genus Corona virus Delta; Typicals: HKU11 Coronavirus
    • Species: HKU11, HKU13 Coronavirus, HKU12 Coronavirus

Evolution: It is estimated that the most recent common ancestor of coronavirus existed around 8,000 BC.[15]It could be significantly older. Another estimate puts the most recent co-ancestors of all coronavirus at about 8,100 BC.[16]The newest co-ancestor of alpha coronavirus, corona beta, corona gamma, corona delta was developed around about 2400 BC, 3300 BC, 2800 BC, and 3000 BC respectively. Bats and birds – hot-blooded flying vertebrates – appear to be ideal hosts of the source of the coronavirus gene (bats for alpha and beta coronaviruses, birds for gamma and delta coronaviruses) and an appropriate environment to support the development and spread of the coronavirus.

Bovine coronavirus and respiratory coronavirus (CV) were separated from a common ancestor in 1951.[17]Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 were branched in 1899. The bovine coronavirus was branched out from the species of horse coronavirus at the end of the 18th century. Another estimate suggests that the human coronavirus OC43 was derived from the bovine coronavirus in 1890.[18]The most recent co-ancestor of OC43 human coronavirus dates back to the decade 1950.[19]The Mers-CoV-linked coronavirus,linked to many bat species, appears to have been branched out several centuries ago.[20]Human coronavirus NL63 and coronavirus were involved in the most recent common ancestor 563-822 years ago.[21]

The most severely related coronavirus and the CORONA-SARS virus were branched in 1986.[22]The course of development of the CORONA VIRUS and its strong links with bats have been suggested.[23][24]The researchers suggested that coronaviruses developed jointly with bats for a long time and that the ancestors of SARS first infected species of the genus hyposides and[الإنجليزية] then spread to the persian shoe bat species and then to the civet cat and eventually to humans.[بحاجة لمصدر]

The Alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E were branched before 1960.[25]

Human coronavirus:

Coronaviruses are thought to cause a large proportion of cases of coldin adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, such as fever and swelling of the appendages, especially in humans in winter and early spring.[26]Coronaviruses may cause pneumonia, either direct or secondary viral pneumonia, with bacterial pneumonia. Bronchitis can also cause, whether direct or secondary viral bronchitis may cause bacterial bronchitis.[27]The human coronavirus, which was spread in 2003, was discovered as the coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and has a unique pathological potential, because it causes both upper and lower levels.[27]

There are seven strains of human coronavirus:

  1. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
  2. Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
  3. SARS-CoV-linked coronavirus
  4. Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)
  5. Human Corona virus HKU1
  6. Mers-CoV, formerly known as the New Coronavirus (HCoV-EMC).
  7. New Coronavirus (2019-nCo[28][29]V), known as Wuhan lung or Coronavirus.[30](A new word means it’s newly discovered or newly created.)[29]

HCoV-229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1 corona viruses are constantly spreading in humans, causing respiratory infections in adults and children around the world.[31]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began the previous year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a new coronavirus has been identified in a number of laboratories as the causative agent of SARS. The virus is officially called THE SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV). More than 8,000 people were injured, and about 10% died.[9]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SAR[2]S) is a viral respiratory disease (SARS virus) of animal origin. It began to appear in China and is spreading in countries around the world, particularly in South-East Asia, causing its victims to have difficulty breathing and a mysterious pneumonia known later as the cause of death’s severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).[3][4][5]Italian doctor Carlo Orbani was the first to discover and die of SARS. He still does not have an effective vaccine to prevent it. Scientifically known as Severe acute respiratory syndrome.

It emerged as a global threat in March 2003 and the first infection was recorded in northern China in December 2002. Italian doctor Carlo Orbani was the first to discover the virus and died of it. Global health authorities have recently taken urgent action to address the spread of an infectious respiratory disease that has moved from Southeast Asia to North America and the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a global warning since the emergence of this unusual type of pneumonia, the causes of which are not yet known in China and Hong Kong, which is now a global panic and threat. It is a serious disease that has not been pursued.

It belongs to the corona virus family and contains a large amount of genetic information, and each time it reproduces itself within a cell, minor genetic errors occur that may make it more capable of infecting humans and reproducing itself within them. These errors benefit the virus according to the theory of natural selection and lead it to the creation of new, more viable and easily transmitted strains from one human to another.

The new strain of this coronavirus has special characteristics that have recently made it jump into humans and live inside the human body. There are strains of viruses. This disease is scientifically known as acute respiratory syndrome.

SARS is suspected in people with:

  • Any symptoms, including a fever of 38°C, can reach 43°C.
  • Sexual or normal contact with an infected person within the past 10 days or travel to any of the areas identified by the World Health Organization as areas where SARS has recently spread. (Affected areas as of May 10, 2003 include parts of China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ontario and Canada).

Symptoms and infection: This disease is caused by a virus that attacks the respiratory system, and its incubation period lasts from (2-7) days to become infectious. The infection is transmitted rapidly through direct contact with infected people, where viruses are transmitted through the spray that comes out of the respiratory tract during coughing and reaches the nose, mouth or eve[؟]n eyes, and contact with a surface contaminated with the spray leads to the disease.

It spreads from person to person, especially during the crowd and the duration of custody is from two to seven days. Scientists believed that the infection could be carried out by “close contact” such as sneezing. In at least some cases, the virus can spread through the air or by holding objects such as handles making it more difficult to control. The current strain of this virus is spread by a spray coming out of the lung with coughing and doctors are currently unsure of other ways to transmit the infection.

The disease begins with cold-like symptoms that quickly turn into pneumonia and has infected dozens in Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia and Thailand, causing who to send experts to Asia to try to find out the source and contain the disease.

Prevention: For the first time in its history, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a global warning of the virus-induced disease, which has spread to most of Asia, where cases are concentrated. The virus continues to spread in China, although it is partly contained in the rest of the world. The spread of SARS does not appear to be coming to an end soon, raising concerns about the spread of the disease.

German pharmaceutical company Artas has begun distributing new test ing equipment to detect the deadly pneumonia virus known as SARS. The company’s experts say the new tool can confirm anyone’s disease in just two hours, while traditional tests take more than 10 days. The company announced the free distribution of SARS testing equipment. Canadian researchers have announced that they have discovered the genetic makeup of the virus. Medical institutions around the world have welcomed this achievement, but experts have agreed that massive efforts still need to be made to discover the source of the flu-like disease and to stop its spread.

Losses: More than 3,000 people have been injured and 861 have died worldwide since it first appeared in China’s Guangdong Provinc[بحاجة لمصدر]e. Singapore has warned its citizens that SARS will not disappear overnight. The disease continues to spread in Singapore’s largest public hospital. The source of the infection was an elderly man with a number of diseases who concealed the fact that he had SARS, where the virus was accidentally spread in hospital. The Singapore government has subsequently conducted strict checks on air passengers from infested areas such as Hong Kong, Canada, Taiwan, Hanoi and Vietnam.

Treatment – antibiotics are ineffective, because the SARS epidemic is a viral disease. As of 2017, there is no vaccine or preventive treatment for it, which has been proven to be both safe and effective in humans.[6]

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

In September 2012, a new type of CORONAvirus, initially called MERS-CoV, was identified and now officially known as MERS-CoV. WH[32][33]O issued a global alert shortly afterwards.[34]The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus does not appear to be easily transmitted from person to person.[35]Despite this, on May 12, 2013, the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health confirmed that there had been a human-to-human transmission in France.[36]In addition, the Ministry of Health of Tunisia (Medina) reported cases of human-to-human transmission. The two confirmed cases are linked to people who appear to have contracted the disease from their late father, who contracted the disease after visiting Qatar and Saudi Arabia. However, the virus does not appear to be easily transmitted from human to human, as most infected individuals do not transmit the virus.[37]As of October 30, 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[38]

Erasmus Medical Center of the Netherlands determined the sequence of the virus genome, and the virus was given a new name, the human coronavirus attached to The Erasmus Medical Center (HCoV-EMC). The last name of the virus is mers-CoV-linked coronavirus. In May 2014, only two cases of MERS-CoV were recorded in the United States, both in health care workers who had worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the United States. One was treated in Indiana and the other in Florida. Each of these individuals was temporarily hospitalized and discharged.[39]

In May 2015, the mers-coV outbreak spread in South Korea when a man who travelled to the Middle East visited four different hospitals in seoul to treat his illness. This has caused one of the largest mers-CoV outbreaks outside the Middle East.[40]As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV were confirmed in laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, and the mortality rate was about 34.5%.[41]

What is Middle East Respiratory Syndrome?

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV, or MERS-CoV), first detected in Saudi Arabia in 2012.

Coronaviruses represent a large species of virus that can cause disease in humans, ranging from a common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

What are the symptoms of MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME? And how big is it?

Symptoms of the typical condition of MIDDLE East Respiratory Syndrome include fever, cough and/or shortness of breath. Pneumonia is also common, yet some infected people have reportedly had no symptoms. He also reported symptoms of an infectious infection, including diarrhea.

Severe conditions may include respiratory failure, which requires artificial respiration and support in an intensive care unit.

Some patients experienced organ failure, particularly kidney failure or septic shock. The virus appears to cause a more severe disease in people who complain of weakened immune systems, the elderly and people with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer and chronic lung disease.

The mortality rate among people living with MERS is around 35%, but this estimate may be exaggerated, as existing surveillance systems may not record mild cases.

Is there an anti-COV vaccine? And what’s the cure?

There is currently no specific vaccine or treatment for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. The treatment available is supportive and depends on the clinical condition of the patient.

Where have the cases of MIDDLE EAST Respiratory Syndrome occurred?

Mers cases have been reported in 27 countries since 2012, and Saudi Arabia reported nearly 80% of human cases.

Cases detected outside the Middle East represent people who have been infected in the Middle East and then travelled to areas outside. Some small-scale outbreaks have occurred in rare cases outside the Middle East.

The latest information on MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME outbreaks can be found at:

How do people become infected with THE MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS?

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus is mainly animal-to-human, but it can also be transmitted from person to person.

From animal to human

Coronavirus is an animal-sourced virus, i.e. it is transmitted between animals and humans. Scientific evidence suggests that people become infected through direct or indirect contact with Arab camels.

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus has been detected in Arab beauty in a number of countries, including Egypt, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Other evidence suggests that the coronavirus is prevalent in Arab beauty in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia.

There may be other animal reservoirs, but animals such as goats, cows, sheep, buffaloes, pigs and wild birds have been tested and the virus has not been detected.

Between people.

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus is not easily transmitted among people, except in the case of close contact, such as in the case of clinical care to an infected patient without strict hygiene measures.

To date, the transmission of the disease among people has been limited and has been detected among family members, patients and health-care workers. Most of the reported cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) to date have occurred in health-care settings.

Can a person become infected with CORONA virus without becoming ill?

Yes, infection with MERS-CoV can be asymptomatic.

Some people infected were detected asymptomatic when they were tested for CORONA virus while testing for contacts with known contacts.

Is it easy to detect people infected with MERS-CoV?

People infected with THE MES virus cannot always be detected because the early symptoms of this disease are not specified.

For this reason, all health-care facilities should apply standard infection prevention and control practices. It is also important to investigate travel records in people with respiratory infections to determine whether they have recently visited countries where MERS-CoV is actively transmitted or have contacted Arab camels.

What should a person do if he or she has contact with someone with MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME?

If you’ve been in contact with a person with MERS-CoV for the last 14 days without taking recommended infection control precautions, you should contact a health care provider to assess your condition.

Should people avoid contact with camels or their products? Are farm visits, markets or camel fairs safe?

As a general precaution, anyone visiting farms, markets, barns, or any other places where animals are found should follow hygiene measures, including regular hand washing before and after contact with animals, and avoid contact with sick animals.

Consumption of animal products, including dairy and meat, raw or undercooked, also carries a high risk of infection caused by a spectrum of organisms. Appropriately processed animal products, through cooking or pasteurization, are safe to consume but should be handled carefully to avoid contamination from uncooked foods. Camel meat and dairy are nutritious products that can be consumed after being jacketed, cooked or processed by any other heat treatment.

Until more is understood about MERS, people with diabetes, kidney failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons will be considered at high risk of severe disease due to MERS-CoV infection. This group of people, particularly in the Middle East, should avoid contact with Arab camels and avoid consuming their raw milk, urine or eating meat that has not been cooked well.

Workers on camel and slaughterhouse farms should practice good hygiene rules, including frequent hand washing after contact with animals, facial protection and protective clothing (which should be removed after work and washed daily). Workers should also avoid exposing their family members to clothing, shoes and other dirty items, which may have touched camels or camel secretions. The slaughter of sick animals for consumption should be permanently refrained from being consumed.

People should avoid direct contact with any animal confirmed to be infected with THE CORONAvirus.

Are health care workers at risk of MERS-CoV?

Yes. The transmission of MERS-CoV has occurred in health-care facilities in several countries, notably Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is not always possible to detect patients with MERS-CoV early or without screening because symptoms and other clinical characteristics may be undetermined. It is therefore important that health-care workers consistently apply standard precautions to all patients.

Spray precautions should be added to standard precautions when providing care to patients with symptoms of acute respiratory infection. Precautions for contact and eye protection should be added when caring for suspected or confirmed CORONA infections. Precautions for air borne infection should be applied when taking actions leading to aerosol emission.

New Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Model of an accidental cut in coronavirus

In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, China.[42]On December 31, 2019, the outbreak was attributed to a new strain of coronavirus, o[43]fficially named by the World Health Organization (WHO) as 2019-nCoV.[28][29][44]

By February 3, 2020, 362 confirmed deaths and more than 17,335 confirmed cases had been reported in an outbreak of coronavirus lung.[45][46]The Wuhan strain was defined as a new strain of group 2B beta coronavirus with a genetic similarity of ~70% with SARS.[47][48]The origin of the virus was believed [48]to be snakes, but many prominent researchers disagree.[49]The virus is 96% similar to coronavirus, so it is widely believed to be of fear.[50][51]

In animals

Coronaviruses have been known to cause veterinary conditions since the early 1970s. With the exception of gastroesophageal bronchitis, large diseases related to these viruses are basically gastrointestinal diseases.[52]

Caused diseases

Coronaviruses mainly affect the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract in birds and mammals. It also causes a range of diseases in livestock and pets, some of which are dangerous and are considered a threat to agriculture and animal husbandry activity. In chickens, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus that targets not only the respiratory tract but also the genitourinary system, and can spread to various organs through chickens.[53]Coronaviruses that cause significant economic damage in livestock include the Pig Runovirus (TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which cause diarrhea in small animals. The snooare coronavirus is of two types, one of which is enterovirus, which is a low clinical lyceum disease, but the random mutations of this virus result in infectious papillon, a disease associated with a high mortality rate. Similarly, there are two types of coronavirus that infects a loaned son: enterocococcus coronavirus (VOCh) causes an infectious intestinal syndrome known as eCE and another more serious systemic type (e.g. son-infected pygmy pyloriphistic papyrus virus) known as the regular son of a mycobacterium coronavirus (FSC[54]). There are two types of coronavirus, one that causes an average infectious disease and the other causes respiratory disease. Mouse hepatitis virus is a coronavirus that causes a pathological epidemic in mice with a high mortality rate, especially among laboratory rat colonies.[55]Salivary and tear gastinvirus (SDAV) is a highly contagious coronavirus in laboratory rats that can be transmitted between individuals through direct contact or aerosols, and acute infection has a high mortality rate and a tendency towards the salivary, tear and hard glands.[56]

HKU2-related coronavirus called Mers-CoV causes diarrhea in pigs.[57]

Prior to the discovery of THE SARS coronavirus, the mouse hepatitis Virus (MHV) was the best coronavirus studied both biologically and laboratory as well as at the molecular level. Some strains of mouse corona cause progressive meline-degenerating encephalitis in mice that has been used as a mouse form of MS. Significant research efforts have focused on clarifying the viral pathogen of these animal coronavirus, particularly by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases.[58]

In pets

  • Avian gastroesophageal inflammatory virus (IBV) causes avian gastroenteritis.
  • Pig coronavirus (pig gastroenteritis virus, TGEV).[13][14]
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is responsible for acute gastinitis in small calves.
  • Snoorealist coronavirus causes moderate infections in cats as well as acute snoring gastroenteritis (by other types of the same virus).
  • Type of coronavirus (CCoV) (one causes intestinal infections and the other causes respiratory diseases).
  • Chicken coronavirus (TCV) causes inflammation of the intestines in turkeys.
  • Enterococococococococococovirus is my ulcer atsand and causes vassal inflammatory bowel inflammation in the son of a lender.
  • The systemic coronavirus is my son of my lender and causes systemic syndrome similar to infectious cartorotitis in the children of a lender.[59]
  • Holistic coronavirus.
  • Aperitif ecococococococococovirus causes acute infectious disease and diarrhea in small European rabbits, and the mortality rate is high.[60]

Another new veterinary disease caused by pEDV has emerged around the world, and its economic significance remains unclear, but it causes a high mortality rate in the brain.

Coronavirus disease (Coved-19): Questions and answers

What is the Coronavirus?

Coronaviruses are a large species of viruses that may cause disease to animals and humans.  A number of coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans, ranging from common colds to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The recently discovered Coronavirus (CORONA) causes COV-19.

What is Coved-19 disease?

Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by the recently discovered Coronavirus. There was no knowledge of the presence of the virus and the disease emerging prior to the outbreak in the Chinese city of Johan in December 2019.

What are the symptoms of Coved-19?

The most common symptoms of Coved-19 are fever, fatigue and dry cough. Some patients may experience pain, aches, nasal congestion, coldness, sore throat, or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and gradually begin. Some people become infected without showing any symptoms and without feeling sick. Most people (about 80%) are recovering. of the disease without the need for special treatment. Approximately one in six people with Coved-19 infection is most acute in the disease, where they have difficulty breathing. Older people and people with basic medical problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease or diabetes are more likely to develop severe diseases. About 2% of those who have contracted the disease have died. People with fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical attention.

How does Coved-19 spread?

People can be infected with Coved-19 through other people living with the virus. The disease can be transmitted from person to person through small catheters that are scattered from the nose or mouth when a person with Coved-19 coughs or sneezes. These villages fall on objects and surfaces surrounding the person. Other people can then develop Coved-19 disease when they touch these objects or surfaces and then touch their eyes, nose or mouth. People can also develop Cofed-19 if they breathe the villages that come out of the affected person with their cough or exhalation. It is therefore important to stay away from the sick person more than one meter (3 feet).

WHO is assessing ongoing research on the prevalence of Coved-19 disease and will continue to publish its latest findings.    

Can the virus that causes Covid-19 be transmitted through the air?

Studies to date indicate that the virus that causes Coved-19 is transmitted primarily through contact with respiratory catheters and not through the air. See the answer to the previous question: “How does Coved-19 spread?”

Can you get sick through a symptomatic person?

The main mode of transmission is respiratory catheters that a person secretes when coughing. The risk of Coved-19 disease is reduced by a completely asymptomatic person. But many people with the disease have only minor symptoms. This is particularly true in the early stages of the disease. It is therefore possible to develop Coved-19 through a person who, for example, has a mild cough and does not feel sick. WHO is evaluating ongoing research on the duration of the transmission of Coved-19 disease and will continue to publish the latest findings.    

Can I get Coved-19 through the feces of an infected person?

The risk of cofed-19 transmission through the feces of an infected person appears to be limited. While preliminary investigations suggest that the virus may be present in the stool in some cases, its spread across this pathway is not one of the main features of the outbreak. WHO is assessing ongoing research on the prevalence of Coved-19 and will continue to publish the new findings. However, due to the risks involved, it is another reason to clean your hands regularly after using the toilet and before eating.

How can I protect myself and prevent the spread of the disease?

Protection measures for all

Keep up-to-date information on the Covid-19 outbreak available on the WHO website and through national and local public health authorities. Most of those affected by Coved-19 are still concentrated in China, while some outbreaks are found in other countries. Most people who become infected suffer from a slight illness and then recover, but the disease may be more severe for other people. You should maintain your health and protect others by following:

  • Clean your hands thoroughly by rubbing an alcoholic hand sanitizer or washing with soap and water.
    • Why? Cleaning your hands with soap and water or rubbing them with an alcohol disinfectant can kill viruses that may be on your hands.
  • Keep at least one meter (3 feet) between you and anyone who coughs or sneezes.
    • Why? When a person coughs or sneezes, small liquid catheters may contain the virus from their nose or mouth. If you’re getting too close to it, you can breathe these birds, including the virus that causes Covid-19 if you have it.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
    • Why? Hands touch many surfaces and can pick up viruses. If the hands are contaminated, they may transmit the virus to the eyes, nose or mouth. The virus can enter the body through these ports and make you sick.
  • Make sure you and those around you follow good hygiene practices. This means covering your mouth and nose with your tampon or paper napkin when coughing or sneezing, and then getting rid of the used napkin immediately.
    • Why? The villages spread the virus. Good hygiene practices protect people around you from viruses such as cold, influenza and Coved-19 viruses.
  • Stay home if you feel sick. If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention and contact your caregiver before going to him. The guidance of the local health authorities was followed.
    • Why? National and local authorities have the latest information on the situation in your area. Your advance contact with your healthcare provider will allow you to be promptly directed to the appropriate healthcare facility. This will help protect you and prevent the spread of viruses and other infections.
  • Keep an up-to-date update on Coved-19. Follow advice from your health care provider, national and local public health authorities or employer on how to protect yourself and others from Covid-19.
    • Why? National and local authorities have the latest information on whether Coved-19 is spreading in your area. They are best placed to advise on the actions that people in your area can take to protect themselves.

Protection measures for people visiting or recently visiting areas where Coved-19 is prevalent (past 14 days)

  • Follow the above guidelines (protections for all)
  • Stay home if you’re starting to feel unwell until you’re recovering, even if your symptoms are mild, such as headaches or mild colds.
    • Why? Avoiding contact with others and visiting medical facilities will allow these facilities to work more effectively, and will help protect you and others from the virus that causes Covid-19 and other viruses.
  • If you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical advice immediately, you may have a respiratory infection or another severe illness. Call before going to the caregiver and tell him if you have travelled or contacted any passengers recently.
    • Why? Your prior contact with your caregiver will allow you to be promptly directed to the appropriate healthcare facility. This will also help prevent any possible spread of the virus that causes Coved-19 and other viruses.

What are my chances of having Coved-19?

The risks depend on where you have stayed and where you have recently travelled. The risk of infection increases in areas where there are a number of people diagnosed with Coved-19. At present, 95% of Coved-19 cases are concentrated in China, with most of these cases in Hubei province. For people in most other parts of the world, the chances of Coved-19 remain low, but it is important that they be aware of the situation in their region and their preparedness efforts.

WHO is working with health authorities in China and around the world to monitor and respond to outbreaks of Coved-19.

Should I be worried about Coved-19?

If you’re not in an area where Covid-19 is prevalent, if you haven’t traveled from any of these areas, and if you haven’t had contact with anyone who feels unwell, your chances of getting sick are currently low. However, you are feeling nervous and anxious about this. Getting facts that help you accurately identify risks so you can take reasonable precautions is a good thing. The health care provider, national public health authorities and employer are possible sources of correct information about Coved-19 disease and its prevalence in your region. It is important to know where you live and to take appropriate measures to protect yourself. (See Protections for All).”

If you are in an area where Coved-19 is an outbreak, you should take the risk of infection seriously. Follow advice from national and local health authorities. Although Coved-19 causes only a slight illness in most people, it can cause severe illness in others. In rare cases, the disease leads to death. Older persons and people with pre-existing medical conditions (e.g. high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes) appear to be more affected. (See protection measures for people who visit or have recently visited areas where Coved-19 is prevalent (past 14 days).)

Who are the people at risk of severe illness?

We still recognize the impact of Coved-19 on people, yet it seems that the elderly and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes) develop more severe disease than others.

Are antibiotics effective in preventing or treating Coved-2019?

No. Antibiotics do not eliminate viruses, they only eliminate bacterial infections. Since Covid-19 is caused by a virus, antibiotics do not eliminate it. Antibiotics should not be used as a means of preventing or treating Coved-19. They should only be used according to your doctor’s instructions to treat bacterial infections. 

Is there a vaccine, a medicine or a cure for Coved-2019?

Not yet. To date, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral drug to prevent or treat Coved-2019. However, people with symptomrelief should receive care. People with severe illness should be hospitalized. Most patients are recovering from supportive care.

Some potential vaccines and medications specifically for the treatment of this disease are currently being investigated. They are tested by clinical trials. WHO is coordinating efforts to develop vaccines and medicines to prevent and treat Coved-19.

The most effective ways to protect yourself and others from Coved-19 disease are to keep your hands cleaned, cover the mouth when coughing by bending the elbow or with a paper napkin, and stay at least one meter (3 feet) away from people who cough or sneeze. (See: How can I protect myself and prevent the spread of the disease?).

Is Coved-19’s disease the same as SARS?

All of it. The virus that causes Coved-19 disease and the one that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has a genetic connection but is different. SARS is more deadly but far less contagious than Coved-19. Sars has not been widespread anywhere in the world since 2003.

Should I use a muzzle to protect myself?

People who do not have respiratory symptoms such as coughing should not use medical muzzles. WHO recommends the use of muzzle for people with symptoms of Coved-19 and those caring for people with symptoms such as cough and fever. The use of muzzle is critical for health workers and people caring for a patient (at home or in a health-care facility).

WHO recommends the rational use of medical muzzles to avoid wasting precious resources and misuse of masks (see tips on the use of muzzles). Do not use muzzle unless you have respiratory symptoms (coughing and sneezing), are suspected of having a mildly symptomatic Coved-19 infection, or are caring for a person suspected of having this infection. The suspected infection is linked to travel to areas where cases have been reported, or by close contact with a person who has travelled to those areas and has been infected.

The most effective ways to protect yourself and others from Coved-19 disease are to keep your hands cleaned, cover the mouth when coughing by bending the elbow or with a paper napkin, and stay at least one meter (3 feet) away from people who cough or sneeze. See protection measures for more information.

How to put, use, remove and dispose of the muzzle

1. Remember that the use of muzzle should be limited to health workers, caregivers and people with respiratory symptoms such as fever and cough.

2- Before touching the muzzle, clean your hands by rubbing them with an alcohol disinfectant or washing them with soap and water.

3- Hold the muzzle and check it to make sure it is not torn or pierced.

4- Select the top end of the muzzle (the position of the metal band).

5- Make sure the right side of the muzzle is directed outward (the colored side).

6- Put the muzzle on your face. Press the metal tape or reinforced end of the muzzle to take the shape of your nose.

7- Pull the bottom of the muzzle to cover your mouth and chin.

8. After use, remove the muzzle by removing the rubber band from behind the ears, removing the muzzle from your face and clothes to avoid contact with potentially contaminated muzzle parts.

9- Get rid of the used muzzle immediately by throwing it in a closed waste bin.

10. Clean your hands after touching or throwing the muzzle by rubbing them with an alcohol disinfectant, or if washing them with soap and water if they are clearly dirty.


How long does the incubation period for Covid-19 take?

The term “incubation period” refers to the duration of hiv infection to the onset of symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the incubation period for Covid-19 range from one to 14 days, usually five days. These estimates will be updated as more data becomes available.

Can Coved-19 infection be transmitted to humans from an animal source?

Coronaviruses are a large species of viruses common among bats and animals. In rare cases, people become infected with these viruses, which they then transmit to others. For example, mers-coV, which is associated with civet cats, and MERS-Covone virus that has moved the camel route. The potential animal sources of Coved-19 have not yet been confirmed. 

To protect yourself, for example, when visiting live animal markets, avoid direct contact with animals and animal contact surfaces. Ensure that good food safety practices are followed at all times with due diligence when dealing with raw meat, raw milk and animal organs to avoid contamination of undercooked foods, and to avoid eating raw or undercooked animal products.

Can I get Cofed-19 through my pet?

All of it. There is no evidence to suggest that domestic or pet animals such as cats and dogs have been infected with Coved-19 or can spread the virus that causes the disease.

How long does the virus survive on the surface?

It is not known for sure how long the coved-19 virus will survive on surfaces, but it appears to be similar to other coronavirus. Studies indicate that coronaviruses (including preliminary information on the coved-19 virus) may remain alive on surfaces for a few hours or several days. This may vary depending on the conditions (e.g. surface type, temperature or environmental humidity).

If you think a surface may be contaminated, clean it with a regular disinfectant to kill the virus and protect yourself and others. Clean your hands by rubbing them with an alcohol disinfectant or washing them with soap and water. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth or nose.

Is it safe to receive parcels from areas that have reported cases of Coved-19 disease?

Yes. The risk of contamination of commercial goods by an infected person is low, and the risk of contracting the virus that causes Coved-19 through a transport, shipment and exposure to various conditions and temperatures is low.

Are there things I should avoid?

The following measures are ineffective in the face of Coved-19 and may even be harmful:

  • Smoking
  • Use of traditional herbal remedies
  • Use multiple muzzles
  • Self-medication such as antibiotic use  

In any case, if you have fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention early in order to reduce the risk of a more severe infection, and make sure you check your health care provider with any places you’ve recently traveled.

The latest developments in the Arab world and measures taken to deal with it – March 2020

News of the unprecedented spread of MERS-CoV is as important in the Middle East as it is to the rest of the world, but amid severe warnings of its spread in the region due to the weakness of its health systems, the lack of means for countries in the region to monitor and control it, or to stop its spread.

The BBC’s media follow-up team has followed up on the latest developments in the Virus and its spread in the Arab world, and measures taken to deal with it and prevent its spread, turning it into an out-of-control epidemic.

In Kuwait, authorities have announced two new cases of MERS-CoV, bringing the number of cases in the country to 45.

“The two new injuries are linked to travel to Iran,” the ministry said on its Twitter account.

Kuwaiti institutions have taken several precautionary measures as part of their efforts to counter the growing threat of the virus.

Kuitwin security officers wearing a muzzle.GETTY IMAGES SOURCE
Image caption Security forces at Sheikh Saad al-Abdullah Airport in Kuwait

The Kuwaiti Ministry of Endowments and Islamic Affairs announced that friday sermons in mosques should not exceed 10 minutes, according to Kuwaiti media, and several public institutions have suspended training programs, courses and a number of other activities.

The Kuwaiti authorities urged their citizens currently abroad to return to their homes and urged their citizens to avoid travelling abroad for any reason.

The Ministry of Health said travellers leaving the country by air or land must sign a declaration of compliance upon return to safety rules established by the ministries of health and interior. The regulations include the obligation to remain in quarantine for 14 days if requested to do so.

In Oman, the Ministry of Health has confirmed a new infection with MERS-CoV, bringing the total number of cases to six.

The Omani News Agency quoted the Ministry of Health as saying that the person with the new infection had travelled to Iran.

Oman also announced the suspension of the use of civil card by Omani and GCC nationals to travel to and from Oman in an effort to reduce the spread of the virus.

Oman’s decision followed a similar decision by Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates.

Bahrain also confirmed three injuries, with a total of 36 confirmed injuries.

Bahrain’s Ministry of Health announced that the new infections were for three women who had recently returned from Iran.

“Cancel the race”

In the UAE, the remainder of the Emirates Cycling Tour was cancelled after two injuries were confirmed among the runners, both from Italy.

The UAE Ministry of Health is conducting tests for the rest of the participants, its staff and staff, and has taken appropriate health reservations, according to THE EMIRATES NEWS AGENCY.

The Ministry of Health closed the two hotels where the contestants and supervisors were staying at the Emirates Tour, and said medical staff were working on testing all guests.

With the two serious infections, there have been 21 cases of HIV infection in the UAE.

According to the Ministry of Health, two Chinese nationals who had been infected with the virus were recovering, bringing the number of HIV-positive cases in the UAE to 5.

“Egypt is virus-free”

Cairo International AirportGETTY IMAGES SOURCE
Image caption Quarantine procedures at Cairo International Airport

In Egypt, authorities have declared Egypt “free of MERS-CoV infections”, after confirming that the only diagnosed case of the disease has been confirmed.

This comes despite international media reports that two people diagnosed with THE VIRUS in France, who had recently returned from a trip to Egypt, were in serious condition.

“There are no cases of MERS-CoV infection in Egypt, and we are not hiding anything,” said Egyptian Prime Minister Mustafa Madbouli, adding that his country’s health authorities are examining contacts with a French tourist group, “after France announced that six cases of MERS-CoV were infected after they returned from Egypt.”

The Ministry of Health is also working to examine the working group associated with the French tourist regiment and their places of residence to confirm or deny the presence of HIV infections, Madbouli said in a press release.

The Egyptian prime minister noted that information from the French side indicates that they stayed in Egypt for 11 days, from February 5 to February 16.

On Thursday, French authorities announced that two people had contracted the disease after returning from Egypt, before raising the number the next day to six.

In Iraq, the Ministry of Transport closed its headquarters in Kirkuk and Najaf provinces for seven days from February 29 due to fears of a coronavirus outbreak.

The move comes after the Iraqi Ministry of Health announced last week that four people had been injured in Kirkuk and an Iranian man in Najaf, who has since been deported.

Passengers examined at Iraq's border with IranAFP Image Source
Image caption Travellers are screened as they cross the Iraqi border from Iran

“Corona at the Friday Sermon”

In friday sermon, Shiite cleric Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani urged the government and the media to work to raise health awareness among citizens.

“Citizens must take the measures to prevent the coronavirus very seriously,” said Abdul Mahdi al-Karbali, a representative of al-Sistani. “However, there is no need to panic,” he added.

“Medical institutions are not able to provide Iraq with all the supplies it needs,” Karbali said, adding that “this makes it more complicated.”

“Returning from Italy and Iran”

In Israel, the authorities on Saturday announced the diagnosis of the first case within their borders, adding that it was the wife of a man whose test results showed his injury after returning from Italy. The lady will be quarantined.

With the new infection, there are five cases recorded in Israel.

Channel 13 television reported Saturday morning that the Israeli man, who was living with the virus, was coming on a plane from Istanbul.

An Israeli man on board the ship was also diagnosed off the coast of Japan and quarantined.

In Gaza, a health official confirmed that the Gaza Strip was free of the Coronavirus.

In the Palestinian state areas, the Gaza-based Ministry of Health today denied “rumours” that 17 Palestinians were infected with MERS-CoV inside the Gaza Strip.”

The ministry said the sector is “still free” of the virus, and that only five people have been quarantined at the Rafah border crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt.

In Jordan, medical personnel stationed at the Jordanian border with Iraq at the Karama border crossing prevented seven Iraqi citizens suffering from high temperatures from entering the country.

Meanwhile, the Jordanian Ministry of Health confirmed Saturday that 19 people remain in quarantine at Al-Bashir Hospital in Amman after returning from a country where the coronavirus has spread.

In Lebanon, the number of cases of MERS-CoV rose to seven after three new cases were detected.


The Ministry of Public Works announced Saturday that Lebanon has banned the entry of all persons arriving through air, land and sea traffic from countries where mers-CoV infections have been recorded. She noted that this decision does not apply to Lebanese citizens or foreigners residing in Lebanon.

A statement published by the official Lebanese National News Agency specifically referred to citizens of China, South Korea, Iran and Italy, adding that the measure could extend to other countries.

The Lebanese Ministry of Health on Friday confirmed the third new case of HIV infection. The man is an Iranian national who travelled to Lebanon last week on an Iranian plane. He is now in quarantine at Rafik Hariri University Hospital.

Meanwhile, many social media users shared reports that five buses loaded with Lebanese pilgrims returning from the Iranian city of Qom via Damascus International Airport entered Lebanon yesterday.


Image captionMausoleum in the Iranian city of Qom

In Tunisia, the official Tunisian news agency TAP reported that Tunisian authorities in Tuz, a state on the border with Algeria, where one case has been confirmed, have raised the alert and preparedness at the Ha’wa border crossing. Tozeur is a popular destination for European tourists in winter.

“The Ha’wa border post links the area to the valley, one of algeria’s most vulnerable cities because many of its residents work in Hassi Massoud, where a case of injury was found,” the agency said.

Algerian Health Minister Jamal Furaar said Friday that there are no new confirmed cases other than the Italian national, who was diagnosed earlier this week.

Medical staff transport patients in ItalyEPA Image Source
Image caption Italy and Iran have become focal points for the coronavirus

“So far, no new cases of CORONA have been reported, except in the isolated case of the Italian citizen who carried him with him from abroad, and he is now improving,” Forar was quoted as saying.

APS said algerian authorities have released the emergency phone number (3030) as part of the coronavirus prevention plan.

In Morocco, which borders Algeria to the west, Prime Minister Saad eddine Al-Othmani on Friday denied any confirmed cases of infection in the kingdom and warned against publishing “fake news”, MAP reported.

The references

In English

  1. Go up for:AP Title: ICTV Master Species List 1971
  2. Go up for:AP Title: ICTV Master Species List 2005
  3. ^ “Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release”. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Originally archived (html) on March 04, 2018. Accessed January 24, 2020.
  4. ^ “2017.012-015S”. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Originally published as XLSx on May 14, 2019. Accessed January 24, 2020.
  5. ^ “ICTV Taxonomy history: Orthocoronavirinae“. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Originally published on February 3, 2020. Accessed January 24, 2020.
  6. Go up: a b de Groot RJ, Baker SC, Baric R, Enjuanes L, Gorbalenya AE, Holmes KV, Perlman S, Poon L, Rottier PJ, Talbot PJ, Woo PC, Ziebuhr J (2011). “Family Coronaviridae“. In AMQ King, E Lefkowitz, MJ Adams, EB Carstens. 9 report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The government’s policy of “supporting the government of the people of The S Pages 806-828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6.
  7. The united states of America has a long-time and long-time position in the united states. “ICTV Master Species List 2009-v10”. Archived from the original (xls) on February 27, 2020.
  8. The united states of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United “Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies”. Viruses4 (11): 3044–3068. PMC 3509683Freely accessible. PMID 23202515. doi:10.3390/v4113044.
  9. Go up for: Ab Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC (September 2005). The government’s work on the “New York Times” was a very positive and positive year. The government’s commitment to the united 309 (5742): 1864–1868. Bibcode:2005Sci… 309.1864L. PMID 16166518. doi:10.1126/science.1116480.
  10. ^ Sexton NR, Smith EC, Blanc H, Vignuzzi M, Peersen OB, Denison MR (August 2016). The government’s proposal sits in the context of the government’s reform of the State. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 90(16): 7415–7428. PMC 4984655Freely accessible. PMID 27279608. Doi:10.1128/JVI.00080-16.
  11. ^ Fehr AR, Perlman S (2015). “Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis”. Coronaviruses. The government’s work on the “Women’s And Women’s Day” is a good 1282. Pages 1-23. ISBN 978-1-4939-2437-0. PMC 4369385Freely accessible. PMID 25720466. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1.
  12. ^ “Transmission of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC.” 2020-01-31. Originally published on February 3, 2020. Accessed february 01, 2020.
  13. Go up: A B Cruz JL, Sola I, Becares M, Alberca B, Plana J, Enjuanes L, Zuñiga S (June 2011). “Coronavirus gene 7 counteracts host defenses and modulates virus virulence”. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a very good one. 7 (6): e1002090. PMC 3111541Freely accessible. PMID 21695242. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002090.
  14. Go up: A B Cruz JL, Becares M, Sola I, Oliveros JC, Enjuanes L, Zúñiga S (September 2013). “Alphacoronavirus protein 7 modulates host innate immune response”. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 87 (17): 9754–67. PMC 3754097Freely accessible. PMID 23824792. Doi:10.1128/JVI.01032-13.
  15. The government’s support for the government’s work in the fight against the “black” system is a major source of support for the government’s work. “A case for the ancient origin of coronaviruses.” The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 87 (12): 7039–7045. PMC 3676139Freely accessible. PMID 23596293. Doi:10.1128/JVI.03273-12.
  16. ^ Woo PC, Lau SK, Lam CS, Lau CC, Tsang AK, Lau JH, Bai R, Teng JL, Tsang CC, Wang M, Zheng BJ, Chan KH, Yuen KY (April 2012). The government’s decision to re-elect a new president is a major achievement in the government’s decision to re-elect a new president. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 86 (7): 3995–4008. PMC 3302495Freely accessible. PMID 22278237. Doi:10.1128/JVI.06540-11.
  17. The government’s policy of “supporting the government of the people of The O’Hare” is a key factor in the development of the country’s economy. “Evolutionary dynamics of bovine coronaviruses: natural selection pattern of the spike gene implies adaptive evolution of the strains”. The Journal of General Virology94 (Pt 9): 2036-2049. PMID 23804565. doi:10.1099/vir.0.054940-0. Originally published on February 27, 2020.
  18. The government’s policy of “de-discrimination” is being reviewed by the Government of The United States of China. The government’s policy of “supporting the government of the people of The O’Hare” is to make the government more and more accessto the country’ s ability to make the most of its activities. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 79 (3): 1595–1604. PMC 544107Freely accessible. PMID 15650185. Doi:10.1128/jvi.79.3.1595-1604.2005.
  19. ^ Lau SK, Lee P, Tsang AK, Yip CC, Tse H, Lee RA, So LY, Lau YL, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (November 2011). The government’s policy of “social and political development” is to make the government more accountable to the government and to the government. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 85 (21): 11325–11337. PMC 3194943Freely accessible. PMID 21849456. Doi:10.1128/JVI.05512-11.
  20. ^ Lau SK, Li KS, Tsang AK, Lam CS, Ahmed S, Chen H, Chan KH, Woo PC, Yuen KY (August 2013). The government’s policy of “rebuilding” the state of the country’s constitution is a fundamental right. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 87 (15): 8638–8650. PMC 3719811Freely accessible. PMID 23720729. Doi:10.1128/JVI.01055-13.
  21. ^ Huynh J, Li S, Yount B, Smith A, Sturges L, Olsen JC, Nagel J, Johnson JB, Agnihothram S, Gates JE, Frieman MB, Baric RS, Donaldson EF (December 2012). “Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63”. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 86(23): 12816–12825. PMC 3497669Freely accessible. PMID 22993147. Doi:10.1128/JVI.00906-12.
  22. The government’s decision to re-adopt the new government is a new one. “Evolutionary insights into the ecology of coronaviruses”. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 81 (8): 4012–4020. PMC 1866124Freely accessible. PMID 17267506. doi:10.1128/jvi.02605-06.
  23. ^ Gouilh MA, Puechmaille SJ, Gonzalez JP, Teeling E, Kittayapong P, Manu JCguerra (October 2011). The government’s ability to provide as many as $100 million in the country’s development as a means of building a new government is a very good development. Infection, Genetics and Evolution11 (7): 1690–702. PMID 21763784. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2011.06.021.
  24. The government’s ability to meet the need for a new government is a major challenge. “Evolutionary relationships between bat coronaviruses and their hosts”. The united states of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of 13 (10): 1526–1532. PMC 2851503Freely accessible. PMID 18258002. doi:10.3201/eid1310.070448.
  25. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key component of the government’s work. “Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E”. Viruses4 (12): 3689–3700. PMC 3528286Freely accessible. PMID 23235471. doi:10.3390/v4123689.
  26. ^ Liu P, Shi L, Zhang W, He J, Liu C, Zhao C, Kong SK, Loo JF, Gu D, Hu L (November 2017). The government’s policy of “supporting the government of the people of The O’Hare” is a very positive and positive measure. Virology Journal. 14 (1): 230. PMC 5700739Freely accessible. PMID 29166910. doi:10.1186/s12985-017-0896-0.
  27. Go up for:a b Forgie S, Marrie TJ (February 2009). The government’s support for the “health-care system” is a very good way to ensure that the health of the people is fully in Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine30 (1): 67–85. PMID 19199189. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1119811.
  28. Go up for:a b “Laboratory testing of human suspected cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection. Interim guidance, 10 January 2020″ (PDF). Originalarchived (PDF) on January 20, 2020. Accessed January 14, 2020.
  29. Get over to the top for:a bt “Novel Coronavirus 2019, Wuhan, China | CDC.” 23 January 2020. Originally published on January 20, 2020. Accessed January 23, 2020.
  30. The united states of The United States of American And American People sits on the united states of The O’Rey, and the united states World Health Organization. 5 January 2020. Originally published on January 07, 2020. Accessed January 23, 2020.
  31. ^ Corman VM, Muth D, Niemeyer D, Drosten C (2018). “Hosts and sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses”. Advances in Virus Research100: 163–188. ISBN 978-0-12-815201-0. PMID 29551135. doi:10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.01.001.
  32. ^ Doucleef M (September 26, 2012). The united states of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United The united states of The United States of The United States Originally published on September 27, 2012. Accessed September 27, 2012.
  33. ^ Falco M (September 24, 2012). The government’s ability to support the government’s ability to support the government’s work in the country is a source of support for the government’s ability to support CNN Health. Originally published on November 01, 2013. Accessed March 16, 2013.
  34. The united states of America has a long-time and long-time political and legal support for the united states of America. Al-Jazeera. September 24, 2012. Originally published on March 09, 2013. Accessed March 16, 2013.
  35. ^ Kelland K (September 28, 2012). “New virus not spreading easily between people: WHO”. Reuters. Originally published on November 24, 2012. Accessed March 16, 2013.
  36. ^ Nouveau coronavirus – Point de situation: Un nouveau cas d’infection confirmé Copy Saved 8 June 2013 on The Wi-Bak Website. (Novel coronavirus – Status report: A new case of confirmed infection) 12 May 2013,
  37. ^ CDC (August 2, 2019). “MERS Transmission”. The government’s work on the “Women’s And Women’s Day” is a very good way to Originally published on 07 December 2019. Accessed December 10, 2019.
  38. ^ “Novel coronavirus infection – update”. The government’s work on the project is being underway and the May 22, 2013. Originally published on June 07, 2013. Accessed may 23, 2013.
  39. ^ CDC (August 2, 2019). “MERS in the U.S..” The government’s work on the “Women’s And Women’s Day” is a very good way to Originally published as December 15, 2019. Accessed December 10, 2019.
  40. ^ Sang-Hun, Choe (June 8, 2015). The government’s decision to re-arrest the author’s family was a very good result of the decision to leave the country. The New York Times. Originally published as July 15, 2017. Accessed 01 March 2017.
  41. The united states of America has a long-time and long-time political and economic future. Who. Originally published as October 18, 2019. Accessed December 10, 2019.
  42. ^ The Editorial Board (29 January 2020). “Is the World Ready for the Coronavirus? – Distrust in science and institutions could be a major problem if the outbreak worsens.” The New York Times. Originally published on February 3, 2020. Accessed January 30, 2020.
  43. The united states of Great And recalled the “One Day” of the United States of Great War, which was the first time that the United States had been able to make a statement on the united states’ policy of “the end of the war 9 January 2020. Originally published on January 14, 2020. Accessed January 10, 2020.
  44. The united states of Great And anumber to the United States, which has been the victim of a nuclear-related nuclear accident, has been the most likely to be the victim of a nuclear accident. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020.
  45. The united states of The United States of American And American People sits on the united states of The O’Rey, and the United States The Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) is a collective research house within the Department of Civil and Systems Engineering (CaSE) at Johns Johns University (JHU). 2020-01-28. Originally published on January 28, 2020. Accessed February 03, 2020.
  46. The united states of Great East and East Europe has a long way to go to make a positive and positive development in the future. Originally published on February 02, 2020. Accessed February 02, 2020.
  47. ^ “ClinicalKey”. Originally published on April 25, 2013. Accessed January 23, 2020.
  48. Go up for: a b Luo, GuangxiAng (George); Gao, Shou¹ Jiang (2020). The government’s ability to support the government’s ability to act as a government is a means of ensuring that the government is able to take the right to a fair and fair and fair and fair The government’s work on the “Women’s Health” programme is being underfunded. PMID 31967329. doi:10.1002/jmv.25683.
  49. ^ “No, the Wuhan Virus Is Not a ‘Snake Flu'”. Wired. Originally published on January 24, 2020. Accessed January 24, 2020.
  50. ^ Cohen, Jon (2020-01-26). “Wuhan seafood market may not be a source of novel virus spreading globally.” The united states of America has a duty to ensure that the united states of America is the only country in the world that has the right to live (AAAS) (In English). Originally published on January 27, 2020. Accessed January 29, 2020.
  51. ^ Eschner, Kat (2020-01-28). “We’re still not sure where the Wuhan coronavirus really came from.” Popular Sciences. Originally published on January 29, 2020. Accessed January 30, 2020.
  52. The united states of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States, Veterinary Virology. Boston: Academic Press. Pages 495-508. ISBN 978-0-12-511340-3.
  53. ^ Bande F, Arshad SS, Bejo MH, Moeini H, Omar AR (2015). The government’s decision to re-address the situation in the country is a very positive development. The government’s plan to re-fund the country’s development as a “national” has been a key 2015: 1–12. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a clear and clear lysing of the people of tFreely accessiblehe country. PMID 25954763. doi:10.1155/2015/424860.
  54. ^ Murray J (16 April 2014). The government’s ability to provide as many as $100 million in the country’s gross national security and to provide as a “legal” source of information is also needed. Originally archived (xls) on April 24, 2014. Accessed April 24, 2014.
  55. The government’s support for the government’s work in the field of women’s work is also a source of support for the government’s work. The government’s ability to provide as many as $100 million to the Government of the United States of The United States of The United States of The United States is a very good and timely process. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews69 (4): 635–664. PMC 1306801Freely accessible. PMID 16339739. Doi:10.1128/MMBR.69.4.635-664.2005.
  56. ^ “Rat Coronavirus – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. Originally published on January 28, 2020.
  57. ^ Fatal swine acute syndrome syndrome caused by an HKU2-related coronavirus of bat origin Copy 31 May 2019 on the website of Wi-Pak Disgraced., Peng Zhou, Hang Fan, Tian Lan, Xing-Lou Yang, Wei-Feng Shi, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhu, Ya-Wei Zhang, Qing-Mei Xie, Shailendra Zhou, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Bei Li, Jin-Man Li, Hua Guo, Guang-Qian Pei, Xiao-Ping An, Jun-Wei Chen, Ling, Kai-MaiMaie Zi-Xian Wu, Di Li, Danielle E. Anderson, Li-Biao Zhang, Shi-Yue Li, Zhi-Qiang Mi, Tong-Tong He, The government has also established a national commission to provide as many as 100,000 people with the highest number of children in the country.
  58. The government’s plan to re-publish the new law on the use of the “new” law is being amended to support the government’s work in the field of law and the law. “Cell replacement therapies to promote remyelination in a viral model of demyelination”. The government’s plan to re-take the country’s national and international borders into the united states of 224 (1–2): 101–107. PMC 2919340Freely accessible. PMID 20627412. doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.05.013.
  59. The united states of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States of The United States The united states of The United States of The United States of The United States of The Originally published as December 13, 2019. Accessed January 24, 2020.
  60. ^ “Enteric Coronavirus”. Diseases of Research Animals. Originally published on July 01, 2019. Accessed January 24, 2020.

In Arabic

  1. Go to the top for:a bt wc translation (coronavirus) on the dictionary site”. Originally published on February 3, 2020. Accessed January 26, 2020.
  2. ^ “Coronavirus translation in the Unified Medical Dictionary”. Library of Lebanon Publishers. Originally published on January 26, 2020. Accessed January 26, 2020.
  3. ^ “Coronavirus translation in the Unified Pharmacy Dictionary”. Library of Lebanon Publishers. Originally published on January 26, 2020. Accessed January 26, 2020.
  4. ^ Yusif Hati; He’s got my medicine for the guy. Beirut, Lebanon: Library of Lebanon Publishers. Page 102. ISBN 995310235X.
  5. ^ “Coronavirus translation in the Great Medical Dictionary of Marashi”. Library of Lebanon Publishers. Originally published on January 26, 2020. Accessed January 26, 2020.
  6. ^ “Coronavirus translation in the medical dictionary”. Library of Lebanon Publishers. Originally published on January 26, 2020. Accessed January 26, 2020.

Additional references

  • The government’s position on the use of the veto is not a political one. “Novel coronavirus infection: time to stay ahead of the curve”. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 19 Suppl 1: S3-4. PMID 23888787.
  • The government’s decision to re-establish a new government in 2008 was a major source of public support for the government’s work. “Molecular biology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus”. Veterinary Microbiology23 (1–4): 147–54. PMID 2169670. doi:10.1016/0378-1135 (90)90144-K.
  • The government’s support for the government’s work in the area of human security is a fundamental right. “Engineering the transmissible gastroenteritis virus genome as an expression vector inducing lactogenic immunity”. The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a key 77 (7): 4357–69. PMC 150661Freely accessible. PMID 12634392. Doi:10.1128/JVI.77.7.4357-4369.2003.
  • The government’s support for the government’s work in the country is a very good development. “Morphology of transmissible gastroenteritis virus of pigs. A possible member of coronaviruses. Brief report.” The government’s plan to reduce the number of people who have been forced to leave their families has been a very high rate of unemployment. 29 (1): 105–8. PMID 4195092. doi:10.1007/BF01253886.

SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button