Africa and France: Harvest of Sins

It is no secret that historical links between Africa and France have been both intricate and controversial. The roots of their relationship can be traced back to the scramble for Africa in the late 1800s, when European powers fought for territorial dominance over Africa during the era of colonization. France, in particular, established a considerable empire in West and Central Africa. However, the aftershocks of this colonial past still linger today in various cultural, political, and socio-economic aspects of many African countries. In this article, we will delve into the history of the complex relationship between Africa and France, exploring the various sins born from their shared past and the present-day consequences that both parties continue to face.

Colonization: The Seeds of Injustice

The beginnings of the French-African relationship can be traced to France’s thirst for power and wealth during the period of colonization. France, alongside other European powers, sought to reap the benefits of Africa’s vast natural resources and to promote its imperial ambitions. Consequently, African people were subjected to the yoke of colonization, with French territories in Africa covering present-day Senegal, Mali, Niger, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Benin, Gabon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Cameroon and Madagascar, among others.

During the colonial period, France’s actions left a deep and lasting impact on the African continent. Indirect rule, economic exploitation, forced labor, and the imposition of French language and culture on African people all contributed to an environment of dehumanization and subjugation. African resources were plundered, with profits pocketed by French companies and the French state. Additionally, French efforts to “civilize” Africans resulted in the nearly complete erasure of indigenous history, leading to a loss of cultural identity that has persisted across generations.

Independence and Neo-Colonization

In the middle of the 20th century, African colonies began to demand independence from their colonial rulers. France eventually conceded, but this process was by no means smooth. France employed various tactics, such as dividing African territories, funding rival political factions, orchestrating coups, and even resorting to targeted assassinations when it perceived threats to its interests.

This deliberate manipulation during the process of de-colonization gave rise to the concept of “Françafrique” – an unofficial network of connections between the French and African political, business, and military elites. This clandestine web has been used to preserve and promote French interests in Africa, often at the expense of African nations and their citizens. This persistence of French influence can be considered a form of neo-colonization.

The CFA Franc: An Economic Constraint

One of the more pernicious manifestations of French neo-colonialism in Africa is the continued use of the CFA Franc as the common currency in many West and Central African countries. Established in 1945, shortly after the Bretton Woods Conference, the CFA Franc has become an embodiment of France’s economic stranglehold on its former colonies. Critics argue that this currency system perpetuates African dependency on France, enabling the latter to maintain control over essential policy decisions across these countries. To break free from this economic yoke, major reforms are urgently needed to create alternative currency arrangements that would best serve the interest of these African nations.

Cultural Effects: A Mix of Persistence and Loss

The legacy of French colonization in Africa extends far beyond politics and economics. The imposition of the French language and culture has had widespread implications on African societies. While many African nations have flourished as multilingual states, French remains the primary language of education and administration, creating a new elite class that unwittingly continues to perpetuate French cultural norms.

On the other hand, the introduction of French culture has come with a heavy cost: the erasure and marginalization of indigenous African cultures. Many traditional African customs and languages have been relegated to secondary roles, leading to a gradual decline in their significance as French influence continues to dominate.

French Military Presence: A New Battlefield

Another major concern tied to France’s continued influence in Africa is its significant military presence on the continent. Deployed initially in the context of providing security assistance, France has used its military might to protect both its interests and political allies. In recent years, France has been particularly active in fighting terrorist groups and providing support to local armies in nations such as Mali, Chad, and Niger. While such actions may seem noble on the surface, these military interventions have often been met with accusations of hidden agendas and indirect imperialism.


The complex and often dark relationship between Africa and France, one of exploitation, struggle for power, and cultural imposition, is an important element of their modern identities. For Africans, it is crucial to recognize this history not only to gain a better understanding of their current realities but also to regain autonomy and purge themselves of the residues of neo-colonization. For France, it is a necessary reflection on past wrongs that demands profound change. Repairing this relationship requires confronting the sins of the past in pursuit of genuine partnership based on respect and shared interests. In a world that continues to grapple with the consequences of historical injustices, such honest dialogue and atonement pave the way for healing and progress.

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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