Analysis and Evaluation of the Ideas of Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington

Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington were two influential political scientists whose works have shaped our understanding of international politics and the world order. Fukuyama’s “The End of History and the Last Man” and Huntington’s “The Clash of Civilizations” present two distinct visions of global politics. This article analyzes and evaluates their ideas on the future of international relations and the transformation of societies.

Francis Fukuyama: The End of History and the Last Man

Francis Fukuyama’s “The End of History and the Last Man” (1992) presents a bold thesis claiming that the end of the Cold War and the victory of liberal democracy and capitalism would mark the end of history. According to Fukuyama, history in a Hegelian sense would conclude as humanity reaches the zenith of political development – the state where every individual strives for recognition and finds it in liberal, democratic societies. Fukuyama’s theory mainly emphasizes that other political ideologies and systems have been unsuccessful, leaving liberal democracy as the victor.

Evaluation of Fukuyama’s Ideas

Fukuyama’s work has been criticized for its optimistic and simplistic view of the future global order. Critics argue that the emergence of new forms of authoritarianism, ethnonationalism movements, and other political ideologies contradicts his thesis. Additionally, history cannot be isolated from ongoing social, economic, and technological changes. However, it cannot be denied that Fukuyama’s ideas have contributed immensely to political and philosophical debates, even as the unfolding of future events might challenge the definitiveness of his predictions.

Samuel Huntington: The Clash of Civilizations

Contrary to Fukuyama’s optimism, Samuel Huntington presented a more turbulent vision of the future in his influential article “The Clash of Civilizations” (1993). Huntington postulates that in the post-Cold War era, cultural and religious differences, rather than ideological conflicts, would be the main source of global strife. He defines various ‘civilizations’ based on the idea that the most profound fault lines will be cultural, with people seeking solace in their heritage and core values.

Huntington identifies eight major civilizations, namely Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African. He posits that as the influence of the West declines, clashes will occur more frequently among civilizations, leading to alliances based on shared cultural values.

Evaluation of Huntington’s Ideas

Critics of Huntington’s theory argue that his view is overly reductionist and tends to oversimplify complexities within each civilization. Further, his classification of civilizations itself appears arbitrary and less predictive, as there are continuous internal debates and changes within these cultures. Critics also argue that this theory may potentially instigate a self-fulfilling prophecy, leading to increased divisiveness.

However, Huntington’s work has considerable relevance considering the ongoing conflicts and tensions rooted in cultural and religious distinctions, as seen in the rise of Islamic radicalism, tensions between the West and China, and Russia’s resurgence.


While both Francis Fukuyama and Samuel Huntington presented conflicting visions of future international relations, their works remain highly influential in shaping contemporary debates about politics and cultures. Neither theory may offer a complete or definite prediction of global developments, but they provide essential insights and diverse perspectives for interpreting and navigating a complex world order.

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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