China: Debunking the Two Biggest Myths of Recent Decades

China’s rapid rise as a global powerhouse has been accompanied by a plethora of misconceptions and myths that have shaped popular perceptions about the country. Over the past few decades, China’s economic growth, political system, and global influence have captivated the world’s attention, leading to various narratives and assumptions that may not always accurately reflect the complex reality on the ground.

In this article, we will address and debunk two of the most persistent myths surrounding China, shedding light on the nuanced truths that lie beneath the surface. By challenging these myths, we aim to foster a more informed understanding of China’s trajectory and its implications for the world.

Why is this important?

China is an economic powerhouse, which has been indisputable for many years. However, that doesn’t guarantee immunity to significant shifts in the prevailing winds blowing through its economy. It is possible that the Middle Kingdom may miss the opportunity to establish itself as the dominant power. It is not unthinkable that its power could reach its peak before entering a phase of stagnation or even decline, and this scenario could be imminent.


  • China is no longer the most populous country in the world; it has been surpassed by India. The Chinese government is becoming increasingly concerned about its demographic situation and the need for military strength.
  • However, the expected increase in productivity per worker through automation is not happening as rapidly as anticipated. Additionally, individuals with lower qualifications are now facing difficulties in finding employment. Consequently, China is witnessing the collapse of two of its long-held beliefs: the notion of full employment and the idea of infinite growth.
  • With the rising average age of the population, resulting from both a low birth rate and increased life expectancy, China is faced with the challenge of providing care for its elderly citizens. This responsibility will require significant resources and divert manpower from growth objectives.
  • The single party in power, which is predominantly comprised of individuals from the 1960s generation, is attempting to reverse this trend by implementing incentives for procreation. However, their efforts have proven ineffective thus far.

economic power

China is witnessing the gathering of dark clouds as major infrastructure projects, such as roads, bridges, dams, and others, are becoming less profitable for the state. This situation is particularly evident considering that the ambitious Belt and Road Initiative projects are still far from completion. In part, this is due to a lack of resources, as many countries have had to accumulate debt to fund these projects. Furthermore, Beijing has willingly taken on the role of a financial backer, but this decision carries significant risks.

  • Private companies are increasingly concerned about potential repressive actions from the central state, particularly in sectors such as technology, video games, and real estate. This apprehension is not only hampering the growth of these companies but also impeding the country’s capacity for innovation, as highlighted by The Economist.
  • Geopolitical tensions have compelled foreign companies to diversify their supply chains and take steps to safeguard their economic assets and patents. Instances of this can be observed with the port of Hamburg in Germany, as well as the efforts by American, Taiwanese, and European entities to prevent Beijing from acquiring the necessary resources to enhance the quality of its microprocessors.

Towards a major slowdown?

Until recently, the prevailing belief was that China would emerge as the new global economic leader. However, there is an increasing likelihood that China is approaching a phase of stagnation, challenging this perception. This notion of a “Peak China” theory, popularized by Hal Brands and Michael Beckley, suggests that China’s rise may reach its peak and potentially encounter limitations or decline.

  • There is a growing concern among private companies that a vulnerable China may become more aggressive, particularly considering its continuously expanding military budget, rekindled nuclear ambitions, and its focus on Taiwan.
  • While a status quo and the possibility of maintaining peace still exist, the uncertainty surrounding China’s actions could potentially deter Beijing from launching any offensive moves. However, the ultimate outcome largely depends on the current Chinese leader. Presently, Xi Jinping is known for his firm stance and has effectively suppressed internal dissent.

According to the study by Hal Brands and Michael Beckley, as quoted by The Economist, China has reached a stage where it possesses enough strength to actively disrupt the current global order. However, there is a growing sense of apprehension within China that time may not be on its side. This sentiment implies that China’s confidence in its ability to maintain its upward trajectory and dominance may be waning.


As China continues to exert its influence on the global stage, it is crucial to dispel the myths and misconceptions that surround its rise. By debunking the two prominent myths of unsustainable economic growth and an inflexible political system, we gain a more accurate understanding of China’s complex reality.

Recognizing China’s achievements, as well as its challenges and areas for improvement, enables a more constructive engagement with the country. This nuanced perspective is vital for policymakers, analysts, and the general public alike, as we navigate the evolving dynamics of China’s role in the world and seek opportunities for collaboration and understanding.

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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One comment

  1. Myth 1: China’s Economic Growth Is Unsustainable

    One of the prevailing misconceptions surrounding China is the notion that its economic growth is bound to falter or collapse. Critics argue that the country’s rapid development is primarily fueled by unsustainable debt, overreliance on exports, and a state-controlled financial system. However, this myth overlooks several important factors.

    First and foremost, China has successfully transitioned from an agrarian economy to a manufacturing and services powerhouse, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty in the process. Its government has implemented strategic long-term plans, such as the “Made in China 2025” initiative, to boost technological innovation and upgrade its industries. Furthermore, China’s large domestic market, coupled with a growing middle class, provides a solid foundation for sustained economic growth.

    While China faces challenges, such as debt accumulation and environmental concerns, its ability to adapt, invest in research and development, and foster innovation indicates a resilience that undermines the myth of inevitable collapse.

    Myth 2: China’s Political System Is Monolithic and Inflexible

    Another common misconception about China revolves around its political system. Critics often depict the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) as a monolithic entity that suppresses dissent, stifles individual freedoms, and resists any form of change or reform. While there are certainly elements of control within the Chinese political structure, this myth fails to capture the complexity and dynamism of the country’s governance.

    In reality, the CCP has demonstrated remarkable adaptability and flexibility in its approach to governance. It has implemented market-oriented reforms, opening up to foreign investments, and embracing globalization to propel economic growth. Additionally, the Chinese government has recognized the importance of social stability and has implemented policies to address issues such as poverty alleviation, urbanization, and environmental protection.

    Furthermore, China’s political landscape encompasses a diverse array of voices and perspectives. Local governments have autonomy in decision-making processes, and grassroots initiatives have emerged, allowing citizens to participate in governance through various channels. While the CCP maintains a central role, dismissing China’s political system as entirely rigid overlooks the nuanced realities within the country.

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