Define management and its types

management definition

The term 

management expresses a set of principles related to planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and applying them, and harnessing financial, material, human, and information resources efficiently and effectively to achieve the organizational goals of an organization 

 . Management can also be defined as a process Management and control of the affairs of the institution regardless of the nature of its work, the structure of the institution, and its size, as it is represented in creating and maintaining the business environment through the work of the members of the institution in a team spirit and the achievement of goals effectively and efficiently. for the following items: 

  • Men.
  • god.
  • Tools.
  • methods.
  • Money.

Types of management

There are many types of management, and the following are the most common types of management: 

  • Strategic management: It is concerned with developing and implementing the comprehensive strategy of the institution in order to increase and sustain competition, as it is represented in managing the institution’s resources in order to achieve its purpose and objectives.
  • Sales management: It is the management of points of sale and accounts, and how to sell products.
  • Marketing management: concerned with managing marketing strategies, products, brands, and promotions.
  • Public Relations Department: It is represented in managing the communication between the institution and the public by using various communication and advertising tools.
  • Operations management: It is the management of the process of producing goods and services, and is concerned with describing everything from manufacturing management to retail management.
  • Supply chain management: concerned with the process of moving a product or commodity.
  • Purchasing Department: concerned with how goods and services are obtained from external sources.
  • Financial and Accounting Management: It is the management of various financial operations.
  • Human Resources Management: It is concerned with attracting and hiring human cadres suitable for the job, compensating and rewarding the employee, in addition to evaluating the performance of employees. It also plays an important role in shaping the culture of the institution or company.
  • Information Technology Management: It is concerned with managing the technological processes in an organization.
  • Research and Development Department: It is concerned with managing research and development processes on products.
  • Engineering management: It is the application of engineering in business, for example engineering is used in the development of new products, in manufacturing processes, and construction processes.
  • Program management: It is concerned with managing the ongoing projects that are in the institution’s file.
  • Project management: planning, organizing, and controlling projects.
  • Risk management: concerned with controlling, identifying, and measuring the risks that are expected to occur, in addition to the negative effects that may occur in the future and reduce them.
  • Change management: concerned with changing the work system to help teams and organizations make smooth and easy transitions.
  • Quality management: It represents all the activities required to improve the quality of the product, in addition to the control and improvement of these products.
  • Innovation management: Means the management of innovation processes, such as: research and development or organizational change.
  • Design management: is the design of new products.
  • Facilities management: concerned with managing offices and data centers.
  • Knowledge management is the identification, creation, representation, distribution, and use of knowledge in the economy and business.

management jobs

The administration includes 5 functions, which are as follows: 

  • Planning: where planning determines the course of action in the future, in addition to making decisions about the most appropriate path to achieve the goals.
  • Organizing: It is a process that combines material, financial, and human resources, in addition to developing production relations, in order to achieve organizational goals, as it includes several things, including the following:
    • Define activities.
    • Classify the activities into groups.
    • Delegation of authority and assignment of duties.
    • Public Relations Coordination.
  • Recruitment: is the administrative function that is represented in maintaining the organizational structure of the institution by appointing new employees and increasing the volume of business. The recruitment function also aims to put the right person in the right place, and includes several works, including the following:
    • Manpower preparation.
    • appointment.
    • training and development.
    • Performance evaluation.
  • Direction: is the administrative part that urges organizational methods to work efficiently to achieve organizational goals; This is because planning, organizing, and hiring are just preparations to do work. As for guidance, it is the practical aspect that is directly concerned with guidance, direction, supervision, and motivation, and it contains a number of elements, which are as follows:
    • Supervision: Managers supervise, monitor, and direct workers.
    • Motivation: Inspiring and motivating employees to work with motivation and enthusiasm through positive incentives, material incentives, and rewards.
    • Leadership: directing and influencing employees to accomplish the required tasks.
    • Communication: the transfer of information and the exchange of experiences and opinions between individuals.
  • Oversight: It is the administrative function that measures achievement, and is responsible for correcting the deviation, if any, in order to ensure the achievement of organizational goals. An effective control system helps predict deviations before they occur. Oversight goes through several steps, which are as follows:
    • Setting performance standards.
    • Measure actual performance.
    • Compare the actual performance with the standards and find out the defect, if any.
    • remedial action.

management levels

In many institutions, there are different levels of management, according to their size, and there are usually 3 levels of management, which are as follows: 

  • Lower management: in which managers focus on oversight and direction, where the manager or administrator is considered a role model, and managers communicate directly with employees at this level.
  • Middle management: It is the responsibility of managers in middle management to implement organizational plans that are consistent with the policies of the organization.
  • Senior management: It is the responsibility of the senior management to monitor and supervise all the work of the institution.

management methods

Democratic management style

Democratic management style is rooted in employee-manager cooperation. In the democratic style, managers seek to listen to employees before making decisions or offering solutions; Involving them in the decision-making process, giving them the freedom to express their opinions, and being open to new ideas, experiences and experiences, which creates strong bonds and relationships between managers and employees. 

laissez-faire management style

Managers in this style are characterized by non-interference in the work of employees; The manager abandons his responsibilities in management to employees, and gives them a high degree of confidence and independence, and this method is a preferred option for professional management that has long experience, when employees are given more independence and freedom, they often show greater initiative and responsibility in performing the tasks assigned to them. . 

authoritarian management style

An autocratic or controlling style of management is concerned with results 

and efficiency , and is usually devoid of cooperation between managers and employees; The authoritarian administrator believes in the accurate management of the employee to ensure that the organization’s policies are followed, orders are implemented, and the decisions of senior management are followed. 

Inspirational management style

Managers who follow the inspirational management style are highly persuasive, have faith in their issues and ideas, are interested in building personal relationships with employees, in addition to mobilizing the team around the common goals of the organization, and this method is useful in order to help employees feel motivated, and provide them with the necessary support to engage in work. and achieving the desired organizational goals. 

Coach management style

Managers who follow the coach style have the qualities of a sports coach in terms of their ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each employee, and work hard to help them reach a high level of professionalism. 

speed regulation method

Managers who follow the speed 

regulation method set high standards for their team, as they are particularly concerned with speed in completing work in addition to efficiency, and they always seek to find new ways and ways to raise the level of productivity in the organization, and this method helps to build trust between the employee and the manager and to spread reassurance among employees. ; Realizing that the manager adheres to the same standards he set for employees, yet the employee can feel overwhelmed and pressured by the many demands and responsibilities that fall on his shoulders. 

bureaucratic management style

In the bureaucratic style, the administrator focuses on assigning specific tasks to employees within a hierarchical framework, and is less concerned 

with team and cooperative work among employees, and more interested in following rules and procedures in order to facilitate the completion of tasks in a smooth and sequential manner from the top of the pyramid to the bottom, where this method is useful In highly regulated industries, it is less effective in creative environments. 

The method of managing transactions or deals

The manager of transaction management enhances employee performance through rewards, incentives, and disciplinary penalties in case of default, and the manager’s role in this method is often as a mentor, providing clear instructions to help improve employee performance. 

Authoritarian and lenient management styles

Management patterns are based in some respects on a simple duality between control, control and leniency. The following is an explanation of these patterns: 

  • Dictatorship management style: This style is hierarchical from top to bottom and is a great style for managers, and often the opposite for workers, and it is considered an old style of management.
  • Permissive management style: In this style, the manager takes a secondary role in authority, as this style is concerned with unleashing and allowing more creativity and obtaining feedback from employees, where the manager makes concessions to talent in order to compete in specific industries.

↑ Sonia Kukreja, “?What is Management”، www.managementstudyhq.com, Retrieved 2021-3-6. Edited.

↑ “Management”, businessjargons.com, Retrieved 2021-3-6. Edited.

↑ Anna Mar (2013-5-11), “21 Types of Management”، management.simplicable.com, Retrieved 2021-3-6. Edited.

↑ Prachi Juneja, “Functions of Management”، www.managementstudyguide.com, Retrieved 2021-3-6. Edited.

↑ “Types of Management”, courses.lumenlearning.com, Retrieved 2021-3-6. Edited.

↑ “Three common management styles”, www.cornerstoneondemand.com,2019-3-13، Retrieved 2021-3-

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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