Prepared by the researcher: Muhammad Adel Othman – Arab Democratic Center
Researcher at the Egyptian Company for Information Services and Systems –  Cairo – Arab Republic of Egypt

Introduction

The concept of political participation is one of the most important concepts that have found the interest of many thinkers in all areas of social sciences, due to its great place and also the overlap of this concept with many other concepts, and also because there are many concepts in the field of political science, whose realization depends on the ground on This concept provides like the concept of democracy where it is not possible to talk about democracy without being exposed to the political participation of members of society, it is necessary to lay the foundations of a democratic society, and just as democracy is a complex process consisting of a set of elements of each of its elements constitutes a stand-alone process, political participation as one of these elements is also the most eloquent process A list of its essential and necessary elements as it cannot be neglected or overthrown, but each one must be taken care of separately and with the same degree of seriousness in order to achieve the goal of participation, which is to achieve and that is to achieve democracy.

The concept of political participation as a political process is more than a propagandist that raises a state or a feature that characterizes a particular political system in a society, but it is a philosophy that must be believed in and work on the need to take legal steps and provide intellectual and human means in order to achieve this political process on the ground. ((( 1)

Therefore, it is necessary to research the concept of political participation, and this is due to its importance and being one of the old political concepts. Therefore, this research paper discusses dissecting this concept through several basic axes, namely:

  • Address the most important linguistic, corrective and procedural definitions of this concept
  • The history and formation of the concept
  • Searching the elements of the concept, which is known as (dissecting the concept).
  • Research in schools of thought that talk about this concept
  • Research on the most important thinkers and the different opinions that arose about this concept

First: Defining the concept:

The problem of defining concepts is one of the main problems in the social sciences, whereby the definitions of a single concept vary and overlap according to the affiliations of each individual thinker. The concepts are the templates that the researcher uses to plan an organized picture of all the knowledge and facts surrounding him, and in the framework of this research paper and under this paragraph the concept of political participation will be addressed through both (linguistic – procedural – idiomatic) definitions

Linguistic definition :

To talk about linguistically speaking, it must begin to refer to the composition of this concept, as it is made up of two parts: (participation) as a human activity, and the word (policy) as a social term, and the following is an explanation:

The word participation is   derived from the participle name of the Latin word Participate and this term consists of two pars, meaning part and second, and means “to do”, and thus participation means to take part, that is, to perform a specific role. [2]

Also, it is from the general definitions that dealt with the concept of (participation) in general, we find:

  • Participation is the formal and informal contribution of individuals and groups in all economic, political and social activities of the society with the aim of achieving the public good. [3]
  • It also means that the individual gets a share of something, meaning that the participant has a share in the public affairs [4]
  • A position taken by the individual in all cases and shared with others, as it requires the presence of more than one party.

We then move on to the intended handling of the word (politics ), which is as follows:

Politics is a language derived from the source of the verb (SAS), and this word comes to the sense of managing people’s affairs, owning their affairs, mastering them and enforcing the matter in them, and this word is used to denote many other meanings such as the meanings of leadership, chairmanship, treatment, governance, education, and taming. [5]

The policy can be defined as:

  • The science of the authoritative allocation of values ​​to “David Easton”, and this is because any decision necessarily involves dedicating and reinforcing a specific material or moral value.
  • It is the method of peaceful settlement of conflicts through dialogue and negotiation to reach compromises between all the conflicting interests.
  • It is an experimental science that aims to study the formation of the Sultan and participate in it. It should be noted that the word Sultan here in the context of the definition of “Kaplan” does not differ from Easton’s definition of policy in that both definitions agree that there is an order issued by the decision maker and subject to the governed. [6]

Terminological definition of the concept:

Idiomatic definitions of the concept of political participation are numerous and this is due to the multiplicity of intellectual attempts that addressed this concept and this matter led to the difficulty of developing a specific definition of this concept. From these definitions, we find

  • Political participation means the participation of large numbers of individuals and groups in political life. [7]
  • Political participation means the participation of the largest possible number of members of society in the largest possible number of activities and fields so that these areas are in line with the capabilities and requirements of these individuals. [8]
  • It is the process by which the individual can play a role in political life in order to achieve the goals of social and economic development, provided that every citizen has the opportunity to contribute to setting goals and learn about the best means and methods to achieve them, and that the citizen’s participation in those efforts be based on self-motivation and work The voluntary, which translates the citizen’s sense of social responsibility towards the common goals and problems of his society, and that everyone believes that he has the freedom to participate in the values ​​that society recognizes. [9]
  • These are the administrative activities that community members engage in in order to choose their governors and representatives, and contribute to direct or indirect policy and decision-making. [10]

3- Procedural definition :

We can address procedural indicators for the concept of political participation through the following definition, which is one of the most accurate definitions through which we can reach procedural indicators for the concept of political participation, it means (the direct or indirect contribution of citizens to the decision-making process within the surrounding political system) and through This concept can reach the indicators of political participation in society, which express the meaning of the procedural concept, as follows:

  • The citizen’s right to vote
  • The citizen’s right to hold public office
  • The right of the citizen to participate in the decision-making process

According to this concept, participation here means that there are several levels of participation ranging from negative to absolute positive, and they differ with the different system of government in terms of being a democratic or authoritarian system. [11]

Also, we can refer to the indicators of political participation through other concepts such as the following concept, which defines political participation as (a term exclusively for it to have a positive role in the political process through the administrative practice of the right to vote or run for elected bodies and organizations or discuss political issues with others or join intermediary organizations) [12] . Through this concept, we can refer to the most important indicators that indicate political participation, namely:

  • Nomination for an important political and administrative position.
  • Join interest groups or civil society organizations .
  • Candidacy for public office and political office.
  • Participation in public political meetings .

Second: the history and origin of the concept

Many researchers return the history of the concept of political participation to the beginning of the nineteenth century, when a new awareness was formed in European society of the need to monitor political power, due to the emergence of what is known as the public domain. However, this identification was preceded by multiple theories and practices of political participation since the idea of ​​the emergence of the state in the ancient era, as a natural result of human society, it coincided with the emergence of the state the political term known as democracy, which means the rule of the people themselves.

There are also some political studies that restore the history of the emergence of this concept and its emergence on the political scene until the beginning of the Renaissance until the seventeenth century. The trend towards more political participation began, and this trend reached its climax during the industrial revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

And Islamic political thought, the pioneers of this thought were based on the concept of Shura in the Holy Qur’an, one of which was revealed in the name of (Surat Al-Shura) and its noble verses provided for participation in decision-making in the Almighty’s saying “and their command is Shura among them.” As mentioned in Surat Al-Naml, the Almighty said by the Queen of Sheba O she said, O public, please advise me about my command, I was not concluding an order until you testified and about Surat Al Imran (and consulted with them on the matter).
Shura, as it came in the Holy Qur’an, is binding, not a teacher, as the jurists have gone to. The binding concept of Shura was demonstrated in practical experience during the era of the rightly guided caliphs mainly in the conduct of political life stemming from the entrenchment of the concept of societal democracy in which Islamic society has been formed since the establishment of the Islamic Arab state in Medina and what is known as the Medina Document. [13]

In Islamic thought, political participation also depends on individual freedom and equality between people, and on solidarity and social justice, and this resulted from the tolerant Islamic belief that represents the best beliefs that have been talked about organizing the affairs of people and relations between members of society that are based on a democratic basis, and on the other hand, we find that the social participation that It remained for the various boredom and bees best able to build a global human civilization in which the emirate of thought and science appeared obstacles to the tyranny of the systems that followed the rational caliphate, where community participation continued to give in its wonderful gift in the form of intellectual and political pluralism in which the books of Arab heritage abounded and formed a community impetus for the continuity of construction The civilization of the Arab state prevails over the hardships and tribulations experienced by the princes of thought and science who adopted the principle of participation in decision-making, in one way or another.

In the modern and contemporary era, the emergence of political parties formed one of the expressions of political participation, and that was in France when the Constituent Assembly was founded in 1789 AD, where, after that, the emergence of professional unions, parties, pressure groups and civil society organizations starting from Britain and ending with all of Europe, which took Political participation has different dimensions, according to contemporary theories.

Third: The intellectual schools that talked about the concept:

Hurt We moved on to talk about the most important intellectual schools that were interested in talking about political participation, we find that there are many schools that talked about this concept and this is due to it being an old concept and many thinkers and philosophers addressed it in research and analysis, but it is in this framework that we must indicate before the beginning of dealing with these intellectual attempts To establish and study this concept, it must be noted that the concept of political participation is strongly linked to the idea of ​​power sharing and the components of the political process, and this matter was the focus of attention and talk of those schools, as follows:

Harm our view  of the capitalist theory of   research on how schooling and its theories dealt with this concept. We find that it advocated a set of principles that give the individual a higher value than the group, and considers the state’s intervention a violation of the principle of individual popular participation.

This matter differs from the socialist theory,  which holds that it is necessary to take away the individual from freedom and to base the rule on the proletarian class, expressed by the imperative of the working class resorting to revolution to reach socialist society. Moreover, political participation in the third world formed the focus of a struggle against colonialism and tyranny, and a key to the door to progress, from which the powers of society after liberation were launched from what was called in many countries in the countries of emerging democracies. [14]

On the other hand , many of the Alokhryalta schools of thought have emerged focused on talking about political power in general , and these schools find a school elite, class, political pluralism  , where there are concepts of class about the control of social class on the means Alantegalmadewalvkra, Omaosahab elite theory we find Onovkaarham revolved around the inadmissibility of sharing Authority, on the other hand, Max Weber has pointed out three modes of power. There are: traditional, rational, and charismatic authority. Max Weber concluded that bureaucracy is a means of transcending ideal political power, and from here we find that the analysis of the elite school to political power in an attempt to Reaching the concept of political participation, we find that it was not based on the criteria of class consciousness, but rather institutional and psychological psychological and organizational factors contribute to it.The theory of political pluralism,  which holds that power can be fragmented and the possibility of everyone participating in the practice of sharing political power, and this occurs through influencing decision-making processes, even to varying degrees.

Where you see the difficulty of centralizing the authority due to its distribution and spread according to many sources and groups with varying capabilities and resources. [15th]

Fourth: The most important thinkers who dealt with this concept:

As previously mentioned, the concept of political participation has found a concept of great interest by many political thinkers and analysts. In this context, we will try to address the most important of these analyzes as follows:

  • Plato : Plato spoke about the concept of political participation through a conversation about democracy, where they indicated that democracy is one of the manifestations and forms of political participation, and he defined it as a mixed state that is based on a process of balance between different layers of society, taking the principle of freedom.
  • Aristotle : Aristotle’s political participation can be clarified through a paragraph from the writing of Aristotle’s politics through a saying by saying, “There was no kind of participation for the whole state, and every participation was aimed at achieving the common good and benefit, and therefore goodness is the goal of all contributions, and for this the nominal goodness He is the one who is built on the basis of including all other social participations.) The thinkers then analyzed that what is meant here is the nominal good of political participation. [16]
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau : Political participation is the ability to exercise or exercise sovereignty, and this approach excludes political participation from those individuals who do not have the ability to exercise sovereignty. We note that this concept seeks to apply the tradition of the ancient Greek state, which sees the need to assign actors in the management of public affairs.
  • Grint Barry : He believes that political participation has three aspects
  • Participation method: What is meant here is the form you take, whether the form of participation is formal or informal.
  • Intensity of participation: It means measuring the number of individuals participating in certain political activities and how they participate.
  • Quality of participation: It means the degree of effectiveness that achieves participation and requires measuring it on the impact of controlling power and setting public policy. [17]
  • Huntington : He believes that political participation is the activity carried out by the citizen in order to influence the decision-making process, and this means that participation aims to change the outputs of political systems in a way that suits the demands of individuals who submit to political participation.
  • Karl MarxKarl Marx referred to the concept of political participation through a conversation about political rights in the Jewish question as the privileges enjoyed by any individual as a participant in the political life of the group to which he belongs, and from these rights, as Marx sees (the right to vote – the right to choose persons nominated for political positions) These rights are harmful to our consideration, and we will find that it is one of the indicators of the political participation process in society. On the other hand, Marx considers that the political rights granted by the state to its employees are in reality nothing but the rights of the selfish individual who is isolated from other people and that it is not true that it strengthens and supports the public aspect in the activity of the individual and his life.[18]

Fifth: The concepts related to the concept of political participation:

There are many political concepts that are related to this concept and this is due to the complexity of the social phenomenon, which is characterized by the characteristic of the overlap between its elements and its parts. In this sense, we will try to clarify a number of concepts that are related to this concept and we can refer to the following concepts:

  • The concept of public opinion : The importance of this concept grows in democratic societies and becomes the basis for all political practices and the axis of all decisions applied in society. It is defined as general feelings that individuals and groups form towards events, issues and political personalities at the local and external levels, and we find that there are three stages for forming public opinion that are necessary in order to be effective and effective in the process of forming public policy and this appears clearly in democratic societies and these stages are (the stage of formation – a stage Expression – the stage of direct influence in public policy). [19]As for the relation of this concept to the concept of political participation, we find that political participation plays a vital role in the elections and interest groups, as the elections are not only a mechanism for the selection of the people for rulers or their representatives in political positions. Rather, it is a means of influencing public opinion. Rather, political participation contributes to allowing public opinion to perform the functions of oversight and the calculation of the ruling authority.
  • Political parties : It is an organized grouping of citizens founded to defend and elevate their opinions and interests in order to implement the reform program by participating in political life through complementary activities. [20] Are these organizations that have a clear goal, which is to exercise a fixed influence on the formation of public opinion, and for this to achieve this goal requires organizational forms and programs and the practice of polling is one of the important aspects of political parties in order to reach power and the desired impact events [21] .

It is assumed that the parties provide channels and institutional pathways that allow citizens to participate in policymaking and influence decision-makers, but that active participation by the citizen by joining a party in his activities such as attending seminars and conferences that he organizes to discuss general issues or specific party issues and providing support to a party Moein and voting for him in the elections, as all these and other matters are considered a means for creating interest, interaction and political response among citizens in exchange for negativity and indifference.

On the other hand, we find that the reaction of the party or ruling parties to the general demands related to political participation may differ from one political system to another and even within the same system from one era to another.

  • Political formation : Many researchers in the field of political psychology point out that there is a close relationship between both the concept of political participation and this concept of political formation, even though political participation does not represent an extension to the phenomenon of political formation as a political phenomenon. In view of the multiplicity of attempts that came to define what is meant by political formation, there is an obvious difficulty to develop a specific and clear concept for this political phenomenon, but it can be pointed out that political formation is a set of social patterns that enable the individual to behave with society or is it necessary for the individual to acquire behavioral preparations consistent with the continuity of the Political groups and systems, by performing the functions necessary to maintain their existence. [22] The relationship between the phenomenon of political formation and participation shows that political formation is the primary motivation for the individual and I see his entry into the political life of his society.
  • Political development: refers to the process of growth in building institutions and encouraging democratic practices, but it usually relates to the growth, complexity and increase of differentiation between political structures in society and in less developed societies. Others [23] . Political development in general aims to build democracy, which is one of the forms of the process of political participation. Hence the relationship between these two concepts shows that there is a direct relationship between political development as a process and political participation, given the extent of the spread of the aspects of political development in society, it pays to participate in the political life of the individual within Combined.
  • Political culture:It is a specific distribution related to the characteristics and characteristics of the people of a country who have political trends, values, feelings, data and information. Or all that relates to the attitudes of individuals towards the political system, and it is related to it from sub-systems or different institutions and organizations.[24]
  • Interest groups : Interest groups are important political groups in many political systems, and they differ from political parties from not aiming to reach power, but rather only aim at influencing the governing authority to make decisions that serve their interests. This is confirmed by many studies that pointed to democracy. Social thinkers, as they have emphasized that interest groups aim to achieve their goals through 3 different means: (entering with other groups in relationships with other groups to serve common interests – direct contact with the concerned authorities to achieve special interests – mobilizing public visions to support one of the issues that serve their interests) . [25] Hence, interest groups can be defined as a group of individuals linked by common interests and have specific demands towards other groups and various state institutions that seek only to achieve them in order to work on their unity and continuity and pressure ends once their interests are achieved.

As for the role of interest groups in the political participation process, they can be referred to through the function of democratic interest groups, as these groups play a major role in providing channels for individual participation in politics and also for political influence in the government. This role appears significantly in democratic political systems. Also, these groups contribute significantly to Democratization by defending human rights in the face of any flagrant government violations.

Sixth: The fundamentals of the concept:

In order for us to call a society as a participant in political life, it is necessary to address the extent to which this society practices the manifestations of democracy in terms of both form and content, so it is not possible to consider a society or a state as a democracy or that we call a society as a political participant without having it The basic conditions for practicing the democratic process, just as democracy means participation, not only political, but also socio-economic participation. Meaning active participation in the running of society and justice in the process of building development and distributing its fruits. That is, any economic development based on oppression and exploitation is not qualified to build prosperity and stability in society. [26]

  • Elections: It is defined as a type of political participation process, as it is expressed in what is known as voting, and it refers to the citizen’s choice between applicants or candidates for general or periodic elections. [27]

The benefit of shaking the process politically is that it guarantees the right to a peaceful transfer of power and ensuring that the ruling elites obtain a legal mandate from the people periodically and regularly through a free, fair, and fair electoral process that guarantees the secrecy and integrity of that electoral process. [28]

  • Rule of law : It is the second ingredient required for achieving democracy, which ensures security and stability through achieving justice and equality for all under the law, and it means that the ruler and ruled are subject to the law originally established by the people’s representatives and approved by the people’s representatives within a consensual process through representative frameworks that are often through Parliament elected by the people in the electoral processes. [29]
  • Transparency : It is the third ingredient to be provided for democracy and the process of political participation, and it ensures the existence of a mechanism of accountability and oversight by citizens for their elected representatives by knowing their performance and how they use the powers granted to them and the popular mandate granted to them, and this process can only be done through Ensure that citizens are fully informed of the performance of representatives through transparent means that ensure that they are provided with information periodically and systematically without any forgery, which requires opening parliament sessions to citizens to attend or broadcast them through the media or publishing minutes of sessions for citizens, and it also requires allowing citizens to review the performance of their governments through their representatives Elected to submit interrogations and inquiries to government ministers.
  • The existence of real and effective political parties : The healthy democratic march requires the existence of healthy political parties, i.e. democratic parties based on national values ​​and principles and are agreed in word and action to prohibit violence and political monopoly, whether within the framework of the party or the authority, i.e. acceptance of a peaceful transition of power in light of the provision of an election mechanism Free. It actually adheres to political and social human rights, as well as accepting pluralism. [30]
  • Also, the high level of political participation in most political systems is due to the interaction of 5 main factors, respectively:
  • The modernization : It is a result of that from the process of growth of the agricultural and industrial sectors, the migration of people from the countryside to the urban area, the high level of education and other aspects of progress, as the modernization created new groups of citizens and senior farmers and traders contributed in one way or another to the different stages of public policy.
  • The change in the structure of the social classes : This has led to the emergence of the working class and the middle class as a result of the industrial revolution.
  • The influence of thinkers: where thinkers influence their opinions on the opinions of citizens and urge them to participate in politics in addition to modern means of communication and knowledge progress.
  • The emergence of conflict between different political groups and leaders : the consequence of which these groups are governed by the masses and strongly pushed to political participation and resolving the dispute in favor of one group or another. [31]
  • Social conditions : where the expansion of education may contribute to an increase in the level of political participation, and vice versa. Likewise, poverty leads to the emergence of political negativity or indifference, for example, reluctance to vote in elections. Also, on the other hand, social and nervous ties may lead to an increase in the level of political participation. Such as the cases of high electoral participation in some Arab countries such as Egypt and Kuwait. [32]

Conclusion

The problem of political participation imposed itself on the tables of thought and doctrinal discussion in recent times due to the circumstances and modern developments, and then increased studies and research that have been exposed to this topic significantly in the last decade

It is noted that the primary goal that this work seeks to communicate is the crystal to reach an integrated, integrated vision about the concept of political participation, as it is one of the most common concepts in political science and democratic systems are based on, and therefore the goal was to reach the concept manifestation and clarify it by revision and rooting, and therefore it is presented To import concepts coming to us without scrutiny.

The concept of political participation also falls within the framework of political and popular expression and the conduct of public affairs by the parties of society. Therefore, it is based on the recognition of equal rights, and on the recognition of the other and considered equal and equal with all of his peers regardless of gender, religion, race or gender, and that participation It must contribute to excluding conflict and be replaced by the idea of ​​cooperation. In the political sphere, participation is considered the cornerstone of the reinstallation of power systems and the opportunity for different groups to participate through the mechanisms of democracy

Also, this concept requires citizens to have a sense of belonging to this group and the need to express their will whenever they have the moral capabilities and means of expression. On this basis, the democratic system is described as the system that allows for the broadest participation, the concept of political participation includes activities that aim to influence decisions that It is taken by the concerned authorities in the state, and therefore political participation is a democratic principle, one of the most important principles of the modern state, a principle in which we can distinguish in light of democratic systems based on citizenship and equal rights and duties from authoritarian regimes based on monopoly.

It can be said that political participation is the essence of citizenship. Citizens are holders of social, economic, cultural and political rights that are safeguarded by the constitution, which expresses this with all the articles related to citizen rights, and within the framework of defining political participation.

List of references

First: Arabic references

Books

  • Osama Al-Ghazali Harb , Political Parties in the Third World (Kuwait: The National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters – Knowledge World Series)
  • Umm Al-Ezz Ali Al-Farsi, Women and Political Participation in Libya (1977-2005) (Cairo: Center for Democracy and Human Rights – Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, 2008)
  • Tariq Muhammad Abdul-Wahab, Psychology of Political Participation: With a Study in Political Psychology in the Arab Environment (Dar Gharib for Printing and Publishing, 1999 )
  • Kamal Al-Menoufy, The Origins of Comparative Political Systems (Kuwait: Al-Rayan Publishing and Distribution Company, 1987 )
  • Muhammad Saad Abu Amud, Party System and Development Issues in South Korea (Cairo: Center for Asian Studies, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, 2005 )
  • Muhammad Ali Muhammad, Ali Abd al-Mu’tim Muhammad, Politics Between Theory and Practice (Beirut, Arab Renaissance House for Printing and Publishing, 1985)
  • Mustafa Abdullah Khashim, Encyclopedia of Politics “Selected Terms ” (Misurata: The Public House for Publishing and Distribution, 2nd edition 2004)
  • Born Zayed Al-Tayeb, Political Sociology (Libya: Publications of the University of the seventh of April, 2007)

University theses :

  • Mr. Abdul-Muttalib Ahmed Ghanem, Political Participation in Egypt (PhD thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, 1979)
  • Badia Samia, Women and Political Participation in Algeria (Master Thesis, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mentouri University of Constantinople, 2005).
  • Hanan Maher Qandil Arif , Marxism and Political Pluralism “A Study in Theory and Practice” (PhD thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, 1996).
  • Abdel-Ati Mohamed Ahmed, Political Thought of Imam Muhammad Abdo (Master Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University 1977)

websites

  • The foundations of democracy building http://www.elsyasi.com/article_detail.aspx?id=788
  • Abdel-Wahab Hamid Rashid, Constituents of Democratic Transition, Civilization Dialogue Research Series – No. 707, 2004, http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=13431

Foreign references

  • Josif Thesing and Wilhelm Hofmeidter, Political Parties in Democracy: Role and Functions of Political Parties in the Political System of the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany: Konrad Adeenauer Stiftung, 1990..
  • Rebecca Weitz-Shapiro, Matthew S, Political Participation and Quality of Life (Washington, july 2008 ).

[1] – Sharifa Mashati, Political Participation is the Basis of Democratic Action, in the Journal of the Social Researcher (No. 10, September 2010), p. 143.

[2] – Tariq Muhammad Abdel-Wahab, Psychology of Political Participation: With a Study in Political Psychology in the Arab Environment (Dar Gharib for Printing and Publishing, 1999), p. 106.

[3] -Badi Samia, Women and Political Participation in Algeria , (Master Thesis, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Mentouri Constantine, 2005), p. 26.

[4] – Abdel-Elhourdi, The Jurisprudential Rooting of Political Participation http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=104505

[5] – Badisamiyya, former reference , p. 27

[6] – Mr. Abdul Muttalib Ahmed Ghanem, Political Participation in Egypt (PhD thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, 1979), p. 14.

[7] – Ayman Baybars, a research paper entitled “The political participation of women in the Arab world “, Association for the Advancement and Development of Women, p. 4

[8] – Tariq Muhammad Abdul-Wahab, previous reference , p. 14.

[9] – Muhammad Ali Muhammad, Ali Abdul-Mu’ti Muhammad, A Policy Between Theory and Practice (Beirut: The Arab Renaissance House for Printing and Publishing, 1985), p. 60.

[10] – Born by Zayed Al-Tayeb, Political Sociology (Libya: University of the Seventh of April, 2007) p. 87.

[11]  Mustafa Abdullah Khushaim , Encyclopedia of Politics “Selected Terms ” (Misurata: The Public House for Publishing and Distribution, Second Edition, 2004) pp. 419-420.

[12]-Rebecca Weitz-Shapiro, Matthew S,Political Participation and Quality of Life(Washington, july 2008 ) ,p7

[13] -Abd al-Ati Muhammad Ahmad, a political thought of Imam Muhammad Abdo (Master Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University 1977), pp. 178-179

[14] – Born by Zayed Al-Tayeb, previous reference , p. 92.

[15] -am splendor of the Persian, a political Mrohwalmcharkh in Libya (1977-2005) (Cairo: Center for Democracy and Human Rights, Cairo University, 2008) , p . 29.

[16] –Mayoud Zayed Al-Tayeb, previous reference , p. 90.

[17] – Tariq Muhammad Abdul-Wahab, previous reference , p. 16.

[18] Hanan Maher Qandil Arif, Marxism and Political Pluralism “A Study in Theory and Practice” (PhD thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, 1996) pp. 245-246

[19] – Mustafa Abdullah Khushaim, above reference , pp. 243-244

[20] – Osama Al-Ghazali Harb, Political Parties in the Third World (Kuwait: The National Council for Culture, Arts and Literature – Knowledge World Series), p. 10.

[21] -Josif Thesing and Wilhelm Hofmeidter, Political Parties in Democracy: Role and Functions of Political Parties in the Political System of the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany: Konrad Adeenauer Stiftung, 1990, P.15.

[22] – Tariq Muhammad Abdul-Wahab, previous reference , p. 102.

[23] Mohamed Saad Abu column , party system and development issues in South Korea ( A to Cairo : Cairo University, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Center for Asian Studies, 2005) S137-138

[24] – Mustafa Abdullah Khushaim, previous reference , pp. 167-169.

[25]-Burnsten, Paul and Linton April  , ( The impact of parties , interest  group , and social movement organization  on public policy : some recent evidence and theoretical ), university of north Carolina , December 2002, p .382.

[26] – Abdel-Wahab Hamid Rashid: the foundations of democratization, a series of researches on civilized dialogue – No. 707, 2004, http://www.ahewar.org/debat/show.art.asp?aid=13431 The link was visited on 15 / 5/2016

[27] – Mustafa Abdullah Khushaim, above reference , p. 131.

[28] – Ingredients for building democracy, http://www.elsyasi.com/article_detail.aspx?id=788 The link was visited on May 14 2016.

[29] – Mustafa Abdullah Khushaim, above reference , p. 180.

[30] – Abdel-Wahab Hamid Rashid, the foundations of democratization, a reference previously mentioned.

[31] – Mustafa Abdullah Khushaim, previous reference , p. 420.

[32] – Kamal Al-Menoufy, The Origins of Comparative Political Systems (Kuwait: Al-Rayan Publishing and Distribution Company, 1987), p. 80