By- Amro Selim: (Chairman of Elmoustkbal for media and policy studies – Member in The Global Alliance for Partnerships on Media “GAPMIL”/UNESCO) – Email: [email protected] :
With the increasing global challenges, the spread of armed conflict, extremism, and terrorism, as well as humanitarian crises across the world and the huge challenges faced by the people of the earth, such as climate change and water scarcity crises, and the sharp waves of displacement that may be followed by many of the inhabitants of low-income countries, we find the global role of the United Nations has not yet been able to live up to the expectations of many citizens who are wondering about the effectiveness of the organization in facing the challenges that have become threatening the whole of mankind, Therefore voices have recently calling for serious movement to achieve real reform inside the United Nations.
Key words: United Nations, UN, Security Council, Reform, Peace, World, International Community.
A global constitution that brings together the countries of the world to peace, stability and cooperation for the welfare of human beings and the prevention of wars and conflicts, That was the main goal of a meeting attended by a number of leaders of the world on October 24, 1945 in the city of San Francisco, after many and countries of the world were overburdened Fatigued from the devastation caused by the Second World War, they decided to put a point and inaugurate the United Nations to be a substitute for the League of Nations that did not perform the purpose launched for it, and proved its failure to achieve peace and prevent the spread of weapons around the world, and the settlement of international disputes through negotiations and arbitration, which made the need for an alternative organization that play world role in the maintenance of international peace and security is indispensable, so the announcement was made at the time of the birth of the United Nations.
- New hopes
The work system branched out and its official missions spread across many countries of the world and expanded its membership to include about 193 countries, indeed most of the independent countries, with many of its security, political, social, cultural and development arms as well as the economics of the United Nations emanating from its main organs, namely the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council and Trusteeship Council The International Court of Justice and the United Nations Secretariat, from which a number of programs, funds, mandates and specialized agencies branch out from them work in cooperation with the parent organization in achieving its goals and implementing the provisions of its charter.
In the end, we will see summit meetings, symposia, international conferences, diplomatic and political discussions among a beehive that operates day and night from the far north of the south of the globe, so that this scene will form the image of the organization that is supposed to manage the affairs of the world and work to achieve the charter of the organization that Member States signed and pledged to respect, from the maintenance of international peace and security and the peaceful settlement of disputes to achieving international cooperation between member states, while working to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all inhabitants of the planet without any discrimination, but the reality witnesses exactly the opposite, so conflicts and conflicts between the countries have increased The spread of extremism, terrorism, famines and humanitarian crises, and the role of the major powers in achieving economic cooperation and settling disputes has diminished intact, to be replaced by many wars and bloody conflicts that witnessed a remarkable increase in 2019, most of which are located in the African continent and some in Asia such as Yemen, Afghanistan, Iraq and the African coast, and the terrorist operations that The African continent, especially the Sahel, is struck, in addition to the unrest of the blind lakes, which are still continuing until now, in addition to the ongoing crises in Syria, Libya, South Sudan and Myanmar. In the international community, many citizens, as well as politicians and journalists, wonder about the absent role of the United Nations, which is supposed to emerge strongly on the ground, to intervene and put an end to these conflicts that will only result in destruction and killing, and millions of displaced and displaced people around the world.
- Loss of confidence
With the increase in international crises and their complexity, and many of them have turned into armed conflicts that have resulted in humanitarian disasters such as Syria, Yemen and Libya, who are turning into international conflict arenas in which the major powers compete for control and support of the fronts in favor of their interests, amid the hundreds of thousands of deaths and injuries among women, children, elderly and men and the demolition of homes and destruction The establishments, under the full view of dozens of international media, and the statements of United Nations officials that are content with denouncing, worrying and appealing to the parties concerned or the Security Council sessions in which the veto states play the game of musical chairs to achieve special interests regardless of Humanitarian disasters and the scale of the destruction achieved on the ground, and the tragic curtain did not close at that point, but amid all that there were numerous scenes of human rights violations and increasing restrictions imposed on freedom of opinion, expression and journalistic work, as well as depriving many citizens around the world of their basic living rights, even though the United Nations The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights was adopted in December 1966, which recognizes and affirms the right of all members of the human family of inherent dignity, equal and inalienable rights, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, and on the basis of freedom, justice and peace in the world, i.e. m It is assumed that the member states of the United Nations and the signatories to the Charter and the International Covenant implement these pledges on the ground and abide by them, or at least the basic principles that guarantee this, but the reality makes many citizens seem extremely surprised by that scene, which raises confusion and wonder at the role that is supposed to The United Nations is doing peace and security around the world as the global policeman who protects rights and freedoms and fights crime and conflicts.
- United Nations reform
Amid that absurd scene hitting the planet from north to south and weak citizens ’trust in many aspects of the global system, we find that there are many voices across the world that have started vigorously calling for reforming the United Nations to take a more serious and realistic form of settling crises, and intervene to face humanitarian crises more realistically On the ground to allow a more effective role in protecting the world order, which has begun to be affected strongly by conflicts between countries and blocs that struggle with each other or devour small states without any mercy, any compassion, and among the most prominent and recent voices that emerged during the past simple period to confirm that there are serious intentions Therefore, reform and development is what the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Egypt, Richard Dicks, indicated when he said: “We are on a journey together, a journey to implement the General Assembly’s resolution to initiate the largest reform of the United Nations development system in history.”
Indeed, the first serious attempts to reform the United Nations began in 1963 when the number of non-permanent members of the Security Council increased from 6 to 10, the number of members of the Economic and Social Council also increased twice (in 1963 and 1971), and new attempts to reform emerged that resumed in 1963. 1975 where a special committee for the United Nations Charter was formed to enhance the role of the organization and the Secretary-General of the United Nations presented at the time “Boutros Ghali” in 1992 a vision for reforming the organization to renew its blood and revitalize its global role. Peace “on a set of concepts, including diplomacy Preventive peacemaking, peace-keeping, peace-building, and peace. Also, in 1993, the issue of fairness in representation and membership of the Security Council and the relevant and international issues affecting it were discussed in a new attempt to reform the system of work within the Council.
In 2006, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, presented a report titled “Investing in the United Nations: for a Stronger Organization.” The report discussed “Annan’s proposals” to improve the organization’s ability to deploy and manage peacekeeping operations. All countries take serious action in that framework as an opportunity that may not be compensated by saying, “This is an opportunity, perhaps it will not be repeated again, to transform the United Nations into an organization capable and effective in facing the challenges of the twenty-first century.”
After that, individual voices were enumerated by some countries to advocate the need to take action to reform the organization, and we see this clearly in the invitation of “Liu Zhenmin,” the Chinese Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations in 2008 during his demand before the General Assembly session of the need to reform the Security Council and give priority to increasing the representation of developing countries. Especially the African countries, and in the same context, the President of the Committee on International Relations of the Council of the Russian Federation, “Konstantin Kosachev” announced in 2018, that Moscow is ready to cooperate with the member states of the United Nations, with regard to the file of reform of the organization, and called for the change to be innovative and tangible, as it appeared That too This is evident in the 2013 French proposal that called for controlling the veto in the event of widespread atrocities, and France announced its support for the initiative to reform peacekeeping operations that the United Nations Secretary-General launched to enable it to achieve its goals, and this was confirmed by French President Macron in 2018 when “I look forward to the United Nations becoming more responsible, effective and resilient,” he said. “I fully support the UN Secretary-General’s project and support his ambition and determination to strengthen the organization so that it can meet global challenges.”
More specifically, in January 2017, Secretary-General “Antonio Guterres” made proposals to reform the United Nations from the beginning of his mandate to implement fundamental changes in the areas of development, administration, peace and security.
- The United States and reform
As for the United States of America, its position was different in the era of President “Obama” than his “Trump”. In January 2012, America announced, through “Joe Torsila,” its representative to the United Nations Administration and Reform, its four-part plan to reform the organization through 4 main axes represented in Development and reform, accountability, integrity, and excellence, and at the time directed a strong criticism of the United Nations system of work, saying, “Management systems within the organization are outdated, and there is little more than transparency and accountability, and amazing waste for the mind”, while in the era of the current US President “Donald Trump, “it was different with pictures It is great that he declared that “the future does not belong to those who call for globalization, rather it belongs to patriots” in an invitation to close and care for domestic performance at the expense of international participation and cross-border cooperation, which appeared strongly during his speech before the General Assembly on September 24, 2019, in which he mentioned achievements His internal economic management, ignoring talking about any role of the organization in international issues or reforming and developing the work system within the United Nations to activate its global role.
Some have accused the United States of America of controlling the reins of affairs in the organization but rather directing it according to its own interests to make the organization a new arm that America uses to support its plans and goals around the world, since Washington alone funds about 22% of the general budget of the United Nations, and about 27% of the conservation mission Peace, for the writer “Ali Hassan Bakir” likened that scene to the fact that the United Nations has become like a division of the US State Department, and sometimes the Pentagon, to assure that there will be no real reform of the work system within the organization without a serious and effective American move towards that purpose.
- Crises threatening the work of the organization
Among the most prominent gaps that threaten the system of work within the United Nations is the control of the major powers in decision-making within the organization, in addition to the fact that the countries with the right of “veto” represent the major powers and we do not see any representation of developing countries with their various variants, to put in place the process of making fateful decisions within the council in The hand of 5 countries is only a major state, but one of the countries can intercept, as happens in most cases – we see this clearly and repeatedly when discussing what concerns the Syrian, Libyan, Palestinian and Yemeni crises – to keep the situation from what it is and return to the status of zero due to the interests of some countries, their relations that work To please and protect those who protect Interests regardless of the primary goal of the council, which is to protect international peace and security, and this has had a profound effect in weakening the confidence of many citizens in the organization, given what they witness before them in its transformation of what resembles a “dead fantasy” that stands firm and does not move or interact with anything but rather it is a formality. Only, so that documents, treaties and covenants signed by many member states within the organization’s corridors turn into an archive of memorial papers. Whoever looks at the daily killings in Yemen, Libya and Syria – which occurs as a result of the struggle of the major powers members of the United Nations – is astonished that the organization is satisfied with expressing concern and calling for an end to violence, appeal, Express anxiety, which led some to ask some about the feasibility of the existence of the organization whose main objective is to settle disputes peacefully and maintain international peace and security!!
- Symbolic experience
Personally, he partly differed in the previous proposition of the writer “Ali Bakir” because the interest is what drives the states, and if a consensual vision is established between the major powers or at least has a part, a common path will be shared among all members based on serving the interests of all and stimulating them economically and politically, then it will be likely then. Seeing a serious move on the ground and a realistic activity that comes out of the framework of diplomatic statements, conference tables, seminars, discussions and taking pictures in front of the media, which some have become similar to that scene by re-broadcasting the series several times, so everyone can be tired of following it or even caring about it.
Therefore, I believe that global concern and interaction now with the sustainable development goals that can, if dealt with more seriously, away from resounding media statements, could be a golden opportunity to re-raise the idea of reforming the United Nations in a more serious and harmonious manner among member states, provided that there is an intention in the strong The major reform and development that will benefit its interests around the world, from peace and revitalization of economic cooperation and trade, as well as protecting its trade corridors and the sources of its various economic resources around the world.
Let me present to you a recent personal initiative that might approach that framework, as I submitted my proposals on behalf of my institution before the high-level global political forum for the United Nations 2019 through the forum and the advocacy group of the forum, as well as the group of NGOs in order to put what stresses the necessity Accountability and sensitivity to achieving progress in achieving the sustainable development goals in the position paper presented for discussion within the forum, and it was already found in the draft document emanating from the forum has achieved what has been requested, as I submitted a proposal to create a new committee of the Global Alliance for Partnerships in the Field of Information and Eradication Informatics illiteracy (GAPMIL) – emanating from UNESCO – to be a tool with a new thought and vision that contributes to the development of media work within the alliance for the public benefit of the international media, and has already found a welcome, flexibility and serious follow-up to the idea, which confirms that reform and development process can come through many sub-parties and it is not required to start from the top and the idea of common global interests can be a gateway Gold in parallel with international media interest in sustainable development to achieve that reform, we can rest assured that there is hope for plans and implementation of real reform and development of the United Nations, especially with the increasing challenges that may threaten the entire planet and make humanity in serious danger in the near future.
International conflicts and crisis have increased and the challenges facing the countries of the world have been magnified, some of which have turned into major obstacles that may threaten the entire world order such as climate change, terrorism and armed conflicts, but despite all these challenges, we can hardly see a decisive role for the United Nations on the ground as a result of some political complications and formation The balance of power within the organization, to summarize its role in denunciations, condemnation and expressions of anxiety, amid millions of citizens suffering from wars and various humanitarian crises, which makes it necessary to activate the global role of the United Nations, especially with regard to maintaining security and peace. The internationals, and achieving peaceful cooperation between the different countries of the world did not benefit and benefit mankind, and this will only come through a series of fundamental reforms affecting the organization in the near future.
7.1 It is preferable for the United Nations to use independent experts to prepare an initial plan for the reform of the organization based on activating economic and cultural cooperation between different countries without exception, especially between the conflicting or competing countries, as well as activating the organization’s plans for trade and development and economic cooperation agreements.
7.2 It shouldn’t wait until the reform comes from above, so the organization can start discussing suggestion and ideas for development and reform from the organizations and agencies of the United Nations, civil society and independent experts.
7.3 The necessity of paying attention to the media component and launching campaigns through various media outlets, and Social Media to activate the reform plan, as well as pushing global pressure on member governments to move in that framework.
7.4 Cooperation for reform will start from discussing and activating the points of common interest between countries, while linking them to the reform side, i.e. moving towards reform through incentive agreements for countries to achieve diversified economic cooperation and trade exchange based on mutual benefits.
7.5 It is natural that the organization faces a conflict of interests between reform and development and the interests of some. Likewise, it is expected to face some opposition campaigns and political complications. Therefore, the United Nations must be sufficiently explicit with the international community regarding these complications and their parties and work to stimulate common interests in order to avoid for any conflict between members of the international community.
7.6 Reform should be comprehensive, covering all aspects of the organization, such as the Security Council, as well as laws and what limits the powers of the United Nations, and hinders its work on settling conflicts or facing humanitarian crises.
7.7 The routine may hinder many reform plans, so it is preferable for the organization to move away from some routine procedures and be more clear and transparent with world public opinion, who is awaiting serious movement by the organization to settle many burning conflict files.
7.8 The interest of the international community in the sustainable development goals is the golden opportunity to discuss reform plans and link them to these goals.
7.9 It is not required that the reform be on one stage, but … it can come in several announced stages according to a specific and announced plan and timetable, in order to pave the matter in front of the members of the international community, and for everyone to be able to know the reform and development plans with declared transparency, so that it is a new hope to face Growing global challenges.
7.10 After the United Nations achieves an Initial move Toward at least on the principle of the reform process, the organization can organize an international conference to discuss the plans of each country that survived, and that the conference be announced directly to the media and international public opinion, followed by a statement and a press conference in which officials speak The organization reported the discussions, and its results, in all transparency.
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4- International covenant on civil and political rights, the University of Minnesota.
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7- Embassy of France in Muscat 7- Seventy-third session of the United Nations General, Assembly, 25 Sep 2018.
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11- United to Reform
12- US President Trump says countries have ‘absolute right’ to protect their borders, UN News, 24 Sep 2019.
13- United Nations website