Prepared by the researcher

Dr. Ahmed Brady  – University Center Tamanrasset

Researcher: Ahmed Hamdha PhD student Tamanrasset University Center – Teatch

Source – Democratic Arab Center

Journal of Political Science and Law : Twenty-Second Issue – May 2020

A Periodical International Journal published by the “Democratic Arab Center” Germany – Berlin

Nationales ISSN-Zentrum für Deutschland
ISSN 2566-8056
Journal of Political Science and Law

:To download the pdf version of the research papers, please visit the following link

DOWNLOAD

Summary:

In the context of combating poverty, the Algerian state has taken several political measures to improve the living standards of the poor, help them out of this circle, and free them from poverty. Algeria.

Introduction

Different countries, organizations and governments all over the world strive to combat poverty and reduce it. It is one of the most difficult problems in societies and complexity because it is linked to several different determinants, such as social, political, economic and security conditions. It is a situation in which an individual or society can not earn income. Financial means and the foundations necessary to live within the lowest acceptable levels of well-being within the environment in which they live, and we mean the necessary foundations to provide both financial income and adequate housing, health, food, security and others.

       Algeria, like other countries in the world, is experiencing widespread poverty, especially since the mid-1980s following the economic crisis and low oil prices. The state adopted a policy of economic openness to the free market by attempting economic reforms aimed at obtaining financial balances and improving major economic indicators. Many enterprises layoffs, to high unemployment, high poverty, low standard of living of individuals.

              In the early 2000s, Algeria adopted various strategies to combat poverty, and adopted several support programs to help the individual to meet the minimum necessary requirements and improve his standard of living, from providing employment, even with a limited income, and access to decent housing, in addition to the creation of various unpaid subsidies. Al-Dafa aims to help citizens cover some of the necessary costs that they may not be able to afford. It has also established and strengthenedassistance agencies in combating poverty and unemployment, expanding access, simplifying administrative procedures and eliminating bureaucracy. Fair level of social justice through the adoption of digitalization developing a national database within a network linking all the states of the country, to facilitate the control of subsidies and to avoid duplication of benefit we ask the mainlegal question:To what extentthe legal meganisim are effective to reduce poverty and jobless in Algiers? And what’s the role of Algerain bodies for fight agnaist it?

Statement of the problem

1- In terms of poverty and unemployment?

2 – What is the reality of poverty and unemployment in Algeria?

3 – What are the bodies contributing to the reduction of poverty and unemployment in Algeria?

Significance of the study

The scientific significance of this subject is reflected as a subject of interest to researchers because of its importance in enriching the library as well as its importance in highlighting poverty in Algeria and the extent to which the Algerian state seeks to reduce itsThrough the adoption of strategies and policies that contribute to reducing this phenomenon and the role of national bodies in achieving sustainable development.

Purposes of the study

-Try to highlight the reality of poverty and unemployment in Algeria.
– Analysis of the reality of poverty and unemployment in Algeria.
– Reviewing and evaluating policies and strategies adopted by the State to reduce this phenomenon.
– Highlighting the tasks of the bodies fighting poverty and unemployment in Algeria.

Study hypotheses

– Since the policies adopted by Algeria to achieve economic and social development, this contributes to the reduction of poverty and unemployment.

– Algeria’s success in reducing poverty and unemployment depends on the need to adopt a set of policies, strategies and institutional and regulatory reforms.

Methods of study

Our study of this subject requires reliance on a set of scientific methods. We rely on the case study methodology. We took Algeria as an applied study of the problem of poverty and unemploymentStudying all stages, formulating hypotheses, then collecting, classifying, analyzing and interpreting data.

The statistical approach; where we relied on collecting a lot of information from multiple sources and clarifying the relations between them and followed the following steps began by identifying the problem (poverty and unemployment in Algeria) and then formulate the hypotheses as mentioned earlier and to develop procedural definitions and then collect statistical data and tabulation and presentation and then analyzed and finally we explain it and show that Through our study of some statistics and independent variables and fixed (poverty and unemployment) in Algeria.

To answer this problem, wesuggested a plan:

Chapter one: the programs established in the framework of the fight against poverty.

Section one: school subsidies “School Solidarity Program”.

Section two: Housing Benefits and school health care program.

Section three:The Social Network Program.

Section four: Cells of Solidarity Cells.

Section five: The Program of Covalent Collective Development.

Section sixth: Drivers.

Section Seventh: Other Programs.

Chapter two: the organs and bodies to help fight poverty in Algeria.

 Section one:Ministry of National Solidarity, Family and Women’s Issues

Section two: The Directorate of Social Activity and Solidarity of the State

Section three: The National Employment Agency and others agencies.

Section four: The Social Integration Authority for Certified Youth (CID).

Section five: Social Inclusion Activities Authority (DAIS).

Section sixth: The Social Development Agency (ADS).

Section sevan: The National Agency for Supporting Youth Employment (ANSEJ).

Section eighth: National Agency for Microcredit Management (ANGEM).

Section nine: The National Unemployment Insurance Fund (C NAC).

Section ten: Special Fund for Social Solidarity

Section eleven: National Agency for Investment Development( ANDI)

Chapter one:Programs established within the framework of the fight against poverty.

         In order to alleviate the phenomenon of poverty in Algerian society, the Algerian government has adopted several programs to combat it, aimed at the disadvantaged groups, in order to meet their basic needs at least.

Section one: school subsidies “School Solidarity Program”: In order to enable orphans and children from poor families to continue their education, and in order to enhance learning opportunities among needy families, the State has made several efforts to create school conditions, including:

1 – Financial subsidies: The creation of a special school([1])grant worth two thousand Algerian dinars (2,000 DZD) for every needy child registered in the institutions of the Ministry of National Education and every disabled person in specialized educational institutions as the government also decided to increase the value of the solidarity schooling grant, which currently benefits about Three (03) million pupils, estimated at three thousand (3000 DZD) to five thousand (5000 DZD), which are intended for the benefit of vulnerable groups. The amount of the annual study allowance estimated since 1994 was increased by: 400 DZ and its valuation to 3,000 DZ For each child in the three phases([2]), primary, intermediate and secondary to benefit from this allowance more Of the nine (09) million teachers, the municipalities will pay this grant to parents without income through the Social Solidarity Fund for Local Communities, which confirms the will of the state to stand by these groups and help them in order to ensure the same levels of sponsorship and good preparation and granting the same opportunities and opportunities Excel in their studies[3].

2 – school tools: where benefited in 2011 about 2579859 pupils from the portfolios and coveralls and various tools.

  1. Providing school transport: By encouraging municipalities to conclude agreements with private partners to ensure school transport, the number of buses allocated for this year reached 4565 buses.

4 – Free textbook: Where the benefit of the needy pupils and sons of the sector of the textbooks for free.

5 -The provision of school feeding: The provision of free feeding service in the three phases of a student, especially in remote and isolated areas, where the year 2012 subsidies for school restaurants amounted to 14.21 billion dinars.

6-School Health: where the provision of health service in the school district is composed of general practitioners, psychologists and dentists in addition to paramedical staff, where 1294 teams were registered in 2014 consisting of 1487 general practitioners, 721 psychiatrists, 1311 dental surgeons and 1868 Paramedical aid([4]).

       Through the above we note the serious will of the Algerian state to take care of the vulnerable and disadvantaged groups and help them, to ensure the entry of natural and good teachers for their children and enable them to provide school supplies and ensure transportation for the enrollment of teachers in their schools, especially in remote areas by strengthening the municipalities of their residence by all means necessary for that. In order to enable the parents of the student to provide the necessary supplies.

To educate their children, through raising the value of grants and study allowances in line with economic and social developments.

Section two: Housing Benefits To expand access to housing after the promulgation of the 1989 Constitution, Algeria adopted a new approach in the field of housing through the adoption of the real estate promotion activity, which aims to open the door to all public and private dealers in order to participate in the completion of housing for those with a substantial income. The State’s interest in helping the needy and middle-income groups to benefit from housing as the most prevalent has turned to the completion of housing financed entirely from the state budget allocated to the needy groups, which benefit in the form of monthly rental contracts payable. As for the middle classes, the State has established the National Housing Fund (CNL), which provides financial assistance and management to enable the beneficiary to acquire ownership of social housing([5]):

 1 – Social Housing Program: This program came to meet the needs of the population in the period between 1962 and 1977 financed by States with a budget determined by the size of the project, but in the current period is directed to the vulnerable groups living in tin houses or houses have been sabotaged by natural disasters Or other where the income of the beneficiary family must not exceed the national average per capita income.

2-Covalent social housing program: A person benefits from this type of housing after submitting an application and paying an estimated amount according to income and housing area, where he is granted a loan provided that he has not benefited from social housing or support from before and does not own a piece of land Its own.

3 – Development program housing: This program was developed in accordance with the joint ministerial instruction No. 008 / KJW / and on 01/03/1995 and instruction No. 01 / KJ / / and on 08/04/1997, and is directed Also for vulnerable low-income groups and residents of tin houses, this program is funded by the World Bank, but what is raised in this program is that the beneficiaries do not have the necessary funds to develop it and thus remain in the same form and space granted.

  1. Rent-by-Rent Program: This type of housing was introduced in 2001 to alleviate and support the applications received on the other types mentioned earlier. It is characterized by the beneficiary obtaining ownership of the house through monthly repayments. The national limit and not exceeding five (05) times, to be paid within a maximum period of 25 years without the age of 70 years and to be paid the first amount in four stages estimated at: 25% of the sale price.

The amount of the subsidy granted by the Fund is estimated at 700,000 Algerian dinars (700,000 DZD). Acquisition of two million and eight hundred thousand Algerian dinars (2.800.000 DZD)

If the subsidy is for restoration and / or expansion, the amount is determined on the basis of a prior study approved by the competent departments of the Ministry of Housing, but the amount of assistance does not exceed 700,000 Algerian dinars (700,000 DZD)([6]).

Section three: The Social Network Program a program created under Article 04 of Executive Decree No. 94-336 of October 24, 1994, addressed to the poor segments of the population. This program includes compensation for persons without income within the framework of activities of public interest and the reward of solidarity:

1 – Compensation program for activities of public benefit: It is a process of employment for young people of working age in the municipality workshops in activities of public benefit that respond to the concerns of the population or their needs, especially what was in the interest of people, groups or society, and these activities are designed to support youth And improve the lives of disadvantaged and vulnerable citizens living in socially disadvantaged areas. This compensation shall be granted to the benefit of disadvantaged social groups and shall be used for a member or members of a family without any specific condition except that the member is of legal age for work and is unemployed in return for a monthly compensation determined by a joint ministerial decree between the Minister in charge of Social Protection and the Minister of Finance. The Fund supports the disadvantaged social groups to contribute to the coverage of work accidents to which the beneficiaries are exposed. The amount of compensation for the activities of public benefit in 2001 was set at 3000 DZD per beneficiary after it was estimated at 2800 DZD between 1995 and 2000 to reach 5000 DZD in 2011([7]).

  1. Indemnity Bonus for Solidarity: This is a direct subsidy created by Executive Decree No. 96-353 of October 19, 1996, supplementing Decree No. 94-336 of October 24, 1994, relating to the granting of social network compensation, intended for the unemployed and not You can benefit from the income derived from participation in activities of public interest, this grant is estimated at 3000 Algerian dinars with an additional amount of 120 Algerian dinars, which is paid monthly to each beneficiary for each person under the sponsorship of the beneficiary, provided that the number does not exceed three (03) Persons, all persons concerned as well as those with rights shall benefit from the grant The following categories benefit from this benefit:

Heads of families or persons living alone, without income, over 60 years of age;

Heads of families or persons living alone without any income, physically or mentally disabled who are unable to work;

– Women are heads of families without income, whatever their age;

– Blind persons who are paid equal to or less than the guaranteed national minimum wage;

– persons over 60 years of age who are not in competent institutions and who are not benefiting from any financial resources, sponsored by low-income families;

– disabled and incurable patients over 18 years of age who are chronically ill and have a disability card and do not have any financial resources;

– Low-income families who provide for one or several persons with disabilities who are under the age of 18 and do not have any financial resources and hold a disability card.

Through this program, the seriousness of the support of the various disadvantaged groups, especially the disabled and the non-income groups, is noticed. The main objective of this program is the social integration of the needy and the promotion of social harmony while guaranteeing their basic social rights.

Section fourCells of Solidarity Cells (CPS): This program was created by an executive decree no.08/307, A specialized engineer in agriculture or economist depending on the area of intervention of the cell, and a driver([8]).

 The creation of these cells aims to ([9]):

– Identify areas and pockets of poverty to which the activities of the Social Development Agency will be directed;

– Identifying and counting the needs of disadvantaged populations;

Accompanying disadvantaged persons to benefit from the benefits and services provided for in the legislation in force;

Accompanying disadvantaged population groups and associations in identifying and completing local development projects([10]).

 Section five: The Program of Covalent Collective Development (DEV-COM): This program is initiated and financed by the Social Development Agency on the basis of socio-economic projects identified by the neighboring cells of solidarity with the contribution of the population and their representatives. Deprived and waiting for the state to respond to its basic requirements. This program came as a contribution to the fight against poverty and deprivation and to improve the living conditions of disadvantaged groups and encourage collective vigilance among them, through the completion of the work of small grassroots facilities that respond to their initial need and the objectives of this program are([11]):

– Targeting disadvantaged areas and the most disadvantaged populations;

– Identify projects that respond to the needs expressed by beneficiaries;

– Selection and implementation of socio-economic projects of small size and simple technology;

– ensure the participation of beneficiaries at a specified rate of 10 percent of the total project cost;

-Encourages the beneficiaries to organize themselves for the purpose of following up the completion of projects as well as the exploitation of grassroots facilities as soon as they are completed.

The Agency has completed 2920 contribution projects since its inception until 31 December 2016 at an estimated cost of 8093 million dinars. These projects took the following forms([12]):

-1122 small-scale projects in irrigation, hygiene and public health;

-6 596 projects in public and rural lighting;

-7 297 projects in the rehabilitation and maintenance of solidarity sector centers, health and neighborhood bases;

– 218 projects in different fields and networks;

– 210 social and cultural sports projects;

-189 projects in the field of opening of routes and isolation;

– 167 projects in neighborhood health facilities;

– 79 projects in the field of social projects “productive activities”;

-40 projects in the field of rehabilitation and maintenance of schools.

-Two environmental projects

Section sixth: Drivers

1- Pre-Employment Contracts Program (CPE): It is one of the programs that aim to provide job opportunities for young job seekers for the first time without professional experience and holders of higher education certificates and unemployed high technicians. This program is run by the Youth Employment Delegation, which aims to ensure and encourage job offers, encourage the integration of young graduates in the labor market and encourage employees to employ them([13]).

  1. The Local Employment Initiative Program (ESIL): This program was adopted in 1990 to alleviate unemployment by introducing a new youth employment formula. This program aims to establish paid employment with local institutions or administration on a local initiative for a period ranging from three months to twelve months. Jobs in the service sector([14]).

3 – Local Initiative Seasonal Works Program: This program is designed to create intensive job positions with the aim of integrating young people without qualifications into temporary jobs at the level of their municipality to gain experience enabling them to obtain a permanent job position([15]).

  1. TUPHIMO: This program aims to help vulnerable and disadvantaged groups of society by creating a large number of temporary jobs that do not require a high level of technology or huge equipment in workshops concerned with the preservation of the environment, forests, care of road networks and irrigation. By agreement between the Ministry of Interior and Local Communities, the Ministry in charge of Urban Development and the Ministry in charge of Labor([16]).

5.Algeria White: With the participation of associations and local authorities, this program aims to encourage young people seeking employment without income and without qualification, especially those excluded from the school system, in order to create profitable micro-activities for the benefit of these young people in the area of cleaning neighborhoods and beaches. In the summer season. This program is part of the Public Works Program, which requires intensive labor. To achieve the “White Algiers” project, which aims to improve the citizens’ environment and create intensive jobs for unemployed youth, three national agencies are responsible for the flexible and effective financing of this project: Social Development Agency ANSEJ, National Youth Employment Support Agency and ANGEM. As for temporary and non-profit projects, they are financed by the Social Development Agency (ADS) through the Public Works Agency for intensive labor use. As for the permanent profitable projects, in the case where the cost of the project ranges from 50,000 to 400,000 DZ, the youth are directed by the State Steering Committee. For the project “White Algiers” to the National Agency for Microcredit Management ANGEM, but when the amount is more than 400,000 Dz, young people are directed to the National Agency to support youth employment([17]).

 Section Seventh: Other Programs

1 – Program to maintain the positions of employment and withdrawal from the activity: Through this program is compensated unemployment unemployment as a result of legal suspension of the activity of the user or because of layoffs because of economic, where The monthly compensation granted to the beneficiary is 7,000 DZD (7000 DZD), a small amount that does not meet the basic requirements of individuals ([18]).

 – Family grants program and compensation for the single wage: These programs grant additional income to families whose employers are wage workers or pensioners where family grants are paid to those who sponsor children of minors.

– The social security system programs are based on:

The national social security system which covers work accidents, diseases, occupational diseases, deaths, etc.

– Compensation system and paid holidays.

-Pension system.

– Unemployment insurance system through deductible contributions from participants([19]).

4 – Projects of the Zakat Fund: a body operating under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Endowments, started its activity in 2112, where he works to collect the funds of Zakat and distribution to the beneficiaries, a basic project with an Islamic solidarity dimension This project depends mainly on one resource, Zakat.

5 – Shops for the benefit of the unemployed youth distributed across the municipalities: is a presidential project comprising 011 stores in each municipality aims to employ young people and eliminate unemployment on the one hand and raise the level of Algerian trade on the other.

6 – National Agricultural Development Program A.D.N.P: It is an agricultural program aimed at achieving food self-sufficiency in addition to providing employment opportunities for young people.

7 – Solidarity operations for the month of Ramadan: where contribute to this charity mainly:

 The Ministry of National Solidarity, Family and Women’s Issues: It partially contributes to financing the solidarity process of Ramadan through investigations conducted by the neighboring cells of solidarity of the Social Development Agency, as well as lists of beneficiaries of social subsidies located at the level of the directorates of social activity and solidarity. During which the needy citizens are concerned with benefiting from Ramadan subsidies.

 B- The Ministry of Interior and Local Communities: which finance the operation with the intervention of the Special Fund for National Solidarity within the limits of 6% to 8%, and the rest is sponsored by the benefactors and private individuals. At the municipal level, the municipal people’s councils install municipal committees in charge of implementing the solidarity process. They are weak incomes([20]).

C-Directorate of Social Activity and Solidarity at the State Level: Under the supervision of the governors, the directors conduct social activity and solidarity at the state level with all procedures related to the acquisition of food parcels for the contribution of the sector, which are complementary to the efforts of local groups in this area by supporting poor, isolated or witnessed municipalities. Budget deficit. The contribution of the National Solidarity Sector through the Special Fund for National Solidarity for 2017 was set at 780 million Algerian Dinars, distributed([21]).

Across the states based on the number of indigent persons registered with the state social and solidarity directorates([22]).

The total cost of the solidarity operation for the month of Ramadan for 2017 was about 7.797,310,506.15 DZD([23]).

8 – Ramadan supplies program: It is a subsidy that was previously provided in the form of basic foodstuffs during the holy month of Ramadan provided by the municipality to needy families, and was replaced with a financial amount of 6000 Algerian dinars within the ministerial joint decision between the Ministry of Interior, Finance and Solidarity and the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications Dated 16 April 2019. The process is financed through the municipal budgets and in the event of a deficit, the statebudgets, the contribution of the Special Fund for National Solidarity, the potential contributions of the Ministry of Religious Affairs, Endowments, and possible donations to public beneficiaries and the properties placed in a special account, shall be considered as a confirmation of the state to preserve the dignity of the citizen. Eliminating the queues, saving time, and ensuring that the subsidy reaches its beneficiaries before the beginning of Ramadan, as well as facilitating financial control of this process([24]).

Chapter two: Bodies and bodies to help fight poverty in Algeria.

       In this section, we will discuss the most important instruments that have been developed to help the unemployed to rise and invest, as well as to stand with other vulnerable groups such as the disabled and low-income people, in the context of poverty reduction and local development, as follows:

Section one: Ministry of National Solidarity, Family and Women’s Issues: It is concerned with all activities related to solidarity, family, women’s issues and social development. The Executive Decree No. 13-134 dated 29 Jumada 1434 corresponding to April 10, 2013, has defined the powers of the Minister of National Solidarity, Family and Women’s Issues among the most important of these. Powers to mention:

– Propose a national strategy for the protection and promotion of persons with disabilities, within a cross-sectorial framework;

– Support all actions aimed at ensuring, protecting and promoting disadvantaged groups and improving their living conditions

– propose programs of action aimed at protecting and promoting the family, women, the elderly, children and adolescents, especially the disadvantaged or in a difficult social situation, as well as programs of solidarity towards youth and their implementation, in liaison with the relevant sectors;

– Propose, develop and implement mechanisms and tools to combat poverty, exclusion and marginalization, alleviate social vulnerability, and promote and maintain social cohesion;

– Identify and implement programs specifically targeted to social groups in a difficult or disadvantaged situation, in liaison with State institutions, relevant sectors and the association movement;

-develop activities that can generate resources to combat poverty and contribute to the social and professional integration of population groups in a difficult social situation, within the framework of assistance and solidarity mechanisms and programs([25]).

Section two: The Directorate of Social Activity and Solidarity of the State: The Directorate of Social Activity and Solidarity of the State shall develop and implement all measures that will frame activities related to the social activity of the State and national solidarity and ensure their follow-up and control([26]).

In this capacity, it shall be charged, in particular, with the following:

  • Entitled Social Activity of the State([27]):

– ensuring the application of legislation and regulation in the fields related to social activities;

– Developed, in liaison with local authorities, an information service on social needs assessment and disadvantaged groups and persons with disabilities;

– Organizing the State Social Assistance Administration;

– framing the implementation of the Direct Assistance and Support System for the benefit of disadvantaged and / or disabled social groups,

– Ensure the application of measures and programs of protection, education and specialized education and ensure that all categories of persons with disabilities are included;

– Implement all measures to promote the integration and development of school, social and vocational integration of persons with disabilities;

– Development and implementation of assistance and assistance programs for persons in difficult situations, especially women in difficult situations,

-Ensuring the implementation of social and post-emergency measures for social groups in a difficult situation;

-Implement, in liaison with relevant sectors, assistance and support programs and measures for disadvantaged families,

– Ensure the provision of the necessary means and structures to ensure the deprivation of children from the public and private family and ensure their follow-up and monitoring and work for their social and family reintegration;

– Ensure that the necessary means are taken to ensure that adolescent children are placed in a difficult social situation and / or at moral risk and are ensured.

  • National Solidarity([28]):

– Framing, activating and coordinating national solidarity programs for disadvantaged social groups, evaluating their implementation and measuring their impact;

– Encourage all measures to promote the expression and solidarity of national solidarity through gifts and bequests;

– Identify and assess in liaison with relevant sectors the needs in the field of national solidarity

– Ensuring the implementation of programs aimed at covalent collective development;

– Promoting and organizing public awareness activities to combat poverty and vulnerability and exclusion;

– Ensure intersectoral coordination within the implementation of the national strategy to combat poverty and exclusion;

Section three: The National Employment Agency: The National Employment Agency is a privately run public corporation subject to the provisions of Executive Decree No. 06/77 of 17 Muharram 1427, corresponding to 18 February 2006.

The Agency acts as a mediator between job offers and applications registered at its card level, and helps regulate knowledge of the status and development of the national labor market.

It also implements the State employment policy as an action plan to promote employment and combat unemployment.

  • National agency structures ([29]):

1- The Directorate General: The role of the Directorate General of the National Agency for Employment is to apply relations, legal consultations, and technical supervision and to collect information about the labor market through its external structures where it is addressed.

  1. Regional Employment Agencies: Their regional jurisdiction extends to several states. It is a bridge between the Directorate General and external structures (state agencies, local agencies) and aims to ensure the decentralized management of posts and resources established in accordance with the policy of sharing responsibility between the Directorate General and external structures and provide technical support and management to state and local agencies to deal with the problems they face daily to ensure the proper conduct of activities.
  2. State Employment Agencies: The main cell in the organization of the National Employment Agency, where it receives its clients, whether job seekers or employees, whose tasks are summarized as follows:

– Searching for work for every person who requests it according to his required qualifications.

– Implementation of hardware and software for local operation with companies and this work is provided by the interest of users.

– Provide technical support in administrative follow-up: processing job offers, calling and following up job seekers.

– Contribute to the implementation of the promotion of employment policy submitted by the State.

  1. Local agencies: are considered as annexes or facilities of the state characterized by a high percentage of population density and activities. Local agencies come at the last level in the organization of NEA structures. Be at the district or municipal level; specialize in finding jobs wherever they are and directing job offers to the resident population.

The functions of the National Employment Agency are to organize, provide and develop the national labor market and the labor force and to ensure that every applicant or employee has an effective and personalized employment service([30]).

Section four: The Social Integration Authority for Certified Youth (CID): This program is designed to integrate young university graduates who are enrolled for the first time in the field of work under Executive Decree No. 98-402 as amended by Executive Decree No. 08-127 concerning the Social Integration Organization for Certificate Holders. Amended by Executive Decree No. 09-305 of 10/09/2009 and also amended by Executive Decree No. 12-78 of 12/02/2012, where priority is given in this program to non-income certificate holders who are inactive or in a position Fragile or disabled people in the context of protecting families from poverty and exclusion Social. The 2012 amendment required the beneficiary to be between 18 and 60 years of age, thus the legislator expanded the beneficiary community from 18 to 40 years ago.

One year in the amendment of 2009, the beneficiaries of this body shall be incorporated into the activities of their certification or qualification with public and private institutions and departments, public and private organizations and institutions for all sectors. The integration period is two years, renewable twice with a maximum period of six years where the beneficiary receives monthly compensation It is estimated that six thousand dinars. This program, although cheap and temporary, can notprovide the head of a family and a child from access to the lowest standards of decent living([31]).

Section five: Social Inclusion Activities Authority (DAIS): This organization aims to ensure social inclusion in temporary employment positions resulting from public or social services or services initiated by each community for persons aged between 18 and 60 who are in A particularly vulnerable social situation for school dropouts, which was created by Executive Decree No. 09-305 of September 10, 2009, amended and supplemented by Executive Decree No. 12-79 of February 12, 2012, in which the Compact benefits from social security performance in the area of sponsorship, maternity , Accidents at work and occupational diseases, according The applicable regulation is a grant of 6,000 DZD per month for two years, renewable twice([32]).

Section sixth : The Social Development Agency (ADS) was established by Executive Decree No. 96-232 of June 29, 1996 with the aim of alleviating the vulnerable and vulnerable social groups by restructuring the program by setting measures and programs to combat poverty and unemployment. As one of its main objectives, it supervises two basic programs([33]), namely the Social Support and Assistance Program and the Employment and Integration Program.

– Financing projects that have economic and social benefits.

– Promoting and financing all operations directed to the needy social groups ([34]).

Section sevan: The National Agency for Supporting Youth Employment (ANSEJ) is a new institution and mechanism of employment in Algeria for the employment of unemployed youth and the reduction of unemployment rates. This body works to assist in the establishment of micro-enterprises and training to support the establishment of activities([35]), established by Executive Decree No. 96- 296 of September 08, 1996, supplemented by Executive Decree No. 98 231 of July 13, 1998, as amended and supplemented by Executive Decree No. 03-288 of September 6, 2003. Its organization is based on local structures in the form of state branches and subdivisions of state branches distributed throughout the national territory. This propagation allows piety B) Young citizens who are entrepreneurs and respond to their aspirations.They take upon themselves the reception, guidance and training of young people with projects and assisting them ([36]). There are 53 branches at the national level. The latter provide two forms of financing: the bilateral funding formula, in which the beneficiary and the agency contribute only to the financing of the project. The tripartite in which each beneficiary, the Agency and the Bank, contributes to the financing process, of its functions[37]:

– provide financial support and advice to project holders;

– Accompany young people with the idea of establishing an institution until the actual embodiment of their projects;

– Ensure immediate follow-up of micro-enterprises to ensure their sustainability;

– Sensitization and dissemination of entrepreneurship culture;

Sensitization and dissemination of entrepreneurship culture;

– Provide training to entrepreneurs in accordance with the ILO methodology.

Section eighth: National Agency for Microcredit Management (ANGEM): This arrangement was established in 1997 and was administered for several years by the Social Development Agency. This arrangement was revisited in 2003 by the establishment of a specialized body([38]), the National Agency for Microcredit Management under Executive Decree 04-14 of 22 In January 2004, the Ministry of Employment and National Solidarity([39]), is one of the mechanisms adopted to solve the problem of unemployment for those who do not work or do temporary work, and who want to create a self-employment position. The value of the loan ranges from AED 50,000 350.000 edge repayment duration ranging from 12 to 60 months ([40]).

Section nine: The National Unemployment Insurance Fund (C NAC) This Fund was established by Executive Decree No. 94-188 of 06 July 1994 in implementation of Legislative Decree No. 94-01 of 11 May 1994, to protect persons threatened by involuntary loss of employment for economic purposes. By Executive Decree No. 04-01 of January 03, 2004, supplementing Executive Decree No. 94-188, the system provides for unemployed entrepreneurs between the ages of 35 and 50 to change the age from 30 to 50 years under Presidential Decree No. 10-156 of 20 June 2010([41]), this fund is concerned with unemployed persons who have involuntarily lost their jobs for reasons of relevance Solution as a result of congenital institutions or reduce the size of the workers in terms of this fund ensures preservation of employment and the protection of wage earners([42]).

 Section ten: Special Fund for Social Solidarity: Founded in 1993, this Fund constitutes an important pillar in the fight against marginalization and exclusion of poverty by intervening in many sectors, which enable it to integrate disadvantaged populations into the social and economic environment by:

– Development of isolated areas;

– Improving the living conditions of the inhabitants of disadvantaged areas by contributing to the improvement of access to basic social services such as schooling, treatment, safe drinking water, etc.

– Ensure disadvantaged populations such as persons with disabilities, the elderly, children in difficult situations and homeless persons.

– providing assistance to associations of a social nature through the financing of association projects.

This fund also intervenes in:

– School solidarity activities (school transport, grants, school supplies, meals for school children, equipping school departments with various mobile devices, heating, etc.)

– Solidarity activities during Ramadan such as opening restaurants for needy families.

-Housing assistance for disadvantaged social groups.

– Connect to potable water, sanitation, natural gas and electricity networks in disadvantaged and isolated rural areas ([43]).

Section eleven: National Agency for Investment Development ANDI In order to facilitate the completion of investment projects and provide maximum support and assistance to investors, after criticism directed to the Promotion and Support Agency for Investment established by Legislative Decree No. 93-12, the Algerian legislator remedied the situation by issuing the order Presidential Decree No. 01-03 of 20 August 2001 (abrogated) relating to the development of the modified investment and complemented by Order No. 06-08 of 15 July 2006, where he established a new body on investment regulation called the National Agency for Investment Development, in accordance with Article 06 thereof. “A national investment development agency called the agency is established.” It is a public institution in the service of local and foreign investors and the main tool for attracting capital and foreign direct investment, publicizing and promoting the existing investment opportunities in Algeria, and helping to create jobs through direct employment to absorb unemployment and support youth employment[44].

Conclusion:

All in All   The State has diversified into subsidies for vulnerable groups and has been introduced in the context of facilitating multi-agency procedures, but the absence of a prudent strategy has rendered these efforts futile and useless.

Most of the subsidies are very modest when compared to the huge income and the proportion of people in need, in addition to, and many of them do not reach the actual beneficiaries due to rampant corruption resulting from lack of control and inspection.

despite the many programs, but many of them proved their weakness in achieving social development in fact and effective, and this is due to the weakness of the organs in the management, as many of the aid was spent without any tribal study, once the young man to provide a simple file gives the loan, and more importantly, the absence of censorship after Grants, which led to the failure of most projects, and the inability of beneficiaries to pay debts, which is a waste of public money.

 As for housing programs, despite all the subsidies that have been introduced in this area, we find that the citizen focuses mostly on obtaining social rental housing, since other formulas require a personal financial contribution at a time when construction materials and labor prices are terribly high. Most of the beneficiaries of the subsidies have been unable to complete their homes due to the low value of the subsidy, which covers only 40% of the construction costs.

     we say that the promotion of development in the Algerian society and the fight against poverty require the State to stand and rationalize expenditures and create financial balances in the amounts granted as subsidies almost representing poverty in particular, if we note the amounts granted to the elderly and the unemployed, for example, these amounts do not guarantee the minimum dignity of the citizen or The basic requirements are met, the amount of 100 dinars per day for those groups receiving a subsidy of 3000 dirhams per month at the present time is a challenge to survive, and in this context, we appreciate the new decisions that resulted from the last meeting of the Algerian government on: 11/9/2019, regarding the lifting of the disability benefit. To 10.00 Despite the insufficiency of the DZ, other disadvantaged groups are also waiting for the attention of the states to preserve their dignity.

     The granting of state support by the designated agencies should be based on a forward-looking tribal approach, as well as remote monitoring and project tracking to avoid their failure, as is the case with most of the assistance given to young people by several state institutions including: ANSEJ, ANGEM, C NAC … and others.

Research references:

– Asdaa Magazine – Issue No. 2 – for covalent collective development programs – March 2017.

– Exclusive and irrigation Nadia, analysis and measurement of poverty in Algeria, Master Note in Economic Sciences, University of Mentouri Constantine, 2009.

Fatima Boussalem and NidalYadroug, Employment Policy in Algeria between Ruling Objectives and Achieved Results, Journal of Research and Commercial Studies, Issue No. 2, 2017.

– Abbas Widad, The Role of Sustainable Development Policy in Poverty Reduction Case Study Algeria-Jordan-Yemen, PhD Thesis in Economic Sciences, Farhat Abbas Setif University, 2018.

– BoustaEman, Rules of intervention of the National Housing Fund in the field of financial support for families, Mohammed Khayder University of Biskra, Thinker Magazine No. 11, September 2014.

– BouzarSafia, the effectiveness and implications of employment policy on unemployment and poverty in Algeria during the period 1990-2014, University

Center Tipaza, 2014.

– BoudjemaaKoussa, Employment Policy in Algeria, “Pre-Employment Contracts as a Temporary Measurement to Reduce Unemployment”, Master Note on Human Development, Mohamed Khedr University, Biskra, 2006.

– Chellali Fares, The Role of Employment Policy in Addressing the Unemployment Problem in Algeria 2001-2004, Master Note in Economic Sciences, University of Algiers, 2005.

– Jaji Fatima, The Problem of Poverty in Algeria in Algeria’s Development Programs 2005-2014, PhD Thesis in Economic Sciences, Mohamed Khedr University, Biskra, 2014.

– Kalai Samira, Role of the Directorate of Social Activity and Solidarity in the Protection of Family and Children, Memorandum for obtaining a Master’s Degree in Family Law and Child Rights, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Oran, University Year 2013-2014.

– Linda Kohl El-Ras, Employment Policy and Labor Market in Algeria, 2000-2010, Master Note in Economic Sciences, University of Algiers 3,2014.

– Siham and Nasi, Urban Growth and the Problem of Housing and Housing, Master Note in Urban Sociology, HadjLakhdarBatna University, 2009.

_Presidential Decree No. 2000-270 of September 19, 2000 establishes a special scholarship for the benefit of school children and disadvantaged, dated 20 September 2000.

Executive Decree No. 08-307 of 27 Ramadan 1429 corresponding to 27 September 2008, O.G No 56 dated 28/09/2008.

– Executive Decree No. 10-128 of 28/04/2010, O.G : No. 29 dated 02/05/2010

Executive Decree No. 13-134 of April 10, 2013, O.G : No. 20 dated 21/04/2013..

Executive Decree No. 19-239 of 04/09/2019, fixing the amount of the study allowance,O.G No. 53 dated 04/09/2019.

– https://www.ennaharonline.com.

– https: //www.msnfcf.gov.dz/? p = dispositif_activ_inser_soc.

https://www.ansej.dz/salem2018/index.

– https://www.msnfcf.gov.dz/?p=action_solidarite_ramadan

– https://elmaouid.net/6.

 ([1])Article 01 Presidential Decree No. 2000-270 of September 19, 2000 establishes a special scholarship for the benefit of school children and disadvantaged JR No. 56 p.

4 dated 20 September 2000.

([2])Article 02 of Executive Decree No. 19-239 of 04/09/2019, fixing the amount of the study allowance,O.G No. 53 dated 04/09/2019.

 ([3])  (Posted 01/09/2019 Date 10/09/2019) https://www.ennaharonline.com.

([4])Abbas Widad, The Role of Sustainable Development Policy in Poverty Reduction Case Study Algeria-Jordan-Yemen, PhD Thesis in Economic Sciences, Farhat Abbas Setif University, 2018, p. 159.

([5]) Siham and Nasi, Urban Growth and the Problem of Housing and Housing, Master Note in Urban Sociology, HadjLakhdarBatna University, 2009, p. 106.

([6]) BoustaEman, Rules of intervention of the National Housing Fund in the field of financial support for families, Mohammed Khayder University of Biskra, Thinker Magazine No. 11, September 2014,

([7]) Jaji Fatima, The Problem of Poverty in Algeria in Algeria’s Development Programs 2005-2014, PhD Thesis in Economic Sciences, Mohamed Khedr University, Biskra, 2014 p 167.

 ([8]) Article 07 of the Executive Decree No. 08-307 of 27 Ramadan 1429 corresponding to 27 September 2008, O.G No 56 dated 28/09/2008.

([9]) Article 08 of the same resolution.

([10]) Article 02 of the same resolution.

([11]) Asdaa Magazine – Issue No. 2 – for covalent collective development programs – March 2017

([12]) Asdaa Magazine – Issue No. 2 ibid.

([13]) BoudjemaaKoussa, Employment Policy in Algeria, “Pre-Employment Contracts as a Temporary Measurement to Reduce Unemployment”, Master Note on Human Development, Mohamed Khedr University, Biskra, 2006, p. 87.

([14])Haji Fatima previous reference, P168.

([15]) Haji Fatima, ibid, P, 168.

([16]) Chellali Fares, The Role of Employment Policy in Addressing the Unemployment Problem in Algeria 2001-2004, Master Note in Economic Sciences, University of Algiers, 2005, p, 100.

([17]) Ben Kreina Mohamed Hamza A. Farahat, Assessment of the role of financial institutions in financing environmental projects in Algeria.

([18]) Exclusive and irrigation Nadia, analysis and measurement of poverty in Algeria, Master Note in Economic Sciences, University of Mentouri Constantine, 2009, p 127.

([19]) An inventory and irrigation Nadia, previous reference p 126.

([20])previous reference p 126.

([21]) ibid

([22]) ibid

([23])https://www.msnfcf.gov.dz/?p=action_solidarite_ramadan, Date of review 10/10/2019.

([24]) https://elmaouid.net/6, Date of review 12/10/2019.

([25]) Article 02 of Executive Decree No. 13-134 of April 10, 2013, O.G : No. 20 dated 21/04/2013.

([26]) Article 02 of Executive Decree No. 10-128 of 28/04/2010, O.G : No. 29 dated 02/05/2010.

([27]) Article 02 of the same resolution

([28])  Article 02 of Executive Decree No. 10-128, previous reference.

([29]) https://ansej.dz/salem2018/index.php/en/2018-01-15-09-46-53/ Date of review 12/10/2019.

([30]) https://ansej.dz/salem2018/index.php/en/2018-01-15-09-46-53/ Date of review 12/10/2019.

([31]) Kalai Samira, Role of the Directorate of Social Activity and Solidarity in the Protection of Family and Children, Memorandum for obtaining a Master’s Degree in Family Law and Child Rights, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Oran, University Year 2013-2014 p 24

([32]) ttps: //msnfcf.gov.dz/? p = dispositif_activ_inser_soc, Date of review 13/09/2019.

([33]) Fatima Boussalem and NidalYadroug, Employment Policy in Algeria between Ruling Objectives and Achieved Results, Journal of Research and Commercial Studies, Issue No. 2, 2017, p13.

([34]) Linda Kohl El-Ras, Employment Policy and Labor Market in Algeria, 2000-2010, Master Note in Economic Sciences, University of Algiers 3,2014, p. 82

([35])BouzarSafia, the effectiveness and implications of employment policy on unemployment and poverty in Algeria during the period 1990-2014, University Center Tipaza, 2014, p560.

([36]) Linda Kohl head, previous reference, P 81.

([37]) Fatima Bousalem and NidalYadrouj previous reference, P14.

([38]) Haji Fatima, previous reference, p169.

([39]) Linda Kohl head, ibid, P82.

([40])BouzarSafiyya, previous reference, p560.

([41]) Linda Kohl head, previous reference, p80.

([42]) BouzarSafiyya, ibid, p 560.

([43]) Haji Fatima, previous reference, P171.

([44]) Linda Kohl head, previous reference, P87.