The variables and determinants that control the interpretation of international interactions and relations vary and religion occupies an important place in various political studies.
The conflict on the border between Azerbaijan and Armenia was not a surprise to those who know the history of the conflict between them.
The French-Turkish tension has clearly escalated recently, which is evidenced by the mutual accusations of each other as a result of their conflicting interests in Libya.
No one can ignore the importance of the Middle East region to the world as a whole or to Turkey, which is part of it in particular, and this comes through Turkey’s important location
Since the coup attempt in 2016, bilateral relations between Ankara and Tehran have witnessed a major boost.
This paper drives at studying two significant aspects of the reformation in the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: The first is to trace back the foundations of secularist trends in the Ottoman Empire