Terrorist incidents are no longer just individual incidents, but they have become an inherent phenomenon in the modern world, which has prompted researchers and academics to try to define, interpret, understand its causes, and develop theories to explain it. Its causes have varied as well as its definitions, and in this research, terrorism will be dealt with through its linguistic and idiomatic definitions, causes, development, types, and measures taken To treat it .
The research question : What is terrorism and when did it begin to appear? What are the causes? And its types? And how it was fought
The linguistic meaning of terrorism
The word terrorism refers in general to any person who tries to support his views by coercion, threat or intimidation, and the ancient dictionaries have not exposed the word terrorism in the Arabic language, and some of this is because it is a recent word and was not known in the old and in modern dictionaries. The word terrorism comes from a fear that is terrorizing terrorism and its origin It is taken from the triple verb, terror, where Ibn Manzur said: (phobia fear fear and phobia: that is, fear, terror, fear, and awe: fear and fear) and thus it is clear that the word terrorism refers to the meaning of fear or intimidation. From the Holy Qur’an: “O children of Israel, remember my grace which I have blessed with you, and fulfill my pledge, fulfill my covenant, fulfill your covenant, and let me escape.”
Idiomatic meaning of terrorism
The terrorist phenomenon went through many historical stages during which it witnessed many qualitative developments affecting its images, objectives, motives and mechanisms, and this was accompanied by numerous international and academic efforts that targeted this phenomenon by studying, analyzing and searching for solutions in order to put an end to its repercussions. Dozens of definitions were presented in order to identify its precise meaning, but there is no agreement on One definition of terrorism, whether at the level of governments and international organizations, or even among academics interested in dealing with it from different branches, and this is expressed by ( JenkinsHe said, “Although the term terrorism has become a fashionable trend in contemporary literature, there is no single definition that is defined and widely accepted, and the term is often used as an expression of various forms of violence that may not precisely coincide with terrorist acts.” on the abasement we find some governments describing acts of opponents of terrorism while extremists anti – claim to a government often they are victims of terrorism , these Aovernmhkzlk see (Jenkins , Jenkins ) that we need an objective definition becomes with him a terrorist for someone is a terrorist from the point of view of everyone, while known (Bergson and Lazardo) Terrorist acts are cases of violence targeting political, religious or social goals .
In 1988 , two researchers (Schmid and Yangman) from Leiden University in the Netherlands adopted the approach to social sciences to explore the best ways to define terrorism. They compiled and examined more than 100 academic and official definitions of terrorism and identified its main components.
1 – 83.5% of the definitions included the concept of violence
2- 65% of the definitions stated that terrorism targets political goals
3- 51% of the definitions considered an act to cause fear and fear
4- 21% of the definitions indicated that it is an arbitrary and indiscriminate behavior (in terms of targeting)
5- 17.5% of the definitions indicated that the victims of terrorist operations are civilians, neutrals, or non-combatants
It is also noteworthy that the study (Merari) concluded that the official legal definitions of terrorism in the United States, Britain and Germany include three:
1 – Use of violence
2- Political objectives
3- Working to spread fear among the population.
(Meteusitz) believes that one of the most acceptable definitions is that terrorism is the use of violence to create an atmosphere of fear and panic in order to achieve political, religious or ideological goals, and he adds that terrorism differs from traditional crime by virtue of the great importance of the goals it targets and the urgent desire to make an inevitable change in A reality, just as terrorism is tantamount to an unequal war, and asymmetry results from the fact that terrorist operations involve random and unpredictable violence, as it occurs by a small force in the face of a larger force, and from the two elements of randomness and surprise, the terrorist group acquires the initiative and superiority, two things that are never achieved for it. Using the usual tactics of regular warfare, (Meteusetz) in his study refers to two important statements related to the definition of terrorism:
1- Stephen Sloan’s saying that the definition of terrorism changes and evolves over time, but that it targets political, religious or ideological goals never changes.
2- The famous saying of (Yasser Arafat) in his speech to the United Nations General Assembly in 1974, “The terrorist is in the view of some and he is a fighter for freedom in the opinion of others,” which expresses the extent of political biases in defining terrorism.
From the jurisprudential aspect: The jurisprudential attempts to define terrorism began from the Conference on the Unification of the Criminal Law that was held in Warsaw in 1933 AD, where political terrorism was included from the crimes of the Peoples’ Law and among the most prominent definitions that came the definition of (Abd al-Sattar’s long Arafah), which is an attempt by an individual or a group of individuals or groups Imposing an opinion, thought, doctrine, religion or position on a specific issue by force and violent methods on people, peoples or countries instead of resorting to dialogue and legitimate civilized means, and these groups or individuals try to impose their opinion by force because they consider themselves right and the majority, regardless of their percentage astray as defined by the German jurist (Saldana Saldana ) as a felony or misdemeanor Ssayashoo social consequences of its implementation or even just a rumor advertised public panic because of the nature of the risk of creating
Psychologically: Many of those concerned with studies of terrorism focus on defining it and its characteristics on being an act based on the use of violence or the threat to use it, and its effectiveness derives primarily from the psychological effects it inflicts on the masses, regardless of the material damage it causes. The crux of terrorism is to spread feelings of fear. The panic in the hearts of large numbers of people exceeds the number of direct targets of the terrorist act or its victims. For example, (Raymond Aron ) believes that what distinguishes a terrorist act from other acts of violence is that its psychological consequences on the public are greater than its material effects, since most terrorist acts do not targeting specific individuals by themselves, no one is immune from its consequences, and see (Robert Moss Robert mossTerrorism is the systematic use of intimidation in order to achieve political goals, and (Martha Crenshaw) believes that terrorist acts may occur in the context of violent resistance to the state, as it may be done to serve its goals and support its interests. Actions that are carried out within the framework of the resistance in order to bring about political changes are not of their interest. With its psychological effects on the hearts of the broad masses, in a way that prepares to attract their attention to the motives and causes of those in charge of the terrorist act.
As for the definitions that focus on the legal aspect (the illegality of the terrorist act), the definitions issued by international organizations and the tariffs issued by governments and official agencies within the country fall under the legal illegality, and who showed examples of that Resolution No. 6449 of the United Nations General Assembly adopted on December 9, 1994 entitled Measures aimed at eliminating terrorism International, where he provided a description of terrorism, according to which criminal acts aimed at spreading terror among the public, a group of people, or even specific persons in pursuit of political goals are acts that cannot be justified, whatever the justifications that are invoked or based on political, philosophical, ideological, religious or Other excuses, as well as Security Council Resolution No. 1566 of 2004 present a perception of terrorism as criminal acts, including those committed against civilians with the intent to inflict death on them, inflict serious bodily injury on them, or take hostages in order to spread a state of terror.Between the general public, a group of persons or certain persons, or to intimidate a group of the population, or to compel a government or an international organization to do or not do something that constitutes crimes within the scope of international conventions and protocols related to terrorism and according to the definition contained therein is not possible under any circumstances. The circumstances are justified by any considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious, or any other nature of this nature. He calls upon states to prevent these acts and to ensure that, in the event that they are not prevented, they are punished with penalties consistent with their grave nature.
There are trends that focus on the ethical aspect of the terrorist act. Even though the term terrorism is generally associated with contempt, illegality and immorality, there are studies that have added some legitimacy to some terrorist acts as justification linked to the nobility of the targets they target, as not all acts that some describe as terrorism are equal according to moral standards, for example you say ( Teichman ) that we must admit that terrorists are not always and necessarily on the wrong side and therefore the modern definition of terrorism must include that it is an insurgency with good aims but with bad means and that nothing is legitimate or morally illegal in itself and that the results of the action are That indicates whether it is right or wrong, and therefore terrorist acts are good if they target good targets and bad if they target bad ones.
There are trends in the definition focused on advertising as a component of the terrorist act key is based on the fact that the main purpose of terrorism is to attract public attention to a particular case masterminds terrorist act seeks to highlight and focus the lights on and see (Martha Crenshaw of Martha Crenshaw ) that the main engine of the joint organizations terrorist is to gain recognition or draw attention to the issues adopted or says (Thornton Thornton The goal of terrorist operations is to define the causes that motivated them, and terrorist acts derive their effectiveness from attracting attention in connection with the fact that violence and bloodshed are the most interesting acts of human curiosity and interest, and in today’s world, the opportunity is available for terrorist organizations to spread their issues to the entire world where the large masses and the most Consequently, there is an increase in international terrorist operations aimed at gaining global recognition, as well as an increase in the intensity of violence involved in these operations.
Definition of terrorism in international and regional conventions:
1- Definition of the United Nations Organization:
After the end of the Second World War, specifically in 1954, the United Nations General Assembly requested the International Law Commission to prepare a draft code for crimes that violate the peace and security of mankind, as the committee submitted its first draft in 1951 AD and its second project in 1954, at the end of which neither of the two projects was approved and all of this was postponed indefinitely. That the United Nations did not start seriously researching the crime of terrorism until 1972, specifically after the Munich Olympic Games in September 1972 AD, when the United Nations General Assembly began studying the problem of terrorism in depth and moved from the stage of condemning terrorism crimes to the stage of studying it in order to define its concept and know the causes and circumstances That lead to it and the motives of its perpetrators in an attempt to reach a specific definition for it and agree on measures to prevent and eliminate it. After the General Assembly raised the issue of defining international terrorism for discussion, the views of the delegations of the participating countries differed and three trends emerged.Relate to the first definition : General, abstract and focused on individual terrorism and the second: exclusive and enumerated for acts that are considered aggression, taking into account state terrorism, and the third trend is mixed. He tried to combine the two previous trends, and then the United Nations General Assembly in 1999 defined it as a criminal act aimed at stirring terror in the hearts of the public or a group of people For political purposes that are not justified under any circumstances and whatever the nature of the political, philosophical, ideological, radical, ethnic or religious considerations, or any other considerations that exploit their justification
2- Definition of terrorism in the Council of Europe:
The European Convention for the Suppression of Terrorism was approved unanimously on November 10, 1976 CE, after the serious acts of violence, killings and kidnappings that occurred in the European continent in the late sixties and early seventies of the last century. The fact is that this agreement was crystallized under the pressure of the member states of the Council of Europe as well as thanks to the assistance of the European Committee for Issues When the Europeans realized the necessity of establishing a legal basis by which to suppress international terrorism, this agreement did not define terrorism in the strict sense, although it was established as a legal framework for the suppression of acts of international terrorism, and it also stipulated in Article 1 of some criminal acts that could be included in terrorist acts and the European Union reached To a definition of terrorism in 2001, where I defined terrorism as an act that seriously terrorizes citizens or seeks to destabilize or undermine the political, constitutional, judicial, economic or social institutions of a country and organizations such as attacksAgainst individuals’ lives, attacks against individual bodily integrity, kidnapping and hostage-taking, running a terrorist group or participating in the activities of a terrorist group
Procedural definition of terrorism : A terrorist act is every violent act whose purpose is to spread fear and panic in the souls of individuals, or to draw attention to a group or issue, or that has other political, economic or religious goals.
The historical roots of the terrorist phenomenon
There have been many studies that dealt with the history of the terrorist phenomenon and the analysis and classification of historical periods that represented qualitative shifts in the nature, size, mechanisms and effects of terrorism, and we find that many studies trace the roots of the terrorist phenomenon to the Great French Revolution in 1789 and the subsequent campaigns of repression of supporters of the monarchy and some leaders of the revolution and abuse They are considered enemies of the revolution, and Matusitz says that the word terrorism appeared in keeping with the French Revolution, where what was known as the Era of Terror (1793 – 1794), a period that witnessed large-scale violence by the government of the French Revolution, during which between sixteen and forty thousand Frenchmen were killed during the period Not exceeding one year, which led the French National Assembly in September 1793 to say that “terrorism is what prevails today.” This repressive regime was associated with the name of Maximilien Robespierre. The prominent leader of the time in the French Revolution who believed that terrorism was nothing but a prompt, rigorous and violent justice
By the mid-nineteenth century, specifically after 1848, the word terrorism was used in Russia and Europe as a description of acts of opposition to autocrats, as during the second half of the nineteenth century, terrorism was directed at princes, tsars and police chiefs, and terrorist practices were aimed at bringing about political change, as Jenny Teichman says. Terrorism did not mean spreading fear, as the one who carried out it felt proud of being called a terrorist. The word terrorism did not represent a disgraceful adjective for its owner at that time. Terrorism in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was associated with radical movements of anarchism, socialism, and then nationalism. (Uber Scholl, OberschallHe said that terrorism is neither a modern nor an unfamiliar phenomenon. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Russian revolutionaries used it to confront members of the tsarist tsarist government. Terrorism was also associated for long periods with religious and class conflicts, ideologies and issues of social justice, as some call the “golden age.”Terrorism during the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century and the few decades prior to the First World War, as that period witnessed the rise of many terrorist movements such as populism in Russia, as this period witnessed profound political and economic changes represented by the tyranny of the expansionist character of the policies of some major powers, the case of England, France and Russia. These are the policies that Lenin described as imperialism and may represent the most dangerous terrorist event during that era in the assassination of the Crown Prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Archduke (Ferdinand Franz) and his wife during their visit to the Bosnian capital Sarajevo, a work carried out by a Bosnian nationalist belonging to the Serbian Black Hand Society (Crna Ruka ) , which was aimed at establishing a state gathering of the South Slavs (Aleogo Slav) and considered the incident as an assassination of the twentieth century ( Assassination Of The Twentieth ) because it was the bomber , the first World War in the summer of 1914 Mkma outlines (Martha Crenshaw of Martha Crenshaw ) , the history of the phenomenon of terrorism since The seventies of the nineteenth century until the seventies of the twentieth century by saying that terrorism is one of the secretions of the modern secular political environment and is linked to the rise of nationalist, anarchist and revolutionary socialist trends. An example of this is the anarchic terror movements in Europe, especially France during the nineties of the nineteenth century. She also adds that terrorism as a historical reality was not Linked to political regimes only .
Distinguishes (Janor Ganor ) between the three stages of the quality in the history of the phenomenon of terrorism , a terrorism phase of classical Terrorism classical stage of modern terrorism Modern Terrorism and the stage of terrorism after talking Postmodern Terrorism He believes that classical terrorism was of direct and limited harm tactics and targeted specific persons or facilities of little importance by using simple means such as assassinations in order to achieve limited political goals. As for modern terrorism, it uses indirect tactics and more indiscriminate attacks and causes widespread destruction and inflicts large numbers of victims despite its use. Conventional weapons As for postmodern terrorism, it may use biological, radiological and nuclear weapons of mass destruction to launch devastating attacks on targets that are very vital and carry a high symbolic value for the target enemy. Many analysts agree that the qualitative transition from ancient terrorism to modern terrorism occurred during the 1990s. The twenty specifically, the attack on the World Trade Center in New York in 1993, and then the attack of the Japanese religious group Aum Shinrikyo on the Tokyo subway using sarin gas in 1995. Supporters of the new concept of terrorism believe that its most prominent feature is religious fanaticism.Mostly embodied in radical Islamist movements, while ancient terrorism was characterized by secularism in terms of its leaders and ideologies.
Matusitz believes that there are four main historical waves of terrorism, as the first wave was in the period from the end of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century, then the second wave began since 1921, which was associated with the colonial era and was confined to the territorial borders of countries. The third wave, which is the modern one, begins with The beginning of the 1960s and the fourth wave, which is the most dangerous that the world is currently witnessing, began with the events of September 11, which is a wave characterized by the use of religious justification for killing and is characterized by its widespread spread across the world, the use of more advanced and destructive weapons, and keeping pace with the advanced technologies of the age. Newspapers and it reached its peak in the mid-1980s, when the average number of declared terrorist acts rose from ten acts per week to the same number per day. ( Li and Schaub Examining the international terrorist events that took place in 122 countries during the period 1975 – 1997, they discovered that the Middle East region witnessed the highest percentage of terrorist acts, followed by Europe, then Africa, Asia, and America. They also noted that the diaspora Muslims, specifically the second and third generation of immigrant Muslims, were behind more than 80 % Of terrorist incidents that occurred in the United States and Europe, and in another study ( Chaliand and BlinThe phenomenon of contemporary terrorism has four historical stations that represent distinguishing signs and turning points for this phenomenon. These stations are in the years 1968, 1979, 1983 and 2001, and the first stop (1968) is the launch of a guerrilla strategy in cities by Latin American militants, as well as the resort of some Palestinian organizations to The organization of terrorism for the purpose of propaganda, which later turned into dangerous acts of violence. The second station (1979) was the success of the Iranian revolution. This signaled the beginning of the era of Shiite Islamic radicalism, whose direct effects were the emergence of Hezbollah in Lebanon, and its indirect effects were to facilitate and bless suicide bombings. Based on the traditional idea of glorifying martyrs, the revolution was a source of inspiration for radical Sunni Islamist movements, and the third stage is the History of Contemporary Terrorism (1983), embodied by the suicide attacks launched by Hezbollah in Beirut during that year, which resulted in the deaths of 241 American Marines and 53 ofThe French paratroopers, which caused profound psychological effects in the West and led to the withdrawal of Western forces in Lebanon, and was considered the largest victory of international terrorism during the period (1968:2000) while the fourth turning point in the contemporary history of terrorism was represented in the attacks of September 11, 2001, which was the culmination of progress in classic terrorism. These attacks were followed by the launch of the largest anti-terrorism campaign in history. These attacks are considered the most prominent station ever and have received the largest share of terrorism studies. They had implications for the structure of the existing international order. These events represented a turning point in the history of the terrorist phenomenon. These events, as Ismail Sabri Makled said, demonstrated the enormous capacity for international terrorism to strike and destroy and its possession of superior technology, where terrorism has become a major and frightening form. Who formed the armed conflict and became an alternative to conventional wars in many cases and also sees that it has opened the door again on some of the controversial issues that have exploded international dialogue around since the emergence of the new world order in the beginning of the nineties, perhaps the most dangerous issue of the clash of civilizations, which focused on consideringIslam and the Islamic civilization are the main focus of violence, extremism and terrorism in the world, and that Islam has become an overwhelming threat to Western civilization and the future of all human civilization..
(Vanaik ) explained that after the events of September 11 and after the tremendous shock they caused in the circles of global public opinion, a real revolution in social and political studies related to terrorism ensued, as confirmed (Henry Kissinger), the former US Secretary of State, that the events of September 11 constituted a significant turning point in the formulation of the system. The international community for the twenty-first century, as it clearly led to the strengthening of the global position of the United States and pushed its competing powers to strengthen cooperation closely with it, which was not forthcoming. The events of September 11 required immediate and determined international efforts in the framework of combating terrorism, as the United Nations took many measures in this context and one of the The most important and fastest of these measures is:
Establishment of the Counter-Terrorism Committee, which was established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1373 (2001), adopted unanimously in
September 28, 2001 and countries took many measures, including the criminalization of terrorist financing and the exchange of information with other governments about any groups that carry out or plan terrorist acts, as well as the criminalization of assisting terrorists, actual or passive assistance in local laws, providing violators to justice, not providing safe haven, support or support to terrorists, and preventing Terrorist groups from obtaining any form of support and all these measures taken by countries did not succeed in stopping the march of the terrorist phenomenon as the pace of terrorist acts continued to escalate during the period following the events of September 11th.
The evolution of terrorism and its types
The events of September 11th resulted in hundreds of research papers, scientific articles and books that focused on tackling the terrorist phenomenon, which was considered as a real knowledge revolution in this scientific field. This resulted in the development of the phenomenon of terrorism over the ages as it went through two types of images: traditional pictures and new images.
1- Traditional images of the terrorist phenomenon :
Among the most prominent criteria used to classify terrorist acts :
A – the criterion of the geographical area covered by the terrorist act b – the criterion for the identity of the terrorist
A- The geographical area covered by the terrorist act:
The researchers distinguish in this context between the two images major images of terrorism are: internal terrorism and terrorism Aldoleguary (Jenkins , Jenkins ) that international terrorism includes terrorist incidents that have international implications clear of any incidents for which they exceed the terrorists border for the attack on the victims are identified victims or facilities Because of their association with a foreign country while Vanaik sees itThat international terrorism does not mean any terrorist event that has international repercussions, nor does it mean the phenomenon of the increasing spread of terrorism at the global level. Rather, it is intended that some characteristics of the terrorist act be met, such as: that it is carried out by actors outside the state belonging to a state or another people and that it be The motive associated with the terrorist act goes beyond the state’s borders, for example seeking to change the existing international position towards a war of national liberation, and for the action to be directed primarily against an external force or involving direct harm to external forces .
As for Bonanate, it distinguishes between two types of internal terrorism and two types of international terrorism with regard to internal terrorism, there is state terrorism and revolutionary terrorism, as many historical examples of state terrorism are mentioned in the case of the Spanish Inquisition and the massacre of Saint Barthelemy in France in 1572, while revolutionary terrorism means seeking to overthrow existing system by certain groups and not through the class struggle , which says its traditional Marxism – Leninism , such as the German Red army and the Red brigades Italian, but international terrorism level there is terrorism , the colonial Colonial terrorism and is intended to try the state to maintain its colonies through a repressive regime and this the international impact because it prevents the emergence of a new Dolhmstqlh sovereign , such as colonial regimes, and terrorism for independence terrorism for independence It is the most common and traditional exemplified by movements of the Palestinian struggle since the sixties and seventies, and in the classification of another distinguished (Henkeinin Hinkkainen ) between the two types of internal terrorism, namely Homegrown Terrorism , a terrorism issued by individuals, groups or Tnzemiat below State for persons having the nationality of the State or residence permit within it can be called terrorism intruders and the second type Domestic terrorism Refers to the terrorist acts committed by indigenous citizens who operate according to other ideologies. As for international terrorism, (Henkinen) believes that it aims to influence the position or behavior of a larger group than just the victims who are targeted by the process of violence, and the perpetrators are individuals with a foreign nationality, foreign groups, or individuals. An extension of larger organizations located outside the borders, or receiving instructions from foreign leaders, or other actions that are carried out from behind the borders
B – The identity of the perpetrator of the terrorist act:
The most common classification here is the distinction between organization terrorism and state terrorism, which are the two most controversial and controversial concepts at the intellectual level, as here the relativity of values and the policies of double standards appear in connection with defining what terrorist organizations are, as well as the countries that practice, sponsor or support terrorism. ( Pyle ) believes that the definition of terrorism Odhymn haunting issues management States so that policy States towards Central America and the Middle East are linked to a large extent determine the nature of the organizations liberation organization and the Palestinian Contras and whether they are terrorist organizations need to be addressed firmly or whether they militant organizations for freedom must be supported, and reminds (Matiostz MatusitzMany regimes strongly avoid providing a definition of terrorism because many of the patriotic actions that have been carried out in the context of wars of liberation can fall under the classification of terrorist acts. It is also noted that many political systems describe their opponents as terrorists. ( Martha CrenshawA study on revolutionary terrorism in 1972 in which it identified the features of the terrorist act, namely that terrorism is part of the revolutionary strategy as a means used by rebels or revolutionaries to seize power from the existing government, and the core of terrorism is acts of violence that are not acceptable politically or socially, and there is a fixed pattern in choosing Targets of high symbolic value by those in charge of terrorist action, and the revolutionary movement intends to use these violent measures in order to have a psychological effect on specific individuals and groups in order to change their behavior and political orientation. (Crenshaw) believes that the Algerian National Liberation Front represents a clear example of revolutionary terrorism, and according to this study it is considered (Crenshaw) National liberation movements are terrorist organizations, just as terrorism is one of the natural means of revolutionary movements, and in her second study in 1981 on the causes of terrorism, she confirms that many terrorist operations are based on a rational political choice, as terrorism is a voluntary, final process that comesThrough an institutional decision to represent one of the effective political means to oppose governments, as terrorist organizations possess a set of values, beliefs and perceptions related to the existing political environment, and terrorism serves a set of goals, some of which are revolutionary and some of them semi-revolutionary. A minority is struggling to secede from a state that embodies the identity of another ethnic group. The terrorists may be reformists, they may be anarchists, and they may also be reactionary seeking to resist change from above.
(Sheland and Blaine) consider that all organizations that resort to violence are terrorist organizations, while they limit state terrorism to the set of repressive measures that governments and authoritarian regimes practice in confronting their subjects, while Jenkins, who heads the team of editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica, believes that some political movements may be forced To practice terrorism, as others may be forced into a guerrilla style, we find that sociologists describe the guerrilla war as the weapon of the weak and describe terrorism as the most vulnerable weapon. He also adds that we must bear in mind that there are many types of terrorist movements and that there is no single theory that affects them all. These movements vary in terms of their goals, beliefs, members, size of their resources, as well as the political environment in which they operate in their context. One of the most widespread classifications is that which distinguishes between three forms of terrorism and these images are: Revolutionary Terrorism.It is the most common targets to destroy the entire political system and replace it or built a set of new political structures and semi – revolutionary terrorism Sub-Revolutionary Terrorism is the least common pattern is aimed at simply modifying the existing socio – political structure and not completely destroyed and the institutional terrorism Establishment TerrorismIt is often known as state terrorism or state-sponsored terrorism, as it is practiced by governments or often by sectors within governments in the face of the country’s citizens or sectors within its government or the government of another state or foreign group and it is difficult to identify or track it because state support for it is always secret where it seeks The state based on it aims to keep it secret in order to avoid international disapproval on the one hand and to avoid retaliation against those targeted on the other hand, and this study considers that all political groups that practice violence are terrorists, whether they are national liberation movements, separatist ethnic movements, or movements hostile to the existing regimes of government. The use of totalitarian regimes for repression in the face of opponents and the provision of states to material support for terrorist organizations and their support for rebel movements opposing the ruling regimes in other countries within the state terrorism, and thus state terrorism may be terrorism as it may be international or cross-border. (Jenkins) mentions in his study that the definition is not limited.Terrorism is based on describing acts issued by non-governmental organizations, as governments may also carry out terrorist acts. As for international terrorism issued by the state, it is done by providing direct or indirect support to non-governmental organizations that carry out the required terrorist acts on behalf of the state and there is an increasing number of Governments resort to terrorist methods, whether by recruiting terrorist groups or using terrorist incidents as a justification for waging wars against enemies, as Tikman says that governments often take actions either against their people or against enemies in times of peace and war. These actions are similar to the worst forms of terrorism. The revolutionary, where states may resort to repressive measures such as assassinating political opponents, and also adding that (Noam Chomsky) believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie isAs for international terrorism issued by the state, it is done by providing direct or indirect support to non-governmental organizations that carry out the required terrorist acts on behalf of the state and there is an increasing number of governments resorting to terrorist methods, whether by recruiting terrorist groups or using terrorist incidents as a justification for launching Wars against enemies, as (Tikman) says that governments often carry out actions both against their people or against enemies in times of peace and war. These actions are similar to the worst forms of revolutionary terrorist, as states may resort to repressive measures such as assassinating political opponents and also add that (Noam Chomsky believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie considers theAs for international terrorism issued by the state, it is done by providing direct or indirect support to non-governmental organizations that carry out the required terrorist acts on behalf of the state and there is an increasing number of governments resorting to terrorist methods, whether by recruiting terrorist groups or using terrorist incidents as a justification for launching Wars against enemies, as (Tikman) says that governments often carry out actions both against their people or against enemies in times of peace and war. These actions are similar to the worst forms of revolutionary terrorist, as states may resort to repressive measures such as assassinating political opponents and also add that (Noam Chomsky believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie considers theOf governments resort to terrorist methods, whether by recruiting terrorist groups or using terrorist incidents as a justification for waging wars against enemies, as (Tikman) says that governments often carry out actions either against their people or against enemies in times of peace and war. These actions are similar to the worst types Revolutionary terrorist, as states may resort to repressive measures such as assassinating political opponents, and also adding that (Noam Chomsky) believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie isOf governments resort to terrorist methods, whether by recruiting terrorist groups or using terrorist incidents as a justification for waging wars against enemies, as (Tikman) says that governments often carry out actions either against their people or against enemies in times of peace and war. These actions are similar to the worst types Revolutionary terrorist, as states may resort to repressive measures such as assassinating political opponents, and also adding that (Noam Chomsky) believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie isChomsky believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie considers theChomsky believes that the state is the main actor of terrorism in today’s world, while George Rosie considers theGeorge Rosie ) that some of the actions of states and their agents fall under the description of terrorist acts in the event of an assault on civil rights and the shooting of demonstrators, and (Finnick) believes that all regimes of all ideological lines are involved in terrorist acts in one way or another, just as state terrorism is the most dangerous and the most dangerous. versatile in terms of methods and forms and larger and wider when compared to terrorize organizations and notes that (Vinaik) expands on State terrorism characterization and thus approaching the orientations of Arab researchers that emphasize the need to distinguish between terrorists and Almndoyen under the banner of national liberation movements, and sees (Haitham Kilani) States Those that use terrorism against national liberation movements and the right to self-determination of peoples invoke the principle of self-defense and classify their operations under the term (terrorism against terrorism) or (white terrorism)
(Issam Mufleh) says that states resort to the means of terrorism when a wide gap appears between their stated goals and their real goals that they wish to conceal for one reason or another and when their political practices become stifled, they are unable to bypass them by diplomatic action through applicable international laws.
“ It is noted that Arab studies that stem from Arab-nationalist orientations confirm in principle the idea of refusing to imprint national liberation movements with terrorism, in addition to adopting a broad trend in defining the scope of state terrorism to include all the reprehensible policies and procedures practiced by states, whether in confronting their own citizens or those that take place in Confronting other countries, and here is clear the great discrepancy between academics regarding the classification of terrorist acts and the identification of the terrorist. While some academics consider all organizations that practice violence, regardless of the nature of their goals (separatist, libertarian, opposition) as terrorist organizations, some tend to distinguish between those who commit violence for evil purposes it is resorted to for the purposes of the finest and at the level of countries find each state determines what is a terrorist organization and what is not by ideological orientations or even their own interests , and this applies to determine the intended state terrorism “ .
2- The updated pictures of the terrorist phenomenon:
There are many novel patterns of terrorism and the first of these patterns is terrorism and environmental pointed out (Jenkins , Jenkins ) and the editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica to this concept as a term that appeared at the end of the twentieth century to express acts of environmental destruction that are used to achieve political goals or those that take place in the context of a war, points (Omstr Amster ) that the head of the anti – terrorism investigations Division of the Office of the Federal in his testimony before Congress in 2002 that he knew the environmental Alahab Eco- terrorism as the use or threat of use of violence in a criminal nature against innocent victims or property by Jmaahmat an environmental approach aimed at those behind it to achieve Policy goals related to the environment, SchwartzEnvironmental terrorism refers to terrorist violence operations that mainly target the environment. This term appeared for the first time after the American and allied forces invaded Iraq in 1991 due to its occupation of Kuwait. The term quickly spread in the press and then academia, and many studies appeared to deal with it and discuss it, and environmental terrorism was considered A legal challenge given its threat to the international peace
As for the other pattern induced terrorism patterns, which attracted a great interest and addressed numerous studies which terrorism mail (cyber Cyberterrorism ) and remember (Elizabeth Purdy of Elizabeth Purdy ) that the concept of cyber terrorism has emerged during the eighties by a researcher at the California Institute of Security and Intelligence (Barry Colin Barry Collin ) and then to study the two schools of thought terrorism emerged mail represents the first school (Dorothy Denning Dorothy DenningAs for the second school, it includes government and military officials who know cyber terrorism as almost any cyber attack threatening computers and information networks. Purdy also adds that the great growth in the number of personal computers during the nineties has led to the facilitation of entry and dealing with the international information network (the Internet. With huge numbers of individuals around the world, and at the same time, cyber pirates began to exploit the security holes in the protection systems of websites and software to access confidential information, especially those related to governments, large companies and banks, and the fear of cyber terrorism increased after the events of September 11th, and that President George Bush had requested From Congress allocating $ 3.5 billion to fund anti-cyber terrorism work and inaugurating a private security institution, the Office of Cyberspace Security.And the FBI has adopted a definition of cyber terrorism, which is every targeted, politically motivated attack against information systems, computers, or databases by secret agents or subgroups of a country that results in violence targeting targets related to noncombatants, which may lead to loss of life, property, or Infrastructure, which may be referred to as Cyberterrorism , Electronic Terrorism, or Information War . The British Anti-Terrorism Act of 2000 considers that a terrorist act is not necessarily an act of a violent nature, but it may fall under the heading of terrorism. Every act designed to disrupt an electronic system. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Report 2012 entitled The use of the Internet for Terrorist Purpose Technology represents one of the strategic factors that enable terrorist organizations and their supporters to use the Internet in a growing use for a wide and varied range of purposes, including recruitment, financing, propaganda, training and incitement to commit terrorist acts, as well as collecting and disseminating information for terrorist purposes and also used to conduct communication within terrorist organizations and to provide material support to carry out terrorist acts.
Little (Hareyev Shiryaev ) that the widespread disagreement over the definition of terrorism was reflected in the definition of terrorism – mail and adds that the Stanford project in connection with the International Convention for the strengthening of protection from cyber crime and terrorism for the year 2000Electronic terrorism is defined as the intentional use or threat to use violence, sabotage, or disruption without any legal basis against computer systems in a manner that leads to the death of one or several people or just their injury or may lead to civil losses, losses of material property, or severe economic damage, as he adds. That the practice of terrorism may be carried out by states or organizations other than states, individuals or major companies, especially multinational companies. Electronic terrorism achieves many goals. It may seriously damage the target enemy or damage its reputation by showing it as weak and powerless at a time when the power of the executing party emerges and increases. Its capabilities and among the most prominent goals of electronic terrorism targeted at the attack are air traffic control centers, navigation, computers, communication systems for aircraft, commercial ships, nuclear power plants, and enrichment facilities. There are also temptations to use electronic terrorism because it is low in cost and does not require the investment of large sums of money.Like ordinary terrorism, and one of the most important studies on electronic terrorism is the study of (DenningDenningHe believes that electronic terrorism is considered as a link between terrorism and cyberspace, and it generally means the unlawful attack or threat to attack computers, information networks and the information stored therein, and that is for the purpose of intimidating or coercing a certain government or its people to achieve political and social goals and to describe it as electronic terrorism Violence must occur against people or property, or at least cause fear, or disrupt some non-essential services in a manner that causes inconvenience to governments and people, and cyber attacks occur in many forms, including electronic piracy, espionage, penetration of computer systems, theft of information and personal data, information penetration and destruction, and disruption of services Vandalizing systems and devices, spreading viruses, conducting fraudulent transactions, harassing individuals and companies, and the last pattern, which did not receive a large share of academic attention at the global level, which is intellectual terrorism, and here (Ghazi Rababa) states that it isAlthough this type of terrorism does not involve bloodshed and the killing of people, it is more dangerous than military terrorism, and this type of terrorism consists in imposing a certain opinion or doctrine and thus confiscating the freedom of opinion of the other, publishing and imposing certain ideals and denying their opposition and thus this type Of terrorism may entrench dictatorial and authoritarian regimes, and the practice of this type of terrorism is old in human history, but what is new to it is to impart the term intellectual terrorism to it, in another study (Jalaluddin Saleh) defines intellectual terrorism as a pressure imposed on a person who imposes belief in a religious belief or a philosophical view Or a political vision or social understanding without having the freedom to think about defining his position on it as an evaluation or assessment for fear that he may harm himself, his money, his honor or his religionWhat is the consequence of confiscating the freedom of opinion of the other, publishing and imposing certain ideals and denying their opposition. Thus, this type of terrorism may entrench dictatorial and authoritarian regimes and the practice of this type of terrorism is old in human history, but what is new to it is to give it the term intellectual terrorism, in another study known as Jalaluddin Saleh) Intellectual terrorism is that a pressure exerted upon a person that forces him to believe in a religious belief, a philosophical view, a political vision, or a social understanding without having the freedom to think in determining his position on it as an evaluation or assessment for fear of causing harm to himself, money, honor or religionWhat is the consequence of confiscating the freedom of opinion of the other, publishing and imposing certain ideals and denying their opposition. Thus, this type of terrorism may entrench dictatorial and authoritarian regimes and the practice of this type of terrorism is old in human history, but what is new to it is to give it the term intellectual terrorism, in another study known as Jalaluddin Saleh) Intellectual terrorism is that a pressure exerted upon a person that forces him to believe in a religious belief, a philosophical view, a political vision, or a social understanding without having the freedom to think in determining his position on it as an evaluation or assessment for fear of causing harm to himself, money, honor or religionEmphasizing pressure on a person that forces him to believe in a religious doctrine, a philosophical view, a political vision, or a social understanding without having the freedom to think about determining his position on it as an evaluation or assessment for fear that he will harm himself, his money, his honor or his religionEmphasizing pressure on a person that forces him to believe in a religious doctrine, a philosophical view, a political vision, or a social understanding without having the freedom to think about determining his position on it as an evaluation or assessment for fear that he will harm himself, his money, his honor or his religion
Here, terrorism can be divided into different types and according to different criteria.
1- In terms of looking at terrorists:
Looking at terrorists, terrorism can be divided into :
A – State terrorism: State terrorism is part of aggression rather than terrorism, except that it believes that the state is practiced by itself or by groups operating in its name at home and abroad, and some believe that state terrorism is its use of means of violence regularly and for stirring and terror to achieve political goals and these goals may be To retain power and suppress dissent
B – Terrorism of individuals and groups: Terrorism of individuals and groups seeks to consolidate its powers, not to obtain them, and some call it terrorism of rebellion
2- In terms of its purpose:
It is divided into ideological terrorism, ethnic terrorism and criminal terrorism
A – Ideological (intellectual) terrorism: It is also called ideological terrorism, in which the terrorists fight with the aim of achieving a certain ideology that they believe in and vow to accomplish it
B – Ethnic terrorism: It is attributed to movements that use terrorist tactics in order to achieve separation from the mother country. This type of terrorism is limited to individuals and political groups, and it is not envisaged that the state will practice it except indirectly through the support of some separatist movements
C- Criminal terrorism: It is the type of terrorism that does not aim to achieve political or ideological goals but is motivated by personal, economic or social motives. Some call this type social terrorism or common law terrorism in distinction from political terrorism and has many forms such as extortion, armed robbery and hostage-taking at request. Ransom, sabotage, looting of money and property, and engaging in drug trafficking and money laundering
3- In terms of its scope:
Terrorism is divided in scope into domestic and international terrorism
A- Domestic terrorism:
It is terrorism that is practiced by a group with limited goals within the scope of the state and does not go beyond its borders and aims to change the system of government and has no external link in any way. Local terrorism requires local or nationalism in all its elements, whether in terms of the implementers, the place of implementation, planning or preparation for action
B- International terrorism:
It is terrorism that has an international character in one of its elements and an international character in one of its elements and components, when one of the parties is international, whether people, things, or places, or the target is international, such as the abuse of international relations
It should be noted here that terrorism has two forms: a direct and an indirect one
1- The direct image of terrorism:
Most of the terrorist acts that are practiced by states are directly committed by the state authorities, one of its agencies, or some persons working in its name and on its account, committing terrorist acts against the citizens or property of another state.
2- An indirect image of terrorism:
Most of the countries that resort to terrorism against another country practice it indirectly in order to enable them to achieve their goals and avoid international reactions and criticism, or to take any international measures against them in the event that they resort to the use of direct terrorist means equivalent to acts of aggression, and indirect terrorism consists in the establishment of the state to participate or Encouraging, urging, inciting, concealing or harboring it or providing aid, assistance and supplies to groups that carry out terrorism
In addition to that, there is another classification of terrorism that classifies terrorism into 4 main types, namely:
1- Single attack terror
2- Terrorism of lone wolves
3- Domestic terrorism
4- Armed non-state actors
First: The terror of a single attack
It has several characteristics, including that its operations continue in a short period of time, and it targets soft targets, but it is not intended that there is one individual who does it, but what is meant is that whoever does it does not seek to do it more than once, that is, the person in this type of terrorism is A person who is not accustomed to practicing the terrorist phenomenon, unlike some organizations that are terrorist in origin, so he distanced himself from carrying out more than one operation, that is, he is not a practitioner of the operation, but he does it regardless of its results and he has no problem to die.
Second: the terror of lone wolves
The terrorism of the single attack is consistent with the terror of the lone wolves in that both stem from a single philosophy or strategy, which is the strategy of resistance without leadership, meaning that the one who is responsible for the terrorist operation is not subject to direct leadership or organizational leadership or hierarchical organization, and the terrorist here is a troubled person who has reached a stage of despair and frustration, so he conducts operations Violent or resorting to suicide (suicide is also terrorism, as it is based on spreading terror and fear in the hearts of citizens, which is a psychological dimension, but terrorism is more comprehensive than that)
The terror of single attack and the terror of lone wolves fall under the name of “new operations” among its characteristics:
1- Frequency in carrying out operations within a short or limited period of time
2- The suicidal tendency of the perpetrator of terrorist operations
3- Confusion of this type of terrorism with crime in its motives. Those in charge of these operations have motives for the crime, unlike other types for which these operations are a function for them.
4- The presence of psychological disorders for those in charge of the terrorist operation
Among the reasons for the escalation of the terrorist phenomenon of this kind:
1- The effect of infection and simulation (domino theory) and the simulation phenomenon always appears in the case of success. The reasons for the spread are success, but the succession of failure does not lead to repetition.
2- The centrality of online propaganda: Those in charge of these operations have many ways to promote their ideas, pressure individuals and governments, and convince many of them, especially in light of countries suffering from political instability
3- Most of those who carry out terrorist operations are supporters of extremism, whether the western extreme right or the supporters of extremist Islam
4- The existence of incubators for extremism: that is, in countries where there is political and social unrest, its members often resort to forming cities abroad that serve as incubators for extremism and terrorism
Third: Domestic terrorism
It has several properties including:
1- Its members are governed by a common social background
2- The climate is relatively safe
3- Confidentiality guarantee
4- Recruiting the block
5- Familiarity with the approach of the person to be attracted
6- There is better cooperation than other types
Family terrorism is the most dangerous type of terrorism because there is a very large interdependence among its members because they carry common social values. The difference between them is slight unlike other types that may end due to internal conflicts. It also works in the form of a bloc, that is, the group is a single block based on the terrorist operation, which allows Also, ensuring confidentiality, it is difficult to divulge secrets between the family, and the security authorities cannot plant people within them, as they know each other well, which allows for division and allocation of work, which leads to better cooperation, and family terrorism comes from counter social capital and causes what is known as dual recruitment, which is called safe and so-called recruitment. This is because its members are governed by all primary relationships stemming from family relations, friendship or shared values, and it is called dual because the values they believe in make them one party and society another party .
Fourth: Non-state armed actors
They are armed organizations or groups or an illegal semi-criminal organization that conducts its activities outside of state control and exercises force in order to achieve its objectives, and they differ from other definitions such as illegal armed organizations. The most important characteristics of non-state armed actors are :
1- The Organizing Element
2- Work outside the control of the state
3- Using armed force a lot in achieving its goals
4- Enjoying in one way or another the sources of financing, whether from inside or outside the country
Types of non-state militants :
A distinction is made between them from several criteria, including :
The first criterion: the identities of the actors
Identity refers to the extent of the ideological link between these actors. Here a distinction is made between hybrid organizations and jihadist organizations.
1- Hybrid organizations : They are those organizations that have multiple motives, roles, target operations and goals.
2- Jihadist organizations are those organizations that are governed by ideological frameworks in the main, which is the selfish unitary thought (I am the right and my wrong material) and they have many forms such as local jihadist organizations or transnational jihadist organizations and organizational groups
The second criterion : Dependency on the geographical system
It is classified into:
1- Domestic terrorism such as the Jerusalem community
2- Regional terrorism like ISIS
3- International terrorism such as Al Qaeda
The third criterion : based on the objective of terrorist operations
It is classified into :
1- It aims to maintain the status quo
2- It aims to change the status quo
The fourth criterion : It is based on the armed actors’ relations with the state and society
That is, does the organization target aggressive and human targets only, or does it commit other roles, i.e. does it carry out acts of violence against a state only, or does it assume itself as part of the state and society?
Explained reasons for carrying out terrorist acts
In the beginning, there are 8 main trends concerned with explaining the terrorist phenomenon:
The first trend: It focuses on the legal dimensions in defining terrorism
Its most important pioneer is: Merari, describing terrorism and a legal prescription, and his study concluded that the terrorist phenomenon is based on 3 main pillars: the use of violence, political goals and work to spread fear among citizens. This study concluded that terrorism is an unequal phenomenon because in the end it is based on an unequal war. The parties, if the group is in conflict with a state, then it is unequal due to the number of individuals or weapons, and so on and the victor in it is the weaker party in the majority.
2- The second trend: is based on randomness in the definition
Its most important pioneer is : Yona Alexander and believes that terrorism is the indiscriminate use of violence against field targets with the aim of creating and spreading a state of public terror with the aim of achieving political goals. Any violent act organized by the terrorist phenomenon is according to him.
The third trend: is based on political bias in its definition of the phenomenon
His supporters: Yasser Arafat when he said in a speech to the United Nations General Assembly that the terrorist in the view of some is a freedom fighter in the view of others
The fourth trend: based on dictionaries
Supporters: Vanik, where he extrapolated many dictionaries to the knowledge of terrorist phenomena in many cultures, and Vanik concluded that terrorism is a dictionary that contains 4 main elements:
A – organized intimidation
B – Violence against civilians or non-combatants
C – The illegal use of violence
D- Indiscriminate use of violence
According to Vanik, terrorism pays off and is effective when it has the following:
1-It is sudden
2- It targets unarmed civilians
3- The nature of the weapons used is not simple
4- Asymmetry between the force of the performer and the recipient of the operation
5- The fifth trend: focuses on the emitters
His supporters: Craigl and Merex, as their study concluded, is that terrorism is an act and the deliberate use of violence and intimidation in the face of a large audience of enormous magnitude to force an institution, which is often a government institution, to make some concessions, which may be ideological or political.
6- The sixth trend: focuses on violence
Supporters: Raymond Aaron and Jerome Raymond Aaron believe that what distinguishes the terrorist act from other acts of violence is that its psychological consequences for the public are greater than its material consequences. When any terrorist act occurs, the psychological dimensions are much greater than the damage caused on the ground. It is the use of unfamiliar means and surprising him to the target group and targeting political goals and agrees with (Raymond Aaron) that its psychological impact is greater than the harm done on the ground and in general all the theorists who have focused on the dimension of violence agreed that the goal of violence is a political goal
7- The seventh trend: It focuses on the legitimate dimensions of terrorism
There are studies that say that a terrorist act is not necessarily an illegal or unethical act. It may be an ethical act because it may have good goals such as independence movements.
8- The eighth trend: focuses on propaganda
Some see propaganda as one of the pillars or components of the terrorist act, as the aim or purpose of the terrorist operation is to draw attention to this group or to its demands or rights, or the public’s sympathy for the group’s demands.
From the foregoing, we note that the causes of the existence of the phenomenon of terrorism and its increase are multiple and distributed in different political, social, psychological, economic, religious and other fields, and the study of these causes together is very important and difficult and the phenomenon of terrorism cannot be eliminated if its causes are not addressed. The same phenomenon, and the difference is due to the different interpretations of the political, economic, social and cultural problems that gave rise to this phenomenon. Despite this, there is agreement on a number of causes of international terrorism, including
1- Economic reasons:
Some argue that economic factors such as unemployment and poverty as reasons for choosing the path of violence and terrorism because in these cases the individual is unable to fulfill his basic need and lacks hope in the future, which makes him carry resentment on society and its institutions and sends it to adopt terrorism. Therefore, economic factors played an important role in directing terrorist behavior. For people and human societies, the human need is not satisfied by any possible alternative, and the many economic problems lead to the destruction of society and the foundations of the social structure and leave their effects on the general members of society, so the economic construction causes the growth of certain social relations, and if they are economically saturated, they cause social cohesion and cohesion, even if the opposite of that generates aggressive behavior The causes and economic factors that lead to the growth of the terrorist phenomenon can be summed up both internally and externally
First: the internal level
1 – Underdevelopment: It mainly results from wrong economic policies that are not compatible with the social reality of the state, so that a gap gradually widens between the poor and the rich, the educated and the uneducated, the people with broad economic interests, and the marginalized economic groups. This could be between those who own and try to increase ownership and those who Does not have a
2- Economic deprivation: meaning that terrorism is the natural result of poverty and the inequitable distribution of economic resources within the state. It must be pointed out here to the idea of forgotten deprivation of (Ted Gore), which is based on the fact that violence arises from the gap between what individuals feel they deserve on the one hand and what they get On the other hand, and in connection with the relative deprivation, terrorist organizations find an opportunity among the poor to recruit large numbers of them in their ranks and obtain financing, and when applying the idea of relative deprivation at the global level, we find that economically rich countries often represent a target for terrorist operations resulting from the conflict between the poor, i.e. the countries. Poor and rich, i.e. rich countries.
3- Unemployment: The widespread unemployment among young people, whether it is real or disguised unemployment, generates a feeling of helplessness and despair on the one hand, and their sense of frustration on the other hand, and may arouse feelings of hatred in the souls and make this an easy target for those with extremist religious and political trends, and they can be lured by exploiting their needs and employing them. Their resentment for joining their knees and the misdistribution of resources and wealth necessary for development and the provision of basic needs for people in an unbalanced manner in a way that causes an imbalance in social justice, which results in an increasing amount of injustice, collective social boredom and relative deprivation among growing sectors of the population, and this deprivation is not the result of poverty and lack of The individual level, the perpetrators of terrorist acts may be rich in themselves, but their sense of inferiority and marginalization by the state creates a state of anger and resentment among a certain group towards other groups and an extremist reaction accompanied by a terrorist act .
4- Administrative and governmental corruption operations: which are contributed by most countries and the ongoing economic crises, starting from inflation and economic depression to cases of illicit gain in the deals that take place illegally with statesmen or entering into illegal deals and the phenomenon of bribery and failure to follow up on the consuming of public money from employees Whatever their job levels, all these practices generate in young people or deprived individuals a violent aggressive behavior of repression that soon explodes with an organized act of aggression targeting people, institutions or the state, which leads to the deterioration of the state’s socio-economic structure. Here, terrorism takes many forms, including cases of looting, robbery and organized kidnappings. Accompanied by the payment of a certain financial ransom used to finance terrorist operations at the political level, and on the basis of that, an equation can be formulated that (ignorance + poverty and poverty + oppression, repression, exclusion and marginalization =) The phenomenon of terrorism) but this does not negate the role of the external factors that cause the phenomenon of terrorism. Rather, it can help to fuel it and in the manner that leads it to war or continuous social conflict.
On the external level, due to the multiplicity of entrances through which the phenomenon of terrorism can be known and diagnosed economically at the external level, it can be noted that the United Nations General Assembly in 1972 had formed a specialized committee to study the motives and causes behind the spread of the phenomenon of terrorism economically and its diagnosis of the economic and social causes was that:
1- The continued existence of an oppressive international economic system could lead to the creation of a state of anger and constant hostility between different peoples
2 – Foreign exploitation of the national natural resources, which may result from the phenomenon of dependency
3- Destroying the population, neighborhoods, means of transportation, and economic structures of some countries
4- Injustice and political, economic and social exploitation
5- Poverty, hunger, misery, disappointment or frustration
6- The deterioration of the international economic environment and the dominance of the major powers over the global economy
All these factors together constitute the axis of the causes of the global spread of the phenomenon of terrorism, but there are other factors behind this phenomenon, including cases of competition and conflict in the international political arena. Events have confirmed that the unequal development between developed countries and countries that seek growth and what is represented by the phenomenon of dependency characterized by state control The development and spread of multiple patterns and methods of organized crime, which is the result of a revolt against the lived reality, with the widening gap between the developed world of the North and the world of the South seeking to develop, which has led to the emergence of multiple methods of committing terrorist acts that express a state of rejection of dependency, colonialism and exploitation at the international level.
1- Social and cultural reasons:
Social factors have a great influence on the spread of the phenomenon of terrorism and facilitate its formulation, especially among the youth, and the most important of these factors is the spread of the phenomenon of divorce and the disintegration of the family, which makes children vulnerable to displacement and exploitation by terrorist gangs and the low rate of marriage among young people, which makes many young people seek to earn money in legal and non-legal ways. This makes it vulnerable to terrorist gangs and the difficulty in obtaining primary health care in the public health sector, with the high prices of medicines and treatment and the lack of state control over them, and the superiority of the private health sector over the government health sector, which causes discontent, hatred and hatred for the state, the spread of drugs among young people, and the negative effects they have on The individual and the community without the state’s turning around it and addressing the causes that led to its spread, as well as the socio-economic and demographic tension that accompanies the process of economic, political or ideological modernization and the consequent emergence of problems and grievances such as the spreadUnemployment, increased rates of alienation, and the advancement of means of communication in a manner that provides fertile ground for the growth of terrorist organizations and facilitates communication between their members
And also identity and cultural clash, and here we refer to Samuel Huntington’s idea of the clash of civilizations, as he believes that a civilizational clash may lead to violence as differences in religious or ethnic identities may lead to conflict, whether between groups of different identities within a single society or even between groups of countries that are culturally and culturally diverse. International level
2- Political reasons:
One of the most dangerous of these types is the absence of patriotism and belonging to the homeland in political parties, blocs, and civil society organizations. What results from this is deviant political formations aimed at dismantling the state in order for the personal interest to prevail at the expense of the public interest, and the political and institutional system where some see that the democratic political system It provides many peaceful means for the expression of opinion, but it stands incapable of confronting terrorism because it is shackled by the restriction of preserving civil rights that counter-terrorism measures may conflict with. As for authoritarian regimes, they may be better able to combat terrorism by their permanent resort to repressive and exceptional means without restrictions, but these regimes also may They are the cause of the emergence and spread of terrorism due to the political grievances it leads to, as well as political transformation and instability, as some believe that the process of political transition and the conditions that accompany it from instability and the creation of new political opportunities encourage radical violence organizations to enter their political agenda,Some believe that the structure of the global political and economic system and the economic structures, political alliances and foreign policies that it entails for some major powers, as well as the consequences of phenomena such as globalization and foreign domination may lead to the emergence of terrorist organizations that resort to violence as an expression of their rejection of this reality and the need to resist it.
3- psychological causes:
Terrorism psychology provides a deep analytical framework that helps to understand terrorism in its deeper and more ambiguous layers in the human psyche, as psychology reveals to us violent human behaviors and how they are carried out (actions, influence and influence, reaction) and thus the psychology of terrorism is considered one of the scientific methods useful for studying terrorism In several respects: the psychological factors of the reality of the terrorist phenomenon (the terrorist personality), the analysis of the terrorist personality, the behavior and characteristics of the terrorist personality, the psychological roots of terrorism and the social factors leading to terrorism, according to the two academic researchers in psychology ( Christine Bonardi ) and ( Pierre Mannoni)The growth of youth in normal times generates compulsive psychological and social needs for them, and societies are usually able to give them what they are able to satisfy their needs, but when these societies, in turn, face crises that are particularly related to the growth of modernity, some young men may commit to ideas and actions that may be extremist and considered constituting Identity in adolescence, with its internal and external requirements that characterizes it, is one of the most important stakes. Identity is not a given biology, but rather a subject of arduous construction in which a young person may succeed and may not succeed. During this delicate stage, one may be subject to dangerous personal choices that are often linked with circumstantial elements. Here, the requirements of social integration exert pressure on young people in turn to feel a sense of their violence, which creates deep turmoil and disappointment towards what society offers. At this age, emotional, emotional and cognitive experiences live with great intensity and intensity, and young people at this stage accelerate more and more violence, as they feel that the world they haveHe lives in the midst of violence towards him, and according to his desire to experiment and risk, he is more likely to be tempted and his psychological readiness pushes him to accept the idea of suicide, especially when it is motivated by ideas that gain the value of suicide by divine control, and in this context (Mustafa Hijazi) says that the relationship between violence and the psychopathic personality has become a settled matter, as this personality is characterized With individual selfishness and running after self-interest by misleading others, leading to their exploitation, whether material or sexual, and therefore it is far from being concerned with a major cause for which it sacrifices itself and affirms here that psychological interpretation, whatever its depth, may not in any way justify these barbaric acts. The interpretation does not mean Exemption from liability under any pretextViolence and the psychopathic personality has become a settled issue, as this personality is characterized by individual selfishness and running after self-interest by misleading others to exploit them, whether materially or sexually, and therefore it is far from paying attention to a major cause for which it sacrifices itself and stresses here that the psychological interpretation, regardless of its depth, is not permissible In the event that he justifies these barbaric acts, the interpretation does not mean exemption from responsibility under any pretextViolence and the psychopathic personality has become a settled issue, as this personality is characterized by individual selfishness and running after self-interest through misleading others to exploit them, whether materially or sexually, and therefore it is far from paying attention to a major cause for which it sacrifices itself and stresses here that the psychological interpretation, regardless of its depth, is not permissible. In the event that he justifies these barbaric acts, the interpretation does not mean exemption from responsibility under any pretext
Several theories have attempted to explain terrorism, and these theories include:
Frustration theory – hostility:
It is one of the fundamentalist theories that gained wide popularity in the field of explaining terrorism and political violence in general, and it was initially developed by ( John Dollard).In the late thirties and the theory of frustration – aggression is a simple and straightforward theory that goes to say that aggression occurs when the goals of the individual are exposed to frustration or disability, and (Dollard) confirms that frustration always leads to aggression and that aggression is a result of frustration and when applying this theory to terrorism, the terrorist act is A form of substitution and substitution, where this theory sees terrorism as an aggression that is substituted for a subject other than its original topic. The troubled personalities of terrorists stemming from personal frustrations in their private lives lead them to carry out extreme acts of violence against others and it seems that frustration plays an important role in terrorist activity, especially when not The state’s political system provides another normal way out for political activity. A famous study was conducted on terrorists in what was called West Germany in 1981 and they found that many of them had suffered personal hardships in their early lives. The study revealed that about a quarter of those terrorists lost a parent in their childhood.And it is assumed that the loss of a parent causes resentment or a feeling of inferiority that calls for the need for an outlet to drain it – in that most children live with their parents and therefore living with only one of them may develop a feeling of frustration towards the outside world – but this interpretation is transferred from the individual level – which you operate The theory is based on it – to the community level or the level of one group, the theory faces a number of difficulties, due to the fact that groups are not just a gathering of individuals. In many cases, group dynamics influence the behavior of the individual and direct his decisions in a way that makes them different from what can be taken from them alone.The theory faces a number of difficulties, and this is due to the fact that groups are not just a grouping of individuals. In many cases group dynamics influence the behavior of the individual and direct his decisions in a way that makes them different from what can be taken from them aloneThe theory faces a number of difficulties, and this is due to the fact that groups are not just a grouping of individuals. In many cases group dynamics influence the behavior of the individual and direct his decisions in a way that makes them different from what can be taken from them alone
Narcissism theory – aggression:
The term (narcissism) comes from the Greek myth of Narcissus. Some researchers, such as Richard Pearlstein in his book The Mind of The Political Terrorist – and John Crayton – and Jerrold Post, see that narcissism in its extreme state can give an explanation According to this theory, the terrorist person is fully convinced of his importance in this world, but the world, unfortunately, does not share this conviction, which leads him to narcissistic anger and then to aggression and crosses ( Hudson) On this by saying, “If the grandiose self is not neutralized as the first form of narcissism in light of realistic experience, then the magnified self produces antisocial individuals who are arrogant and have no respect for others. Likewise, if the ideal parental ego is not neutralized as a psychological state in light of realistic experience, it may lead to a sense of defeat.” Miserable and this narcissistic defeat may lead to angry reactions and a desire to destroy the source of the narcissistic wound. ” The same previous German study was applied in 1981 and advocates of narcissistic anger theory found evidence that many terrorists (who were subjected to study) faced severe obstacles in their private lives. Analysts conclude constructively. However, terrorism results from damage to self-esteem
Freudian Psychoanalytic Interpretations
Freud claimed that humans harbor motives that they are not aware of themselves, as they are subconscious and these motives often involve repressed desires because those desires are socially unacceptable and one of these desires is the oedipal complex that appears at a stage of psychosexual development that the individual is going through. In childhood, where the child begins to view the father as an opponent and competitor to him for the love of the mother, and when this conflict is not successfully resolved, it leads to various problems in the individual’s life later, as confirmed by Konard Kellen – Hans Hans – Joachim Klein – and Carols Hack Carlos the Jackal) That the emotional or unconscious hatred of the father led them to rebel against the patriarchal symbols until the matter reached them to violence in the end and turned them into terrorism. Then the personal conflict was removed from the inside in an unconscious way and transferred to public life, and I have developed ( Eric Erikson ) one of Freud followed the negative identity theory , in which he believed that unresolved conflicts and failure in personality integrity (between the id, ego, and superego) lead to profound difficulties in later life, and Jeanne Knutson applied This approach in its analysis of a Croatian terrorist who was described by (Hudson) as disappointed as a result of his failure to achieve his ambitions to obtain a university degree, so he built a negative identity and turned to terrorism. The negative identity implies a vengeful rejection of the role that the individual’s family and society considers an acceptable and appropriate role, and this approach appears similar to the theory Frustration – Aggression Indeed, there is a point where these multiple and very similar theories converge and mix with each other
There is a natural tendency in a person to believe that those who commit a catastrophic act are insane or disoriented in some way and are not psychologically normal like the rest of the people, of course, and a psychiatrist cannot diagnose them as rational in order to involve themselves in such acts and this view of terrorism is reinforced by the television pictures that show them waving With their fingers with a victory sign, after committing terrorist acts, they bear responsibility for it, but there are many reasons that cast doubt on this belief for several reasons, including:
First: Research indicates that there are surrounding forces that may compel us to conduct behavior that contradicts our values. There are ordinary people who have been responsible for heinous and horrific acts. If normal people can commit such acts, we should not be surprised that normal people of the same extent commit similar atrocities in the name of An ideological issue under appropriate social inducements Philip Zimbardo’s analysis of the psychology of evil in his book The Devil Effect suggests that there is a fine line between right and wrong, a line whose willingness to cut can be much stronger than we think.
Second: There is some evidence indicating that most terrorists feel that they have no other choice but to carry out terrorist acts and may feel that they are trapped or that the doors have been blocked in their faces and can only resort to political violence to reach their goals. ( Taylor and Taylor and Quayle The common denominator among terrorists is the belief that they are in a state of self-defense against the enemy and that they feel that violence is only the inevitable response to that external threat, and perhaps these individuals overestimate the role of external circumstances in guiding their behavior. It is reasonable to assume that some circumstances do not allow us much Among the options, in repressive political systems in particular, terrorism may really be the only path available to those who seek change, as oppressive societies lack symbolic heroes and one emerges as Osama bin Laden to be a more attractive model than anything around him and his methods seem more attractive than anything available.
(Bjorgo ) explains that there is a long list of situational actions that represent the root causes of terrorism, including:
– the lack of democracy and civil liberties and the rule of law
– the state ‘s failure or weakness
– Modernizing the country at a rapid pace
The emergence of extremist ideologies of a secular or religious nature
– historical precedents of political violence or civil wars or revolutions or dictatorships or corruption
– domination and inequality in power
– corrupt or illegal governments
– The presence of influential external forces in support of illegal governments
– Exposure to suppress foreign occupation or colonial powers
– Exposure to discrimination on the basis of ethnic or religious
The unwillingness of states to merge groups of different origins or to merge newly emerging social classes
– exposure to social justice or lack of bona fide
– the emergence of leaders Karesmatien
– the occurrence of dramatic events create extremism
Of course, some of these factors must have a greater impact than others, and just as the trends do not tell the story of terrorist activity alone. Likewise, the impact of situational factors also has limitations. For example, economic factors clearly show that these factors alone do not provide an adequate explanation for the reasons why some people resort to terrorist activity. Poverty is not the same. The only reason for terrorism is that while some terrorist groups suffer economic hardships in nature, this is certainly not the case of al-Qaeda because the interests of their leaders are clearly religious and political concerns, not economic. Moreover, what makes certain individuals who suffer difficult economic conditions respond to these conditions violently while it seems Others accept her as an inevitable aspect of their destiny?
While all terrorist organizations suffer from a certain amount of difficulties that they use to justify and legitimize their political violence, some of these groups are able to overcome their suffering over time. Terrorism is often based on real or imagined grievances, regardless of whether those grievances occurred at one time or another. Terrorist organizations can change the identity and nature of these grievances with great skill to make them commensurate with their declared pledges, and while all terrorist organizations suffer a certain amount of difficulties and use them to justify and legitimize their political violence, some of these groups are able to overcome their suffering over time.
Operation model for Horgan:
Horgan has developed his theoretical model for explaining the phenomenon of terrorism in light of the weaknesses of the consociational theories. He also asserts that it is necessary to understand the situations that make certain individuals vulnerable to responding to them by joining terrorist groups. He also believes that the situational forces are only preconditions for the emergence of terrorist activity. They are necessary conditions, not Sufficient for the occurrence of terrorism Horgan asserts that seeking to identify the motivating events that act as clear motivating factors towards terrorism may be a misleading endeavor. It is more useful to search for the reasons that make certain individuals affected by these events. He also believes that the process of turning to terrorism is a gradual process that usually includes a series of Small steps and that there are a number of factors that may be decisive. These factors include the individual’s sensitivity to the positive rewards that joining a terrorist group brings.
Such membership may have a privileged social status, and suicide bombers may achieve great prestige after their death. Such membership may bring community satisfaction and ideological bonding with individuals of a similar mindset. Respect for movement symbols may lead to engaging in terrorist activity. Societal pressures and even forced recruitment may play a role in pushing the individual to Join a terrorist group and there may be an effect of encouraging important people in an individual’s life to join such groups. Although it is difficult to determine what makes certain individuals more likely than others to join a terrorist group, (Horgan) believes that the beliefs that the individual holds, his social upbringing and his experiences Life and his sense of dissatisfaction with life
The suicide terrorist
( Ami Pedahzur ) knows suicide terrorism that it includes various forms of violent acts committed by people who know very well that the probability of their return after carrying out them is close to zero. As for Assaf Moghadam , he says that the success of the attack in this type of terrorism depends on the death of The attacker and this definition excludes every attack in which the attacker expects death without being certain of it, and although this tactic has existed for a long time, the practice of suicide bombing is recent and there is generally agreement that it began in the early 1980s and with regard to the relationship between suicide terrorism and Islamism. Extreme says ( Robert Pape) “The relationship between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism or any religious doctrine in the world is limited. However, what suicide attacks all have in common is a specific secular strategic goal, such as pushing developed democratic countries to withdraw their military forces from areas that terrorists consider their home, and religion is rarely the root of the issue. Although it is often used by terrorist organizations as a tool for recruiting members and other efforts that organizations make in the service of their broader strategic goals .
See Martha CrenshawWhich adopts the economic perspective to explain terrorism that most terrorist behavior can be interpreted as a mental response – pragmatism to the situation faced by the individual – based on an analysis of profits and costs, but the suicide terrorist represents a strong challenge to a person’s economic perspective or rational choice. What makes a rational individual who seeks to maximize his profits from the point of view. Do they think he chooses to destroy his life by himself? In fact, the classic rational human models assume that individuals will choose to follow the riders of the group if they are to reap the same profits, whether they personally do the work or not (if the group makes a profit by the terrorist act, then something from this profit will reach the individual, then why is he who carries out suicide terrorism? (The economic human approach confirms that individuals will choose the alternative that will bring the greatest benefit to them in relation to the costs, but the profits of the organization will not be sufficient for the individual as the personal profits of the suicide operation must outweigh the costs)
The third level :The environmental level that creates the conditions that generate terrorism, including the suicidal type of it. Maghadam reports that the influence of historical, political, economic and social forces surrounding the variation of the situation, but there is a tendency to exaggerate the impact of economic factors, as well as the effect of the political framework may differ from one case to another. The poor are all terrorists, and not all societies that have been under occupation have produced suicide bombers. On the other hand, there are cultural and religious factors that may prevent a suicide bombing, which has not received enough attention from most commentators. However, it is clear in many cases that the religious and political framework directly leads to the emergence of social conflict. Which in turn leads to suicide terrorism, and according to Maghadam, the common factor among all regions and nations in which suicide bombing is practiced is the existence of a (martyrdom culture), which refers to a system of social norms that allow or encourage the killing of a person as a noble act.Or brave or heroic in some way, but the positional forces, as in the case of the forces, cannot explain suicide terrorism alone, and Magadam asserts that suicide terrorism results from the interaction of these two types of forces..
Among the most important other studies that dealt with studying the motives for terrorism is the study issued by the European Commission funded research program on cross-border terrorism, security and the rule of law. The authors of this study confirm that there are root causes of terrorism and others directed at it and identify the root causes in: the processes of rapid modernization and urbanization that Powerfully led to the emergence of ideological terrorism – the lack of democracy, civil liberties and the rule of law that are matters that would create types of terrorism within the state – the repression of the foreign occupier or colonial powers – the feeling of discrimination on ethnic or religious grounds – the historical precedents of political violence
As for the directed causes, they are: events that trigger revenge or conflict, such as electoral conflicts or brutal police handling – lack of opportunity for political participation – the spread of grievances among sectors of the population – the desire to develop oneself through social ascension by belonging to a strong group
The study highlighted a group of entries that explain the motives of the phenomenon of terrorism, the most prominent of which are :
1- The rational or organizational approach: It focuses on the fact that terrorism is a rational, organized political approach (institutional) as it is the product of collective action, not individual decisions or personal initiatives.
2 – Structural or political approach: This approach focuses on the fact that the causes of terrorism are inherent in the national and international environments, and their manifestations are poverty, oppression and inequality.
3- Psychological approach: The psychological approach takes into account the motivations of individuals who resort to terrorism and focus on characteristics
Personality, beliefs, and attitudes
4- Multiple causes approach: It emphasizes that there are various causes leading to the phenomenon of terrorism, and thus the existence of many causal variables that must be taken into account. It is an entrance that integrates psychological, political, religious, economic and social factors in the analysis to understand the phenomenon of terrorism
The most prominent efforts and contributions to combat terrorism :
1- United Nations efforts:
In the last decades of the twentieth century, member states advanced their work in the field of combating terrorism through the United Nations General Assembly on both the legal and executive tracks, which reached the adoption of many international conventions and protocols dealing with terrorism and culminated in the adoption of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in September 8, 2006 Member States stressed the importance of the existing international instruments to combat terrorism, and the most important of these are:
1- The Tokyo Convention signed in 1963 on Crimes and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, which entered into force in 1971
2- The Hague Agreement signed in 1970 to prevent unlawful seizure of aircraft, which entered into force in 1971
3- The 1971 Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts directed against the safety of civil aviation became effective in 1973
4- The 1988 Montreal Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Using Civil Aircraft
5- The 1980 Geneva Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Avoiding the Potential Dangers from its Illicit Use
6- The 1999 Rome Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Actions Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation and Ships, whether they are military, commercial or political
7- The 1988 Convention against International Piracy
8- The 1973 New York Convention Concerning the Prevention of Crimes Against Diplomats or Those Enjoying International Protection, which entered into force in 1977. This convention included detailed provisions on acts committed against internationally protected personalities such as the head of state and prime minister
9- The 1979 New York Convention on Hostages, which aims to combat international terrorism, especially the crimes of taking hostages, as these crimes, among other crimes, are considered a serious violation of international law
10- The Convention on Combating Terrorist Operations with Explosives 1997
11 – Convention for the Prevention of the Financing of Terrorism 1999
12- The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 2005, which includes a wide range of possible actions and targets, including nuclear power installations and nuclear reactors.
13- The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy
Whereas, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in 2006 with the aim of improving national, regional and international efforts in this field. For the first time, all member states agree on a unified strategic approach to combat terrorism and take practical, individual and collective steps to prevent and combat it. This global strategy included an action plan that addressed a large group. Among the measures designed to address conditions are to assist in the spread of terrorism, to prevent and combat it, to build the capacity of states to confront it, to strengthen the role of the United Nations in this regard and to ensure respect for human rights, and to uphold the rule of law in combating terrorism. The strategy calls on member states to work with the United Nations system to implement the provisions of the plan The work outlined in the strategy also calls on United Nations entities to assist Member States in their efforts, and United Nations departments, programs, funds and agencies are taking actions in a number of areas in line withThe strategy is in its individual capacity and the task force is currently developing cooperation with a number of regional and sub-regional organizations among them : Organization of the Islamic Conference ( of OIC ) Organization of the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( Dina Abdo ) European Union ( the EU ) Council of Europe ( COE ) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe ( ( OSCE ) )
Referring to the role of the Security Council, as it was established in 2001 in the wake of the September 11 attacks on the United States, the Security Council established a committee to combat terrorism under Resolution 1373 mandated to play the role of oversight and the task of supporting the entirety of counter-terrorism activities, including providing institutional support to member states that need this support and seek The committee is to enhance the ability of the member states of the United Nations to prevent terrorist acts within their borders and in the areas in which they are located alike, and in order to assist the work of the committee. In 2004 the Council adopted Resolution 1535, which called for the establishment of an executive directorate for combating terrorism. The resolution obliges member states to implement a number of Measures including:Criminalizing terrorist financing without delay freezing any funds of persons who participate in acts of terrorism, preventing terrorist groups from obtaining any form of financial support, failing to provide safe haven, or support or support to terrorists, exchanging information with other governments about any group conducting business Terrorist acts or planning it, cooperating with other governments in the investigation of these terrorist acts, discovering them, arresting those participating in them, extraditing them and bringing them to justice, criminalizing aiding terrorists, actual or negative assistance in domestic laws, bringing their violators to justice, signing and ratifying UN conventions, and joining international instruments to combat TerrorSigning and ratifying United Nations conventions and joining international instruments against terrorismSigning and ratifying United Nations conventions and joining international instruments against terrorism
2- The European Union
Following the events of September 11, 2001, the European Union implemented Security Council resolutions and on September 28, 2001 the European Union adopted an action plan to combat terrorism. It includes a wide range of measures to be taken in various sectors (judicial cooperation, cooperation between police agencies, transportation safety, border control and document security, Combating finance, political dialogue and foreign relations, and defense against attacks of biological, chemical, radioactive and nuclear weapons).The terrorist operations in Madrid in 2004 and London in 2005 led to the intensification of cooperation in combating terrorism in the European Union and the completion of the action plan by adding more measures and procedures to it. The European Council that convened in 2004 adopted a declaration on solidarity against terrorism imposing the duty to provide support with all available tools, including: This is the military resources of the member state of the Union that is under terrorist attack, and within the framework of European efforts to combat terrorism, the European Council in 2004 adopted measures, including strengthening intelligence capabilities at the national and regional levels and at the level of international organizations. The European Council also approved in 2005 the European Union strategy against terrorism that is based It has four main pillars:Preventing the phenomenon of terrorism, protecting citizens, infrastructure and transportation by supporting security structures, tracking terrorists in the sense of seeking to prevent terrorist groups or terrorists as individuals from communicating with each other and from moving freely and from planning terrorist operations by dismantling the networks that provide them with support and funding, and responding in the sense of ability On managing the effects of possible terrorist operations and mitigating their impact from a perspective based on cooperation and solidarity. In addition, there is an increasing recognition of the importance of undertaking preventive action on a large scale on the basis of intercultural and interfaith dialogue in order to enhance knowledge and mutual understanding and thus narrow the field in which fundamentalist propaganda and terrorist recruitment activities are active.Increasing importance of undertaking preventive action on a large scale on the basis of intercultural and interfaith dialogue in order to enhance knowledge and mutual understanding and thus narrow the field in which fundamentalist propaganda and terrorist recruitment activities are activeIncreasing importance of undertaking preventive action on a large scale on the basis of intercultural and interfaith dialogue in order to enhance knowledge and mutual understanding and thus narrow the field in which fundamentalist propaganda and terrorist recruitment activities are active
3- The League of Arab States:
.The League of Arab States takes over the fight against terrorism that threatens the security and stability of Arab countries and poses a threat to their vital interests, both at the Arab or international level, and in compliance with the Charter of the United Nations. The efforts of the Arab countries reached the conclusion of the Arab Convention to Combat Terrorism at the meeting of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Justice held in The headquarters of the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States in Cairo in 1988 and the agreement defined the foundations for Arab cooperation in combating the phenomenon of terrorism. In the security field, it included a series of measures to prevent and combat terrorist crimes. The Contracting States pledged not to organize, finance, commit or participate in terrorist acts, in addition to arresting the perpetrators of terrorist crimes And prosecute them according to national law or hand them over. The League of Arab States, before and after the events of September 11, 2001, was keen to follow up the implementation of the relevant Security Council and General Assembly resolutions and affirmed its support inPreparing a comprehensive United Nations convention on international terrorism that includes a specific, internationally agreed definition of terrorism that distinguishes between terrorism and the legitimate right of peoples to resist occupation. The League of Arab States also continues its efforts to prepare a draft Arab agreement on computer crimes that includes provisions on combating the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes
From the above, we notice that terrorism has multiple directions, whether in terms of definition, interpretations, or even its types. This is due to the evolution of the phenomenon and its exacerbation throughout history, which has made it difficult to define it. There are those who focused on violence in defining and explaining it and those who focused on fear and those who focused on propaganda, giving way to many From the points of view and from the findings :
1- There are many trends that have dealt with the phenomenon of terrorism and its causes, but they agree in saying that the phenomenon of terrorism is a complex complex phenomenon and has many overlapping reasons, and conclusions vary according to the researchers’ specializations
2- The term terrorism is one of the most attractive terms for legal and international controversy in defining its concept and clarifying the elements and components of this concept.
Sources and references:
Khairy Abdul Nabi Jamaat Abu Jarrah Salameh, PhD research paper entitled: Terrorism in Public International Law, Faculty of Sharia and Law, Imam Mahdi University, Republic of Sudan, 2018
Ahmed Muhammad Wahban, Trends in the Analysis of the Terrorism Phenomenon, Its Evolution – Its Significance – Its Motivations, “A Survey of Contemporary Literature”, King Saud University Journal, 2015, Riyadh.
Adel Antar, Lectures on International Political Problems, Faculty of Economic Studies and Political Science, Alexandria University, 2020.
Kamal Abdullah Ahmad Al-Mahlawi, Terrorism in Jurisprudence and Law, Journal of the College of Sharia, Issue 1, 2018, University of the Noble Qur’an and Root Science
The Psychology of Terrorism: Individuals and Terrorist Groups, Al-Mesbar Center for Studies and Research, May 2017
David Patrick Hutton, Political Psychology, Translated by: Yasmine Khaled, Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, First Edition, 2015, Beirut.
Brigadier General Elias Abu Jaoudeh, Terrorism and International and Regional Efforts and Combating It, Lebanese National Defense Magazine, Issue 91, 2015, Lebanon