Dr. Nadia Helmy
Assistant Professor of Political Science at the Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University – expert in Chinese political affairs – Lecturer and visiting researcher at the Middle East Studies Center / Lund University in Sweden – Director of the South and East Asian Studies Unit.
This paper reviews the emergence of political science education in China and how it developed, and its relationship and position towards the Western School of Political Science, especially the European. It also sheds light on aspects of the overlap between what is political and what is political science in a country like China in which the Communist Party’s grip on the reins of life is dominated. It also clarifies the relationship between bureaucracy and “government administration” and controlling research paths through managing the financial funding for the research process.
There are many axes that the paper reveals between what is an “approach” and what is a “methodology” in the formation of the Chinese School of Political Science, and how political reality influences the orientations and choices of researchers.
The paper presents the origins and development of academic learning of the Chinese field of political science and the problems facing the academic community. It is also understood from the paper that China is trying to adopt a model that combines “Marxist” traditions and Western modernity, which is still in progress. Can China offer an alternative “approach” to Western approaches? By combining the characteristics of the “European” Western curriculum with the Chinese perspective. The Chinese jurisprudence, which is still in the process of updating, has not passed since more than 40 years, as it began its special model for the process of “modernization” in the eighties. China is working to develop and restructure its economy towards a more modern industrial base, because 55% of the population still works in agriculture, so the urbanization efforts are continuing, which is reflected in its development of educational tools and the opening of the horizons of systematic scientific research.
The study provides a huge amount of information and axes, which many specialists in the field of political science in Egypt and the Arab world may not know about the nature of the field of political science in China.
The interest of the Egyptian researcher, as a specialist in Chinese political affairs, was to develop the field of political science in Egypt and the region – mainly from a Chinese point of view – and with the encouragement of the international professor ( pioneer of Chinese studies) in the world, whose volume of books on Chinese affairs reached more than (80) books , which I share the same friendships and international relations with comrades in the ( ruling Communist Party) in China, Professor (David Goodman), the most important and most famous professor in the world in the field of ( Chinese studies ), with whom I have a deep friendship at the academic and personal levels, and we are both keen on daily intellectual communication and sharing On the status of ( the Chinese political field) and its developments both inside and outside China, and the results of the reforms of the Chinese President ( Xi Jinping)And the ruling party in China, not only that, but that Dr. (David Goodman) is (Vice President of Xi’an Jiaotong University – Liverpool) famous in the Chinese city (Suzhou) , which is a branch of the English ( Liverpool ) University , founded by the Chinese in the city of (Suzhou) ) Chinese, and they choose Professor giant Siddiqi wonderful leading Chinese studies in the world (David Goodman) as vice-rector of the branch of the University ( Liverpool ) English in China.
Prof.Dr.David Goodman, Vice President of “Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University” (xjtlu), Suzhou- China
Perhaps this new matter or topic that I open up with you and put it to you , and here I mean – specialists in the field of political science – is mainly to benefit from ( new Chinese political terms): such as: (the common destiny of mankind, the exchange of benefits, the winner – the winner … etc. ), And upgrading the political science curricula in our countries to work (an objective methodological balance between China, America and the West in studying the field of political science) , because the accident now is the production of graduates who hardly know anything about the Chinese political curricula as great powers in the world, and connect our children with American and Western schools of thought With their deep sense of weakness and defeat, for her constant talk about her secular values and her perceptions of the universe, life, politics, hegemony, control, power, influence, and the interests of the individual at the expense of all … etc. The result (future)It is the endeavor of our sons, graduates of the political science departments of the West and Washington, to deepen the concept of (hegemony) and (sense of self) against any other values or identities. For example, my teaching of the ( political theory ) curriculum for the third year political sciences has always forced me to talk about schools of (modernity and postmodernity) and explain the concepts of (secularism) and behaviorism, etc., as a curriculum that I was and are still associated with without the possibility of modification because it is not from my authority. In order for me to be honest with you, despite the state of (intellectual development) that I live and the state of permanent (mental activity) that everyone sees me in, I will admit to you a shocking confession, which is that I am an academic (modest)Perhaps because there are issues that require development based on my continuous readings and follow-ups around the world, but I am committed to teaching the same old curricula and ideas, because we (stopped here) … Yes, this is the description that immediately comes to my mind, and I am thinking about (the alternative) and ( What is the solution ? ) … I think that it was necessary for me to make that long introduction before I brief you about the state of the field of political science and how it is taught in Chinese universities? While preparing other studies, I will proceed to publish them successively on (Chinese political science and Chinese research journals in the field of political science and political societies mainly related to graduates of Chinese political science departments) , as an academic work and effort (mainly national) to inform you of another aspect that you are not familiar with about the state of the Chinese political field at home .
Perhaps the news that I read recently about the cooperation that has taken place between several official Chinese bodies to develop the field of Chinese studies within the framework of the Chinese (Belt and Road Initiative) , in partnership between: (The Secretariat of International and Regional Studies of the Chinese Ministry of Education and the Institute for Strategic Studies of the Silk Road at Shanghai University For International Studies, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation Center of the Chinese Ministry of Education) for building the education curriculum system within the framework of the “Belt and Road” initiative at the Shanghai University of International Studies.
What stopped me about the nature of this important news for me, considering that is the same as what I am aiming for, to develop the field of Chinese political studies in our Egyptian universities in the first place, is the nature of that Chinese development of the curricula of (the Belt and Road Initiative), which is what the official Chinese side has already discussed, with the participation of His experts on (the nature of the contents of the educational curriculum system within the framework of “the belt and the road”). A note worthy of consideration is the Chinese decision to add this new system in all stages (bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate) , and even to develop this new system to include the (post-doctoral) stage and the role of the new Chinese education curriculum system within the framework of the “Belt and Road” initiative as an indicator of the openness of Chinese education in the new era.
The most prominent issues that I will discuss in this file, combining (practical issues) and others (theoretical), to help both decision-makers and specialists in the field of (political science) understand all the controversial issues that accompanied the study and development of the field of (political science) in China, as follows :
– First : Why the need to study political science field and developed from the Chinese perspective?
– Second : the role of the ruling Communist Party and the political leadership in China President (Xi Jinping) in ( the development of political science) and other sciences in China ‘s post – university crisis (Kovid -19) – with casual examples of practical aspects (applied training in the faculties of Political Science and Law ) In China.
– Third : Paths to understand the political system in China.
– Fourth : the beginning of the emergence of political science field in China.
– Fifth : the field of political science case of China.
– Sixth : determine the discipline of political science in the Chinese context.
– Seventh : developments and achievements of the Chinese Political Science.
– Eighth : the institutionalization of political science in China.
– Ninth : Chinese achievements in the establishment of magazines and associations own field of political science.
– Tenth : the internationalization of political science in China.
– Eleventh : Challenges at the Crossroads (tension between alienation and Altotin- Westernisation And Indigenisation ) .
– XII : growing controversy in the choice between ( scientific and methodological pluralism ) in the field of Chinese political science.
– XIII : the balance between the “ivory tower” and “public convenience” or ” social significance” – “Ivory the tower” And Public Remember By Relevance .
– XIV : look back to move forward (ie , linking the past with the present) to understand the evolution of Chinese political science.
– First : Why the need to study political science field and developed from the Chinese perspective?
We have witnessed the great transformation in Chinese studies, especially Chinese political studies, in the past thirty years, especially with the introduction of the Chinese ( Belt and Road ) initiative , and the subsequent use of new (Chinese) terms, concepts and intellectual premises that were not in circulation before, due to changes in China. Its growing position in the world as well as changes in our ways of doing research.
As specialists in political science or area studies, as it is with me, with my intense focus on the Chinese issue first and then the Asian issue in its entirety, we are no longer “isolated” from other disciplines of political science and international relations, but we must be an integral part of them. This humble study contains Mona – as an expert on Chinese political affairs – I was keen to present it with ( a Chinese viewpoint)), On the theoretically innovative contributions of prominent political scientists from inside and outside China to the Chinese political science field, who together provide an updated overview of the state of the field of Chinese political studies, combining empirical and normative research as well as theoretical exploration and case studies, exploring the relationship between the state of Western political science Contemporary Chinese political studies, studying the logic and methods of political science, their scientific application, the latest developments in the study of Chinese politics, discussion of controversial issues and discussion in Chinese political studies, such as :
1- Universality and privacy.
2- Regularity and diversity.
3- Science and localization and their main problems.
4- Challenges, opportunities and trends for the methodological and intellectual development of Chinese political studies in the context of an emerging China.
Perhaps the best book in this regard , I came back to him to get to know all the thorny issues in the Chinese political science field – from the point of view of Chinese – essentially, is the book of the Chinese political analyst ” Sugian Guo Sujian Guo ‘s ” author of the book: ( Political Science Chinese: field case of political studies ). Which is one of the most important books that are focused on in the Western academic circle, which systematically presents the ongoing debate and sort out a wide range of critical and controversial issues in the debate. Many prominent scholars from inside China contributed to this book. It was published by ( Shanghai People’s Press) in 2016.
– Second : the role of the ruling Communist Party and the political leadership in China President (Xi Jinping) in ( the development of political science) and other sciences in China ‘s post – university crisis (Kovid -19) – with casual examples of practical aspects (applied training in the faculties of Political Science and Law ) In China:
Within the framework of the Chinese President’s constant keenness to meet Chinese university professors, researchers and academics in all fields, the Chinese President (Xi Jinping) called at the opening of the ( nineteenth) meeting of academics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the (fourteenth) meeting of academics at the Chinese Academy of Engineering, in the presence of the President The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Premier ( Li Keqiang) , member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee ( Wang Huning), and Deputy Prime Minister ( Han Cheng ), promoted the development of Chinese universities in all fields. And he stressed these meanings specifically after the outbreak of ( Corona pandemic)In China, he called on researchers in the country to make efforts to develop China into a world leader in science and technology, because the conditions, challenges and tasks are urgent, calling on all academics in the country to comprehend ( main trends), seize opportunities, face problems directly, and rise to the level of challenges. Literally , President Xi said, “As China strives for prosperity and innovation, it needs to devote great energy to promoting science and technology, and strive to be the main global center for science and innovation in Chinese universities.”
During his meeting with the (Chinese academics ) youth , President Xi called on them, “They should aim at the limits of science and technology, lead the direction of its development, shoulder the heavy responsibilities that history has given it, and be the vanguard of innovation in the new era .” He insisted on emphasizing the phrase ” China’s strength in this field is undergoing a transition from the accumulation of quantity to a qualitative leap, and from breakthroughs in some areas to the improvement of methodological capabilities .”
Xi pointed out that since the Eighteenth National CongressTo the CPC in 2012, China adheres to the leadership of the Party in the cause of university development, science and technology, strives toward the goal of developing China into a scientific and technological powerhouse, adheres to the path of innovation, inspires the vitality of creativity through profound reform, and emphasizes the key role of talent in innovation-driven development, And merging itself into a global network of innovation, stressing the occurrence of historical, macro and structural changes that push towards the need to develop the university sector in China, especially in light of a new round of scientific, technological and industrial revolutions that are reshaping the global field and the global economic structure, because the impact of science and technology on the country’s future and well-being The people are not as profound as they are today in China to support the development of the country’s modern economy, and innovation is the main driving force of development, so efforts should be made to ensure high-quality competition.
After the outbreak of the (Covid-19) crisis , Shi called for the “integration of the Internet, big data, and artificial intelligence with the real economy, and pushing for fundamental transformations of industrial pattern and enterprise forms in manufacturing and transferring Chinese industries to the upper middle end of the global value chain. Take bold steps to reach “leadership heights” in scientific and technological competition and future development.
Called “Xi ” to make greater efforts to research and planning of scientific fundamental importance of the issues of universal importance, it must be the core resources focused and be strategic planning to deal with the ” key areas and problems of strangulation” , calling to make breakthroughs as soon as possible in these areas. At the same time, President Xi urged comprehensive reform of the scientific system to improve performance efficiency and inspire innovation vitality, calling for institutional innovation.
Xi called on all (Chinese academics ) to “deeply participate in (global governance), introduce Chinese wisdom, and make greater efforts to promote building a society with a shared future for mankind . ” Pointing out that “efforts must be made to deepen international exchanges and cooperation, benefit from resources, and establish partnerships characterized by equal cooperation to deal with common challenges related to future development, food and energy security, health and climate change.”
With the Chinese President (Xi Jinping) stressing that the country should achieve its development through the minds of our children, as China will bring benefits to more countries and their peoples, and promote balanced development around the world. Encouraging the importance of integrating into the global innovation network, and promoting openness of the country’s scientific and technological plans. With his constant affirmation that ” Chinese academics are called to actively participate and lead international scientific plans and projects, initiate and organize . “
As a personal observation to me , what was always mentioned above, although confirmed by Chinese President (Xi Jinping), has actually been applied to the field of political science in China and the battle for its development, especially in recent years, as follows :
1) Interest in the program of ( political science) departments in Chinese universities, studying the history and methods of political science, discussing the main ideologies and different perspectives, developing (quantitative methods) used in this field, paying attention to international (negotiation ) curricula and providing practical training for that. He is also comparing different governments and policies to clarify various political theories, and gives an overview of the development of political science in many other countries, especially the neighboring countries, with his keenness to discuss all the recent developments in the American political arena.
2) The annual keenness to include the list of new Chinese universities in the country in the list of the main universities of the “211 Project “, which is a Chinese governmental program that aims to enhance the efficiency of (100) Chinese universities in the ( twenty-first century) to have a high academic level.
3) Perhaps the most important experience for me is that the Chinese government attaches great importance to international cooperation and cultural exchange between departments and faculties of political science and others, as more than (120) formal partnership relations have been established with universities, colleges, and international organizations outside China. The university, along with its partners, also implements a series of cultural exchange activities and academic programs abroad, and encourages dialogue between Chinese students studying political science and foreigners in an effort to promote ( the globalization perspective) among Chinese students, according to what is written within the internal regulations of Chinese universities.
4) The faculties of political science and law pay attention to applied education and practical experience. A number of them have established training centers at the level of ( Beijing Municipality ) and several other Chinese provinces, to develop students ’competence outside the university, and centers for practical training. Half of the college’s students have opportunities to travel abroad either for study or training, or to participate in cultural exchange activities.
5) The political science departments in China contain ( open student complexes and activities) for both Chinese and expatriate students, and these complexes have organized hundreds of intercultural exchange activities and academic lectures, including ( the International Cultures Festival, the Ambassadors Forum, as well as the International Cultures Exchange Week. ). Every year, all departments of Chinese political science and international relations invite hundreds of government officials or officials in international organizations, senior professors from leading universities, and senior managers of multinational companies to hold seminars or give lectures.
6) Officials of the ruling Communist Party in China have worked to ensure that political science departments work to support and promote ( national culture) , by providing ( high-level training base) for them in all government ministries such as the Ministry of Trade and Foreign Affairs.
7) In addition, political science graduates play important roles to serve the nation in all fields after their graduation, such as: government ministries, financial institutions, Chinese customs, embassies, universities, multinational companies, and international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank .
Here, I have chosen to convey to everyone the Chinese experience that I have registered (actually) in benefiting from the graduates of political science colleges and being very keen on training them and refining their skills in practice. Perhaps this is what ( we miss in political science colleges in Egypt and the region ) in terms of providing (mandatory training) for all students by the state to prepare them as an integrated component for the future.
– Third : Pathways to understand China ‘s political system :
The Chinese government affirms its internal commitment to building democracy, the rule of law, and protecting citizens’ rights as part of a massive nation-building effort. Evidence of this is its success since 1978 in lifting millions out of poverty and leading to a more open society.
To understand the totality of the interactions of the Chinese political system, it is necessary to develop a conceptual framework for Understanding China that highlights the intersection of politics and economics. He explains that instead of developing into a fully-developed market economy, state and party officials at all levels of the political system maintain a significant influence on economic development. Such a “political” economy has achieved both positive and negative results, and the understanding of the Chinese political system throws us towards the necessity of studying the opinions, backgrounds and relations between Chinese leaders, and how these leaders make decisions about public policy in the country, and try to implement these decisions through the system.
China has few formal institutions through which citizens can participate in politics, but our study of the strategies the Chinese use to try to influence the decisions of their leaders is an important entry point to understanding the interactions between the system and the Chinese people . In the end, we can assess the future of China and whether rapid economic development and the emergence of a large middle class will push China toward greater democracy or whether the one-party system is likely to persist in the future.
The most important paths of political action in China are :
1- The economic path of China: the correct mix between the market and the planned economy, and it takes two forms or two types, namely : –
A) Domestic adjustments: Beijing seeks to create an environment conducive to an increase in domestic spending and, in particular, an increase in the service sector by investing in advanced technological industries.
B) Restructuring and urbanization: China is working to develop and restructure its economy towards a more modern industrial base, because 55% of the population still works in agriculture, so the urbanization efforts are continuing.
2- China’s political track: developing China’s model of democracy:
A) Institutionalization: The institutionalization of the development of Chinese democracy takes place in (the National People’s Congress and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference) . These organizations serve the function of making people’s voices heard, and act as voices of government, as control and balance. The CPPCC is important to help develop consensus, and decisions are made after a large-scale institutional process.
B) Democracy : It is often asked when China will adopt Western-style democracy? The Chinese government asserts that Chinese democracy will develop in its own way according to its own needs. With many important needs, such as rooting out corruption and training local officials.
3- China’s international track: peaceful development and good relations with all countries:
A) The strategic choice: that China’s pursuit of peaceful development at the international level was a strategic choice for the following reasons:
It is in China’s interest to have a stable and peaceful international environment, especially as its interests and those of the world have become intertwined.
Globalization has resulted in win-win results in trade, trade and investment so that prosperity can be better shared around the world.
Seeking harmony by searching for common ground and avoiding war is part of China’s culture and values.
B) Military Investment: According to statements by Chinese officials, Chinese military investment is high, due to :
China needs to defend its long land and sea borders and protect trade.
– In addition, ruling Communist Party officials have argued that China’s military development is defensive in nature and conducive to modernization, which is only a small part of the country’s gross domestic product.
Challenge the US Army: China does not have the ability, mind, or cultural intention to challenge the United States militarily, because the United States helps in global prosperity by protecting the world’s interests – according to China’s policy approaches – with conditions changing now after the trade war and the Corona pandemic.
4- The model of (Chongqing) city in China and trying to generalize it: An example of a successful industrial and economic experience:
A) The western city (Chongqing) has been very successful in attracting industry: this prevents the social problems that result from the movement of potential workers to other cities, where it lacks residency status.
B) A possible model for generalization: Because it represents a very impressive start in China, if it proves successful, it could be a model for other cities.
5- South China Sea claims:
A) Clarified claims to China: China’s claim to lands in the South China Sea is not on the whole sea, but on the islands and 12 nautical miles around those islands.
B) Code of Conduct: The 2002 Declaration on the ( Code of Conduct) signed between China and ( ASEAN) is a good way to solve the problem. Also, since then, others ( ASEAN) countries have kept digging, but China has not done so, preferring to wait for a peaceful solution.
Through the previous presentation , the Egyptian researcher tried briefly to adhere to the most important paths that govern political work in China, internally, externally and regionally, and try to apply and understand them in our political science departments to develop them by introducing Chinese politics into our educational curricula. According to the most important Chinese policy studies departments in the world, its most important parts are as follows :
– The first part : the Chinese political system models and the structure of the party / Chinese state.
– Part II : Elite Politics in China.
– Part III : policy – making process in China.
– Part IV : understanding of community participation in politics in China.
– Part V : domestic and international political economy in China.
– Part VI : China ‘s future: democracy or ” tyranny flexible .”
The most important paths that govern the social structure inside China, in the past and present:
– The first part : the social and education infrastructure in Imperial China.
– Part II : education and social mobility in contemporary China.
– Part III : Mobility and social distribution of wealth at the end of the era of the Chinese empire and contemporary China.
– Part IV : Distribution of wealth and change the regime in China of the twentieth century.
– Fourth : the beginning of the emergence of political science field in China:
The emergence of modern Chinese political science can be traced back to the early twentieth century when several colleges (pioneered by the Imperial University of Beijing, now called Peking University) established departments of law and political science. Many well-known political scientists appeared in the 1930s in 1932, such as : (Gao Yihan – Xiao Gongquan – Deng Chuming – Zhang Weici – Qian Duansheng) .
The ( China Political Science Association ) was established by 1946, the society had about 140 members. Western approaches to discipline dominated Chinese political studies in the early days because many professors in China received their training in the West and then introduced a Western curriculum to China. However, the disciplinary and intellectual development of modern Chinese political science did not go smoothly. It experienced ups and downs throughout most of the twentieth century, along with revolutions in the country, wars and political turmoil.
Development of the system was halted by the civil war in the late 1940s, and then it was abolished entirely as an independent system by the new communist regime during the reorganization of the nationwide higher education campaign in 1952.
According to communist thought, social science ( especially political science ) is a ” pseudoscience” and a tool used by the bourgeoisie to control people and society. Moreover, the dominance of Western approaches in the field has made the Communist leaders and many Chinese intellectual elites believe that the practice of adopting Western social sciences in China should be completely reformed. After coming to power, the regime copied ( the Soviet education system) , in which political science had no place. Some subfields of political science.
– Fifth : Chinese Political Science Field Status:
Studies related to political science such as: (political thought, governmental authority, and comparative constitutions) were integrated into law schools. Others have been replaced by ( Marxist theories or studies of the international communist movement ), where ” politics is primarily associated with ideology” rather than scientific discipline. As a result, the scholarly and independent discipline of political science was severely suppressed and disappeared for three decades before the dawn of Chinese reform and openness in the late 1970s.
The re-establishment of political science in contemporary China was marked by the “ founding conference of the Chinese Association of Political Science” in December 1980 in Beijing, encouraged by a call from the new Chinese leader, Ding Xiaoping, stating that China needs to catch up with social science research.
Key issues were discussed during the meeting, including how to relaunch ( relaunch political science research in China), and how to define the mission, objectives and scope of discipline while facing remaining hostility towards it. The ” National Program for Political Science Research for a period of five years (1981-1985) ” was approved .
It is noteworthy that the early development of the restored discipline of political science was marked by a dominant revival of international studies drawn from the “ studies of the international communist movement ” of the Maoist era, with other sub-fields such as comparative politics and Chinese politics being relatively backward. Over the next decade, political science departments and local political science societies were successively established across China. Training programs, research projects, and academic exchanges have been revitalized and flourished again. All this opened up new hopes for political science in China.
– Sixth : determine the discipline of political science in the Chinese context:
Political science is a branch of social science that deals extensively with the allocation of power and resources in public life, systems of government, and analysis of political activities and behavior at the local level,
At the national, national and international level, however, there is no common understanding of the meaning, scope, and sub-fields of political science within China, which have been shaped by the Chinese political situation and ideology and the developmental path of discipline. Before moving to a state of discipline, it is important to define the discipline of political science in the Chinese context, as follows : –
– First , the complexity of Chinese political science has long research and education Marxists: so that some Chinese scientists have defended the Chinese political science as ” political science of Marxism “, which must adhere to the principles and views and methods of Marxism. Since 1984, “ideological and political education ”, which focuses on the political ideologies of the party, has been an integral part of political science education , with 139 universities receiving relevant bachelor’s degrees in 2003.
Compulsory courses are widely taught to all students across majors, such as : –
Zhonggong dangshi ” – (History of the Chinese Communist Party)
“Makesi zhuyi zhengzhi jingji xue” – (Marxist Political Economy)
exue shehui zhuyi ” – (Socialist scientific or Marxist political economy).
In recent years, at least twenty-one separate Chinese universities ( Marxist schools) have been established to facilitate Marxist research and education. Although it is important to acknowledge this complexity in Chinese political science, Marxist research and education will not be primarily the focus of my study. In view of the existence of other recent developments in China, a first contemporary study .
– Second , the relations between China ‘s political science and sub-fields and other disciplines associated with them is difficult to overcome it accurately: According to the Chinese Ministry of Education, is a political science system “first – level ” in the framework of the discipline of law, and consists of eight sub – fields ( specializations “Second level” ), including political theory, comparative political institutions, scientific socialism, and socialism. The International Communist Movement, History of the Chinese Communist Party, International Politics, International Relations, and Diplomacy.
However, in practice, each university has its own administrative formation and subsections of political science, which are determined by its research priorities and development plan. While there are universities in China that have a hybrid mixture of political studies, public administration and international relations, most universities have the three separate departments, although they may reside in the same school. In some major universities ( such as Renmin University in China and Xinhua University ).
( Public Administration) is a stand-alone school separate from political science and international relations. Meanwhile, all Chinese political science, international relations, and public administration each have their own journals, societies and meetings. Most interesting, in some universities.
Political science majors are governed by the ( School of Public Affairs ), while in other departments (for example at Peking University), there is a Department of Political Science in the ( School of Government ), which can be separate from the School of International Relations. As a result, there is a distinction in China between the so-called ( major political science ), which includes all related fields, and ” minor political science “, which usually includes ( political theory, Chinese politics, comparative politics, and international politics ).
The Egyptian researcher will focus here mainly on ” minor political science “, because of this important significance. It should be noted here , that the scope of political science in China is still undergoing change, and besides the institutionalization, professionalization and internationalization of the system, it approaches the common standards of other countries. The researcher will be exposed to it later.
– Seventh : developments and achievements of the Chinese Political Science:
Chinese political science has shown remarkable achievements in terms of quantity and quality over the past three decades, largely due to the reform and transformation of Chinese politics in the ( post-Mao ) era , as well as changes in the methods of conducting political research. Although it still faces ideological limitations and a lack of competence, it can be observed (the revival of political science as an independent system) , manifested in the institutionalization, professionalism, and internationalization, in contemporary China.
– Eighth : the institutionalization of political science in China:
The development of political science in ( post-Mao) China is evidenced by the increasing (institutionalization) of specialization as a distinct field of study. Infrastructure appeared “university colleges”, Including university departments, research centers, educational projects, professional societies, scholarly journals and academic conferences, one by one, with increasing input from human resources. As well as creating search boxes, and fruitful outputs in terms of scientific publishing and diplomas. In 1985, there were only about 100 professional teachers, 535 bachelor’s students, 93 master’s students, and just over 100 university textbooks in political science. But due to the advancement of the field of political science, during the period 2006-2010, according to an incomplete survey, there were about 150 institutes and 10,000 researchers specializing in political research, and they conducted more than 700 state-sponsored grant projects and produced more than 70,000 articles and academic papers, 4,000 books and 450 texts. . Hence, the overall progress is evident.
– Ninth : Chinese achievements in the establishment of magazines and associations own field of political science:
In addition to some interdisciplinary journals that accept political science articles and research, specialized political science journals have appeared. For example, in 1985 the ( Institute of Political Science of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) launched the (Political Science Research – Zhengzhi xue Yanjiu ) program.
In recent years, some (Chinese academic journals in English in political science) have appeared , such as : ( Chinese Journal of Political Science, Chinese Journal of International Policy, Review of Chinese Political Science, and Fudan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ), which were established by Chinese scholars and institutes . These English journals gradually received international recognition by adopting a strict review system, and attracting an increasing number of researchers to publish in them from outside China. Many political science associations were established, both professional societies, as well as many local organizations, and the Chinese Political Science Association (CPSA) was launched . These Chinese political science societies are popular thanks to the Chinese people’s use of WeChat) For the Chinese, which is similar to the feature of the application ( WhatsApp ) for chatting and chatting. WhatsApp & WeChat , as many online chat groups have been established focusing on political studies. These platforms not only facilitate daily discussion, academic exchange and network building, but also contribute to the organization of numerous conferences, workshops and seminars.
On the other hand, thanks to the adoption of the ( planned economy) system by the Chinese state, the Chinese government is now increasingly devoted to party- and state-led scholarships in the fields of political science to serve the purposes of state modernization, Party programs and policies, and domestic political discourse, the Chinese state and the ruling Communist Party have invested In building various types of research centers in political studies, not only in universities, but also in (party schools, academies of social sciences, think tanks and even within the government ).
The government largely sponsored a large number of ” state research institutions” that political researchers could apply to. In 2017, the state selected political science departments in six Chinese universities, namely: ( Peking University, Fudan University, Renmin University, Xinhua University, China University of Foreign Studies and Central China University of Teachers ) to build an independent field of political science equivalent to or equivalent to a ” system of The first degree for teaching political science in world universities . This huge investment by the state may boost political studies in China.
However, the involvement of the authorities may also raise concerns among some about the independence of academic research in political science, which this study will return to the next section .
– Tenth : professional and professional political science in China:
The institutionalization of Chinese political science went hand in hand with its professionalism. There are ( two basic aspects) to professionalize political studies in China, they are :
– the first side , interest in training practical through (institutional settings) for the rehabilitation of Chinese researchers, have been developed standards and common values to ensure professionalism in the research field: have resulted in the adoption of professional training in concepts, theories and methods to raise the capabilities of political scientists Chinese strict and serious research, as well as Into well-designed courses. When ( Fudan University in Shanghai) in 1982 included the first training program for political science research and teaching, there were only fourteen participants and a limited number of training courses, but now it has expanded greatly.
However, at present, Chinese political science departments can provide different types of required and selective courses from bachelor’s to doctoral level, ranging from ( Western political thought to political economy, from political philosophy to game theory, from Chinese politics to comparative politics, and from work). Field to survey research ).
The political science curriculum became deeper and more comprehensive, and English literature was widely incorporated into the curriculum, although each university may maintain its own characteristics and a gap still exists between the best universities and other lower ranks of universities. In addition, dozens of extracurricular courses are provided on research methods and various other topics during summer or winter breaks.
Many training courses for political science students are organized in Chinese universities in cooperation with a number of Western and American universities, and they are taught by foreign professors. A prime example is the ” Summer School of Research Methods in Political Science” provided by the US ( Duke University) and several Chinese universities, with at least 1,500 graduates since 2006.
In terms of research in the political field, although there are still many political studies conducted in the traditional style, it is not uncommon at the present time to see Chinese research in the field of politics without rigorous work ( implementation procedures and analytical designs) , whether they are Those papers submitted to specialized scientific journals or Chinese conferences. This can be attributed to the various training courses mentioned above, and the fact that an increasing number of returning young political scientists have received their training and certification from abroad.
Attempts to make political research ” scientific ” are very clear and fruitful. For example, a wide range of textbooks have been translated into Chinese and included in university classes, such as the book series : ( “Wanjuan Fangfa” – Infinite Methods).
Surveys now show that empirical studies occupy nearly a third of political research in China, and are showing (an upward trend ) of interest. Moreover, although it is still a small percentage, the more complex research using statistical regression, formal models, and even experiments as well.
Another indication of the professionalism of political studies in China is (the decrease in the incidence of plagiarism in academic work ), which has been a serious problem in Chinese social science research. It is worth noting that these methodological improvements are largely derived from (the introduction and application of Western approaches to Chinese political research) . This has also caused discussions among Chinese scholars, and this point I will address in the next section .
– The second aspect , Chinese political research has evolved into a socio-social system, although it has been politically and ideologically restricted and monitored in China: However, compared to the years preceding reform and opening up, there is much more scope for conducting empirical research on a variety of topics, such as : study of governance , a new magazine was created for (Chinese governance) . Chinese political scientists have learned to gain great adaptability in order to develop their research ideas, for example, by changing the narrative or setting the research in a politically safe manner. In addition, evaluation of academic performance and intellectual promotion is no longer largely determined by political authority, but rather is based on more scholarly merits. And what contributed to that ( adoption of the peer review system)In many contexts, including: publishing, requesting funds, recruitment and promotion, which has led to the professionalization of the field. However, political research in China is not without politics, censorship and administrative interference, and (the culture of Guanxi) meaning interference and control of the work of others.
– Tenth : the internationalization of political science in China :
Political science research cannot be developed through isolation. International exchanges and border-shaming cooperation will not only advance Chinese political studies, but also enhance the importance of Chinese political science in the world. Chinese political science has a long history of dealing with the international academic community. Shortly after the establishment of the (China Political Association) , in 1984, this coincided with the election of a Chinese political scientist for the first time unanimously in the ( International Political Science Association) as a member of its executive committee.
Since restoring discipline, Chinese scholars have been actively participating in international conferences. The “ Committee on Contemporary Chinese Politics” was organized by Chinese scholars for the first time in 1985 by the ( World Conference on Political Science) , and at the same time, many young Chinese talents received grants to study ( political science abroad) and became the backbone of studies. Contemporary Chinese politics, and play a pioneering role in spreading Chinese political science.
Some research topics have been banned or restricted, such as : (civil society, labor movements, constitutional reform, Xinjiang, Tibet) . Accordingly, self-imposed caution has increased in recent years, given that studies on politically sensitive topics cannot be considered for publication, will not be supported by ( government research funds ), and may even be subject to political discipline. Nevertheless, scholars in political studies have learned the research methods to conduct their research without “crossing ” the political line of the party.
But in April 1996, due to the disputed status in Taiwan, the (Chinese Political Association) withdrew from the ( International Political Science Association ) membership as a Chinese political position that was registered due to the policies of the International Society and its academics (in support of Taiwan) against China.
Moreover, since the new millennium, the Chinese government began giving a group of scholarships abroad to distinguished young Chinese in political science, and the leading institution in the field of scholarships is ( the China Scholarship Council ), to encourage and support Chinese scholars by giving them scholarships to go abroad to attend conferences. Research visits and education. The viewpoint of political leaders in China is that ” when these scholars bring new knowledge and international networks to China, this will promote the internationalization of the profession .” In addition, studying political science abroad aims to improve ( global visibility and world ranking ), while (encouraging English publications).In specially refereed international journals and giving financial rewards for publishing in them by Chinese universities. Nowadays, it is no longer surprising to see the presence of Chinese students and scholars in Western universities and international conferences in other parts of the world, reading their works published in journals in English. In short, China Political Science International Participation is now made up of independent initiatives by individual scholars, academia, and government. Besides reaching the world, bringing knowledge from abroad to enrich Chinese political science was even more impressive. In the eighties, it has invited internationally renowned scientists, including : (Gabriel Almond, David Easton, and Robert Dahl, and Martin Lipset) to visit China, during which he threw lectures on various advanced topics to discuss political, such as : “Democratic theories ”of the well-known American researcher (Robert Dahl) .
The Chinese Institutes have warmly welcomed delegations ( American Political Science Association, Harvard University, Science Po ), and many others to explore cooperation opportunities with them. With the support of efforts from both the Chinese and the American sides, several ” official exchange platforms and US-China cooperative mechanisms in the field of political science” have been established . The Chinese universities ( Beijing, Fudan, Renmin ) are pioneers in this regard.
( Government College) affiliated with (Peking University) has a long history of technical cooperation with universities ( Harvard, Stanford, Princeton, and the London Stock Exchange) . The College of International Relations and Public Affairs at ( Fudan University) also enjoys close relations with the universities (Oxford and Lund ), and many American universities, in terms of student exchange, visiting researchers and joint diploma programs.
( The Fudan Institute for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences) was famous for encouraging international exchange and cooperation in political science, and inviting many famous scholars in political science, including ( Adam Przewski, Philip Schmitter, Terry Lynn Karl, Joseph Nye, Robert Cohan, Nannerl Cohan, Michael Sandel and Francis Fukuyama), And much more to give lectures, teach courses, and do independent research. Chinese scholars and institutes have also made major contributions to translating academic literature in political science from foreign languages.
Moreover , some major Chinese universities, such as : ( Fudan University ) , have opened the English Language Department, and master’s and doctoral programs, to attract foreign students who want to learn political science in China. For many of these students, especially from developing countries, the Chinese government offers them excellent scholarships.
The past decades have witnessed great progress in Chinese political science, embodied in its astonishing achievements in institutionalization, professionalism and professionalism, and internationalization. However, there are still ( various problems) facing the field of political science in China, including : (the influence of state and party administration, the geographical imbalance of scholars, the inequitable distribution of resources, the unstable quality of scientific outputs, and the lack of scholars in political science ), And others. In addition to the existence of ( other internal problems related to China) itself, for example, scientific investigation faces in political studies(Institutional restrictions; selective censorship and self-censorship restrict academic freedom; foreign research funds and sites have been widely banned by the authorities; and scholars are seeking political ties with the ruling Communist Party’s elite as a way to advance and acquire academic positions) . Therefore, all of these factors are likely to negatively affect the long-term healthy development of Chinese political science.
Nevertheless, on top of all of these issues, discipline is currently approaching a crossroads where there are three other basic, but controversial issues, that shape the future direction of Chinese political studies, which are: (the tension between Westernization and localization, and the choice between authorship, methodological pluralism, and balance) Between the “ivory tower” and the distance from social appearances, and between social importance) . These are the axes of the next section .
– eleventh ten : challenges at the crossroads (tension between alienation and resettlement) Westernisation And Indigenisation
Chinese political science has made great progress over the past decades. Its development was embodied by the introduction and application of Western theories, concepts, models and methods in the study of Chinese politics. However, in recent years, political scholars inside and outside China have been fiercely debating the main controversial issue of how Chinese political science is moving forward and where to turn. The heated debate centers on the relationship between Western political science and Chinese political studies, including :
(Global vs. Privacy) Universality : versus Particularity
(Regularity versus diversity) Regularity : versus Diversity
(Globalization versus Localization ) Scientifcation versus Localization
As well as the main problems, challenges, opportunities and trends for the disciplinary and intellectual development of Chinese political studies in the context of an emerging China. And although the call for the scientific localization of political studies, i.e. making it more (local), can also be found in many other countries outside the United States, including ( Korea, India, Japan, Russia, Canada, Central and Eastern Europe ), given the size of China and its increasing status, Many Chinese scholars tend to be much more assertive about the issue of “ localization, ” ie making it more local.
Two camps of defenders emerged in the heated debates about the paths that discipline should take in the field of politics, and the discussion focused on: the nature of political knowledge, ways to understand Chinese politics, and a dangerous and confusing tension appears between ( scientific, global and positivist traditions on the one hand, and the disciplinary, historical and contextual, and traditions ) On the other hand.
The development of Chinese political science benefited greatly from (the introduction of Western curricula) . However, many Chinese scholars have begun to emphasize the limitations of scientific methods and to ask “ scientific ” questions or experimental research methods and experimental positivism, and to argue that these scientific methods oversimplify a large variety of important materials and information, with so much missing information or material. The hollow, which makes such political studies less explanatory and deprives political analyzes of the historical, social and philosophical perspectives so essential to understanding politics and other social issues.
Others still doubt the possibility of applying ( Western knowledge of political science to the Chinese context) , and they called for the development of a “ Chinese school” for political research that sheds light on the uniqueness of China and the distinctive nature of Chinese intellectual traditions, as follows :
– First , they argue scientists in the adoption of random theories, concepts and Western methods to study China has sacrificed the local knowledge of the Chinese context , political and cultural differences: As a result, they argue that the Chinese political science has become a laboratory for justice for testing and verification of the concepts of Western theories, and thus contribute very little to understand reality China and China Political Development Service. A widely cited example is the survey conducted by the Asian Barometer in which the Chinese showed the strongest support for ” democracy” in East Asia, which is clearly false and misleading.
– Second , the level of knowledge, many considered that the widespread Western knowledge in political science that promotes global in China, is in fact imposes restrictions dominate the Chinese studies: According to them, the Western domination of the political science or Western colonization of Chinese Social Sciences promotes Imposing a central Western vision and imposing Western standards on China. Hence, as Chunlai argued, social sciences in China should have Chinese academic standards and validate their own “ according to China ,” or “ to create our ideal image of a social system ” .
– Third , in the face of China, with China approaching official views of the world stage center, many Chinese scientists have become more confident in challenging the grant of Western scholarships and build “Chinese letters” their own without dictating or imposing conditions of the West: If the previous decades years learned Chinese political scientists from the West and grew up, the coming decades are seen by many as an era of strategic opportunities to transform China from an intellectual “laboratory” for testing Western theories to a ” knowledge factory ” to produce local theories and approaches. Therefore, they vigorously advocate the establishment of a “ Chinese school ” in the Chinese context and believe that “political science has Chinese characteristics“It will have a profound impact on the academic community in China and the world. This means that the localization of political science research in China is not just an intellectual endeavor but is driven and also contributes to the national situation of China. The other camp is opposed by the scholars, who are represented by :
Keping Yu – Yang Zhong – Baogang He – Guoguang Wu – Jefrey C. Isaac – Kevin O’Brien – Björn Alpermann
As for the idea of “settling political science in China ,” they argue that Chinese political studies should share the same logic of social science inquiry and seek to explore the general and regular patterns found in political life, phenomena and behavior. As some have pointed out, for any science to be universal, it must be without imposing comprehensive views on others. From this perspective, if political science is to be accepted as a “ science ” in China, it must be recognized that it has “ a set of common concepts, methods, and axioms that are shared with political scholars in other countries ”.
Studies conducted by these scholars confirm that political research in China has achieved great progress by adopting rigorous scientific methods from Western academic disciplines, including political science, economics, sociology and many other fields of social sciences.
Moreover, they warn that ( over-focusing on China’s specificity) will mislead Chinese scholars and hinder them from developing Chinese political science.
Yang Zhong (2012) suggested , “We should analyze“ Chinese special conditions ”and “ cultural factors ” for the deeper meaning of these conditions and factors so that we can visualize these conditions and factors and bring them to the theoretical level. By doing so, Chinese political studies are expected to contribute to the development of the field ( comparative politics ), in particular, and political science in general, rather than isolating itself from the rest of the world.
More profoundly, these scholars also argue for the “dual treatment of the division between” Chinese “and” Western “ ), and explain that there is no unified Western political science. Where it is not appropriate to take the European tradition, or for the Chinese political research to be identical to the American research. Hence, these scholars call for an end to ” disciplinary nationalism” and a move toward a more globalized or “global ” political science .
Tensions are rising between Westernization and the lack of resettlement of political studies in China, as not every camp can convince its counterpart. However, the “ greatest common denominator ” can be found through advocacy and experimenting with a new approach as a compromise between ( Westernization and Localization ) is an approach: “Glocalisation” that combines “globalization” and “ localization ” and emphasizes the mutual enrichment between the two sides.
This means that the trend will not be “globalization ” or ” Westernization “. But both of them can be the starting point for each other in a cumulative and continuous process of intellectual and disciplinary development. By doing so, Chinese political science can not only preserve its distinct cultural diversity for political analysis, but it can also improve itself by engaging more with the world and contributing to public scholarship in political science by evoking its wisdom.
– Second ten : Controversy has grown in the choice between the scientific and methodological pluralism in the field of Chinese Political Science:
There is another closely related but distinctive issue that challenges Chinese political science, and it is the methodological choice between interpretation (ie calling for making political science more “scientific “) and methodological pluralism (ie calling for diverse methods of political research ). As discipline has become an international and professional requirement in China, it tends to become increasingly “scientific” through the use of statistical methods and formal mathematical models.
While ( Chinese political quantitative research) has been on the rise in recent years, especially by young scholars who have received systematic training in research methods. A study of publications in major political science journals revealed that the weight of quantitative studies increased from 7.09% in 2006 to 33.11% in 2018.
An attempt was made to argue that Chinese political science, far from being scientific, as it is in the West, has aroused resistance from domestic scholars in China. Most of the opinions in China are agreed on (the precedence of quantitative research versus qualitative directed research) , in order to develop discipline in the field. Although doubts about the “formalist approach” of political studies are a global phenomenon, they appear more acute in China for several reasons :
– First : China ‘s long history in the humanities, the Chinese Political Studies maintains a tradition of Fikri forces is characterized by historical inquiries and discussions of philosophical analysis Ethnographic research in theory and thought political: In the past, students in Chinese universities lack the training of systematic scientific. But most ancient generations of Chinese scholars have always stressed the importance of conventional or normative analysis while downplaying empirical studies based on data. They support ” Chinese resistance to political studies .”
– Second : Although the survey research was difficult and unrelated to Chinese political studies , as noted by some analysts, but the implementation of surveys of sampling in China has become common in recent years as a result of the efforts made by returnees from abroad, and as a result of increased training courses for researchers: what It led to quantitative research being followed across many cases. Besides, China was forced, under pressure to maintain good international publishing records, to allow quantitative analysis to be followed for its researchers, because quantitative political analysis gets a privileged position, and in research competitions as well, the criterion for winning is more quantitative analysis as a condition for winning the periodic research competitions now. Among students in Chinese universities.
As a result, the rapid and aggressive advancement of the quantitative approach has begun to alarm China’s old-school scholars who reject quantitative analysis in Chinese politics. In addition, the accelerated application of quantitative scientists’ methods in the early years led to the production of many poor papers. This may increase doubts and criticism.
– Third : deeper, the emerging use of quantitative methods focus in politics science in China at various processing problems narrower and less dependency, big and hard questions and some theories actually lose their importance and give way to topics fragmented and vulgar increasingly: and therefore, expresses many Chinese job seekers They worry about it, and warn that if all political studies were to be done quantitatively, “the most interesting and most important issue in Chinese politics will never be addressed .” Often these skeptics encounter “statistically significant” tests of the hypotheses behind quantitative research with the question “What next?” ”
In the year 2000, the so-called ” perestroika movement ” in America attempted to denounce the ” narrow view and systematic bias toward quantitative, behavioral, rational, statistical and formal modeling approaches “. Therefore, some scholars have suggested that Chinese political science should learn from the American experience of resisting “ scientific hegemony ” and maintaining the power of ( systematic pluralism) as is the case in European political science.
Other researchers have suggested that, instead of declaring the superiority of one of the two “cultures” , or through an aggressive view of each other, that is, between China and Europe, a more beneficial and fruitful approach is mutual learning and multimodal research designed ” to achieve most of the current diversity . ” Moreover, “ science ” should not be viewed from a narrow perspective as just “ quantitative ” since well-designed research is one that uses rigorous and sophisticated methods, whether quantitative or qualitative, and can be equally assessed as a “ discreet scientific research ” . This is certainly easier said than done, especially with the case of the controversy when applying the quantitative method in the case of the field of Chinese political science.
In 2019 specifically, the Chinese researcher Guo argued that (the only way to face the challenge might be to reconcile normative and experimental studies) . Standard studies, unlike empirical studies, are subjective, logical, and analytical studies of concepts and systems. In the social sciences, scientists can analyze abstract issues by creating strict logical rules and applying precise mathematical models and mathematical methods. Philosophically, empirical studies and normative studies can be used, respectively, under the influence of empiricism and rationality. However, in political research, both of them ( ie empirical studies and normative studies) are indispensable as two different but complementary methods, respectively, to answer questions such as: “What is ” and ” what should be . ” in another meaningResearch methods in the social sciences are grouped and improved through long-term efforts and cross-border comparative studies, thus becoming universally applicable.
– Third ten : the balance between the “ivory tower” and “public convenience” or “social significance” “Ivory the tower” And Public Remember By Relevance
Political science is a form of scholarly research, which involves the use of various methods to enhance our understanding of the political world. Meanwhile, political researchers are usually tasked with improving government policies and influencing public debate. The concentration between the ” ivory tower ” and social importance has become an increasingly central issue of Chinese political science, as discipline within the field has become closely monitored by political and administrative authorities and even interfering with them. Some insist that political scientists, like other sociologists, should remain ” devoid of value “, committed to scientific inquiry and theory testing, thus making looking at political science “a science.”And, therefore, they must maintain some distance from state power. However, others argue that political scholars should shoulder their sociopolitical responsibilities in shaping public life in positive ways, as encouraged by traditional Confucian teaching as well as the Chinese government.
Chinese scholars who advocate keeping political science socially and politically relevant seem to have some pragmatic justification, for the following reasons :
– First : Since the restoration of the Chinese Political Science in 1980, the primary objective of determining the idea of discipline to serve the Chinese policy in practice: As indicated ( the program or the first five – year plan for the development of China ‘s political science field (1980-1985) , the first in the political task of science China: It is ( studying the practical problems of China, to strengthen and improve the party leadership, restore the dictatorship of the proletariat, reform and improve the socialist system, develop socialist democracy, reform the system of cadres, simplify the administrative structure, raise efficiency ) … etc.
Therefore, the birth of the Chinese political science to serve the Party and the goals of state policy in the first place, and better political knowledge to improve the political system, and to provide political advice to the Party and the government.
– Second : A considered many political researchers Chinese to work on issues or practical problems more important than the production of elegant studies in theory or impressive from the sport but they do not come into contact with reality: they believe that the research – based solution to the problems resulting from the political practices And social will lose both discipline and patriotism.
– Third : Most Chinese universities state – owned and led by the party ‘s ruling: So, should ensure fiscal discipline, and financial support from the authorities by presenting their needs and interests.
In general , Chinese universities (except for a few overseas and privately owned government-approved schools) are state-owned and run with government funding. The Chinese government has invested heavily in supporting academic research, starting with national policies, including the “ Project 985” and “Project 211 ”, and recently, the “ Double First Degree Initiative ” has been adopted, to many government contract projects. For example, in 2017 alone, the ( National Fund for Social Sciences of China ) located in the Central Propaganda Department of the Communist Party of China , and the ( Humanitarian and Social Sciences Foundation ) at the Ministry of Education, respectively, sponsored ( 143 ) and (33 ) projects.A project in political science, whereby: (it serves the party and the goals of state policy, supports the social ideological discourse, and endorses the ideas of the leaders and leaders of the summit, ranging from “Deng Xiaoping” to the current president, “Xi Jinping” ). Moreover, ” China’s rapid rise enables the country to provide research resources, and China’s” global “strategy calls for high-quality and up-to-date policy studies to help policy-makers address various challenges .
That is why recent government-sponsored projects are mainly catered for, such as: “One Belt, One Road Initiative ” or “Chinese President Xi Jinping’s thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era .”
Although it seems reasonable for Chinese political scientists to meet real-world demands, this also raises growing concerns among scholars about ( academic freedom and independence of discipline) in the field of politics and the quality of prevailing political studies as some analysts criticize. For the following reasons :
– First , independence , academic and professional requires to be free of political science research agenda of state power: certainly, full under any circumstances can not achieve political independence of scientific, not to mention the one – party systems.
However , excessive involvement in everyday politics and the prioritization of ( studies of social doctrine ) is likely to ( impede the intellectual development of Chinese political science) , producing outputs of little academic importance. At the same time, the strong influence of political considerations on the allocation of government funding will also bias the research orientation and negatively affect the quality of the research.
– w Ania : Many scientists insist that political science must remain independent, and generate critical views on real – world government and behavior policies, which prevents the obstruction due to misconduct political: This is one of the most important political lessons China learned since the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution. It is for political studies to be dominated by a pro-government approach, and many research topics become politically sensitive, which in turn will impede critical political thinking and thus endanger good governance and policies.
– Third : There is a big risk in making the Chinese scientific community overly bureaucratic when he practiced a lot of political power on academic research: usually search boxes accompanied by guidelines for authorities and dominated the political agenda on evaluations of research projects. Bureaucratic scrutiny over the use of research funds and academic activities grants power to administrative sectors. In some cases, partial leadership endorsement overrides the importance of peer review in evaluating academic performance. As a result, as many have argued, a ” managerial conquest of the academic world ” would jeopardize independent research institutions and spark intellectual creativity.
In no way does this mean that the search for political significance is wrong. On the other hand, it could be one of the advantages of the Chinese tradition of political studies, as the theory of (Confucianism) defends it , saying: “Using what one learns to make the world the state of the field of Chinese political science a better place .” (Jingshi Zhiyong) .
Nevertheless, ( a balance must be struck between public relevance, social significance, and the “ivory tower,” or a departure from the field to determine the extent to which political science is involved in practical political issues) , and the ways in which Chinese political scientists can influence public policies without undermining science and criticizing the nature of discipline in it. . Also, this will not only play a more balanced role in this regard, but will also serve both the Chinese academic community and the national interest well by providing independent political research that facilitates avoiding political mistakes, and by promoting international recognition when the state pushes Chinese universities and majors to strive to become “ Number one in the world ”.
– Fourth Ten : look back to move forward (ie , linking the past with the present) to understand the evolution of Chinese Political Science Looking Back To Move the forward :
This research point includes an overview of the general shape and development of Chinese political science, as well as an analysis of the challenges the regime faces at its crossroads. It is clear that the political science system in China has made great progress over the past decades in terms of its institutionalization, its access to the stage of professionalism or professionalism, and internationalization. There is still much room for future growth and advancement in Chinese political science, but the outlook and dynamism of this system will likely depend on the way it addresses three major issues, namely :
A) The tension between Westernization and settlement or localization.
B) The choice between universalization and methodological pluralism.
C) The balance between the “ivory tower” and contact with society.
Of course, it is very difficult to reach a consensus on the three dimensions, and neither this study nor the research report of the researcher is intended to lecture our fellow researchers and academics in the field of political science on how to steer the boat of political science. Nevertheless, we strive to stimulate more adverse discourses about the direction of the field as it continues to evolve. Hence, we suggest that an approach be adopted
“Glocalisation” to integrate “globalization” and “localization” of Chinese political studies by exploring the mutual influences of the two sides, as some have suggested building ” bridges ” and “talking” to each other.
At the same time, it will result in Chinese political scholars adopting a more comprehensive view of political science being a “science ” in the first place, as do their European counterparts, and making the most of a variety of rigorous methods to investigate various questions. Moreover, a more balanced role for political science is both possible and right in maintaining independent and critical intellectual inquiries while engaging in political affairs and public policies in the real world.
In short, as the Chinese researcher Guo argued in his 2018 research, “Chinese scholars should learn from others, criticize and save existing traditions and knowledge in order to innovate, and thus the formation and development of new schools of thought, theories and methods, knowledge production is not. ” In the East , not in the West . Instead, knowledge should be from “ all countries” and “all civilizations , ” integrating Chinese and Western traditions, ancient and modern knowledge. Political science is a social science that aims to explore, discover and explain patterns in the occurrence of political phenomena, patterns in the exercise of power and the distribution of resources, patterns of political activities and political behavior of citizens and their relationships between themselves and with the social world in which they live.
Hence, according to the previous presentation by the Egyptian researcher, the most important controversial issues in the field of the development of Chinese political science become clear to us , with what we can introduce in political science departments, keeping pace with contemporary Chinese political developments such as the Belt and Road, and after the Covid-19 crisis. Given our close relations with Beijing, therefore, a “methodological objective balance” must be donein the field of studying Chinese political science between Western, American and Chinese.
– References used :
Alpermann, B. 2009. Political science research in China: Making the most of diversity. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol (14), No. (4) , P.P. 343–356.
Carlsen, A., M. Gallagher, K. Lieberthal, & M. Manion (eds.). 2010. Chinese politics: New sources, methods, and feld strategies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, Z. 2017. Zhongguo Zhengzhixue de Zhishi Jiaofeng Jiqi Chulu [The clash of knowledge in Chinese political science and its way out]. Zhengzhixue Yanjiu [Research of Political Science], Vol. (5), PP 79–87.
Deng, Z. 2008. Zhongguo Shehui Kexue de Dangxia Shiming [The current mission of Chinese social science). In Zhongguo Renwen Shehui Kexue Sanshi Nian: Huigu yu Qianzhan [The thirty years of Chinese humanities and social sciences: Review and outlook], ed . Zhenglai Deng and Hao Yufan, 9. Shanghai: Fudan University Press.
Fukuyama, F. 2016. Refections on Chinese governance. Journal of Chinese Governance, Vol. (1), No. (3), P.P. 379 – 391.
Goodin, R.E. (ed.). 2011. The Oxford handbook of political science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guo, S. 2011. Special issue on the state of the feld (II): Political science and Chinese political studies. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol (16), No. (3), P.P. 243–333.
Guo, S. (ed.). 2012. Political science and Chinese political studies: The state of the feld. Shanghai.
Guo, S. 2018. Political science and Chinese political studies: Where is Chinese political science headed?. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol (23), No. (2), P.P. 1–9.
Guo, S. 2009. The state of the feld: Political science and Chinese political studies. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol (14), No. (3), P.P. 225– 227.
He, B. 2011. The dilemmas of China’s political science in the context of the rise of China. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol (16), No. (3), P.P. 257– 277.
Keating, M., and D. Della Porta. 2011. Defence of pluralism in the social sciences. European Political Science, No. (9), P.P. 111–120.
Lipset, M. 1984. China in transition: A travel memoir, May–June 1984. Vol.
(17), issue, (4), P.P. 765–777.
Perestroika! The raucous rebellion in political science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
O’Brien, K.J. 2011. Studying Chinese politics in an age of specialisation. Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. (20), No. (71), P.P. 535–541.
Qiong, W. 1986. Social science theories in search of Chinese realities. China Quarterly, No. (132), P.P. 1161–1170.
Baozheng Zhiliang, Jiji Wenjing [Ensure quality and promote steady progress]. Zhengzhixue Yanjiu [Research of Political Science], No. (3), PP 76–78.
Reny, M. 2016. Authoritarianism as a research constraint: Political scientists in China. Social Science Quarterly, Vol (97), No. (4), P.P. 909–922.
Rigger, S. 2012. The perestroika movement in American political science and its lessons for Chinese political studies. In: ed. Sujian Guo, 163–76.
Su, C. (2014) Zhongguo Zhengzhixue Zheng Zouchu Bainian Xizhi Chongbai Yishi [Chinese political science is stepping out of a century-long cult of western system]. Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Bao [Chinese Social Sciences Today].
Taylor, J. R. 2012. Let one hundred fowers bloom, let one hundred thoughts contend: Political science with Chinese characteristics, P.P. 263–274.
Ershi Shiji Zhongguo Shehui Kexue: Zhengzhixue Juan [Chinese social science in the twentieth century: Political science volume]. Shanghai: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe.
Wang, H. (1994)’Fazhanzhong De Zhongguo Zhengzhixue’ [Chinese political science under development].
Liaowang Zhoukan & Wang, P. (ed). 2011. Zhongguo Zhengzhixue Xueshu Huigu He Guihua (2006–2015), Academic review and planning of Chinese political science, (2006–2015).
The state of the feld of Chinese political science, Tianjin: Tianjin Renmin Chubanshe.
Wang, S. 2012. To ‘fall in line’ or to ‘grab’: Thoughts on the indigenisation of political science’, In: Sujian Guo (ed), P.P. 237–262.
White III, L.T. 2009. Chinese political studies: Overview of the state of the feld. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol. (14), No. (3), P.P. 229–251.
Wu, G. 2011. Politics against science: Refections on the study of Chinese politics in contemporary China. Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol (16), No. (3), P.P. 279–297.
Yang, G. 2008. Zhongguo Zhengzhixue De Yanjiu Yicheng Yu Yanjiu Fangfa Wenti [Research agenda and methodologies of Chinese political science].
Jiaoxue Yu Yanjiu, [Teaching and Research], PP 28–32.
Yu, J. 2016. “The study of Chinese governance: Past, present, and future agenda. Journal of Chinese Governance”, No. (1), P.P. 21– 40.
Yu, K. (ed.). 2011. The study of political science and public administration in China. In Democracy is a good thing, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, P.P. 6–26.
Zhang, C. 2017. Review essay: How to merge western theories and Chinese indigenous theories to study Chinese politics?, Journal of Chinese Political Science, Vol. (22), No. (2), P. 292.
Zhao, B. 1984. The revival of political science in China. Vol (17), issue. (4), P.P. 745–757.
Zhong, Y. 2012. The logics of comparative politics and the development of political science in China, P.P. 127–134.