The linguistic meaning of the word peace is clear in the language that it is one of the names of God, the Most Beautiful, is God, who has no god but He is the Holy King, peace. Salvation and deliverance peace
And in the language of the Arabs there are four things: from which I delivered a peace, a source that I delivered, and from which peace is the collection of peace, and among them peace is one of the names of God Almighty, and among them peace is a tree, and the meaning of peace, which is a source. The interpretation of peace is the name of God that he is the one of peace who possesses peace that is to be saved from hatred. Its evidence is: Peace is the dominant believer, and as Yahya bin Jaber narrated that Abu Bakr said: Peace is the security of God on earth.
So the linguistic connotation of the word “Salam” is structured as follows:
1- Peace in the sense of peace.
2- Peace in the sense of negative or positive neutrality.
3- Peace means surrender and submission
In Latin, the word peace means non-danger and the cradle of elevation.
Peace in the terminology does not deviate from the linguistic meaning, as the concept of peace from negative peace (meaning the absence of war, conflicts and conflicts) has expanded to include positive peace (that is, the absence of exploitation, and the creation of social justice) and there is a correlation between negative peace and positive peace, meaning consensus or agreement after a split.
Procedural definition of peace:
There were many definitions of peace:
After the two world wars, it was defined as “the absence of war.” It was also defined as “the absence of violence or evil and solutions to justice.” It was also known as “the outcome of the interaction between the civil system and social justice.”
A state in which the world is free of wars and conflicts
A state of security and stability prevails in the world and allows development and prosperity for all.
Safety, preservation of dignity, and work on the existence of common interests that achieve the establishment of a civilization based on self-respect and respect for others, adherence to justice, respect for justice and the provision of advancement for all human races on the face of the earth, and even calms down with its existence all living creatures
The emergence and development of the concept of peace:
– The concept of peace culture goes back to the ideas of the European Renaissance and Western philosophy in the seventeenth century, with the emergence of the philosophy of justice and peace as an antithesis to the war and violence that characterized Western civilization and came the first theories that worked to develop the concept of peace by Pirr Dubis in his book On the Termination of Wars and Argument in the Kingdom of France “The End of Wars and Controversy in the French Kingdom” and it was published in 1300 AD in which Debus did not reject the war in itself as he justified the war with the enemies, saying, “Those who desire war must do so with the enemies of the Church and the land The Holy One is above the earth, but not with their brothers, “meaning brotherhood in Christianity.
The period from 1945 AD is considered an important period in the history of mankind in the development of the concept of peace. There are two factors that dominated this period: the cold war between the eastern and western camps, and the nuclear development threatening world peace.
In the late 1960’s, attention began to shift from direct violence to indirect, structural violence through social, political and economic systems. An alternative view was given to the definition of peace. It was realized that the war was not the reason for the absence of war or direct violence, but also the elimination of all aspects. The only injustice is death, but conditions like discrimination, poverty, and human rights violations also fuel anger and tension within the world that leads to armed conflict and wars.
Contemporary development of the concept of peace:
With the development of the concept of peace, seven stages have emerged through which the various formulations of the concept of peace have gone through, especially in Western peace research. These stages are: The first stage: peace as a practice and behavior in the absence of war, and this is what applies to violent conflict, whether between states or within The same countries are in the form of civil wars. This idea of peace is common to both ordinary people and politicians.
The second stage: focused on peace as a balance of forces within the framework of the international system, and sometimes this balance is called the balance of terror when it is based on a balance of military forces with destructive capabilities between two or more camps.
The third stage: during which both negative peace (that is, preventing war) and positive peace (preventing structural violence within society) were emphasized.
The fourth stage: a feminist concept of peace prevailed (violence against women), which does not differentiate between the existence of war or its absence when violence against women is practiced.
Fifth stage: The focus at this stage was on the idea of peace with the environment, as capitalist practices have brutally assaulted the human environment.
The sixth stage: the stage of focusing on the inner peace of the human being, as it is related to peace at the macro level.
The seventh stage: It is the stage in which the focus was on human rights, violations and violence against children, the disabled and other vulnerable groups. The concept of peace has become focused on the connotations of comprehensive development, whether social, economic or political
After that, the concept of peace expanded and developed to include other concepts on which it is based:
Sources and references:
Abdul-Hay Al-Qasim, Omar Idris, Al-Sadiq Abkar, The Pillars of Social Peace in the Muslim Family, Policy and Law Books, 14th Issue, 2016.
Nahed, Abdel-Al, Peace between Islamic and Western thought, “A Comparative Study”, Master Thesis, Faculty of Arts, Ain Shams University 2014.
Nahid, Al-Kharashi, Curricula and its Impact on Promoting Peace Culture and Confronting Terrorism, Egypt.
Abu Al-Qasim, Qur’an, Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies, Al-Abtar Library, 2010.