The concept of security sciences

Security has been an essential axis in human life and thinking, whether at the level of the individual, the group or the state. Security is the first priority in human life and in the consolidation and consolidation of the foundations of his stability, development and prosperity. The need for security in all its forms and forms is one of the most important innate human needs.

Scientific knowledge has developed cumulatively over time, splitting into two main cognitive trends, the natural sciences and the humanities.

The humanities are based on the interest in social phenomena and their study according to scientific and methodological foundations to solve the problems that exist within them. Among these social phenomena is the security phenomenon, where the scientific accumulations, developments and transformations of the concept of security have produced a broad and comprehensive scientific field, the comprehensiveness of the security phenomenon rooted in the human conscience, individual and groups, known as security sciences or Security studies.

Define security science 

At first glance, the literary definition comes to mind, as the term is made up of two parts: the sciences, which are the plural of science, and the second security, which is a description of the word security. Where science means the total coordinated knowledge that arises from observation, study and experimentation, which are carried out with the aim of defining the nature and origins of the phenomena studied. Science is based on what is produced by scientific research, which is defined as an organized investigation to reveal the facts and relationships of things in order to develop or modify the actually practiced reality.

In the language of security, it means reassurance and the removal of fear. As for one of the idiomatic definitions , Barry Buzan defines it as “working for freedom from threat and within the context of the international system, which means the ability of societies and states to maintain their independent entity and functional cohesion against the hostile forces of change.”

Security includes both military and non-military aspects, considering security threats of multiple entrances, as the concept of security has evolved from the traditional concept to the expanded one, and the individual scope has deepened from it to the global level. 

Accordingly, security sciences “are the sciences that study the security phenomenon according to scientific bases, quantitative and qualitative approaches, and various analytical tools in the social sciences, using research and investigation tools based on natural scientific foundations.”

Accordingly, security sciences include several branches of direct security that are manifested in various police sciences and property security, to branches of national security studies, international security, conflict and peace studies, and human security studies.

security phenomenon 

The security issue often deals with security phenomena in various fields. Although security sciences are classified within the social sciences that deal with social phenomena, the security phenomenon is characterized by the following:

An intangible phenomenon that is difficult to define precisely.

It constitutes an integrated cognitive framework that embodies the reality of the social environment that produces its images and forms.

– Regular and interconnected far from random with each other united by one general principles.

A phenomenon that is intertwined and intertwined with other phenomena in other fields.

– Different in terms of its study methods and the theory that explains it due to the extensions of the security phenomenon in the various fields and levels of social phenomena.

Scientific implications of the concept of security

The conceptual transformations of security and the development of security environments, especially in the contemporary time, as well as the emergence of the importance of benefiting from curricula and scientific knowledge and projecting it onto the security sector contributed to the development of security sciences, as it manifests itself in the following indications:

– Existence of a growing and continuous amount of security research and the establishment of research and academic education centers specialized in various security sectors.

The existence of theories and approaches that explain the security phenomenon, similar to the traditional theories of international relations, such as realism and idealism, and modern theories such as constructivism, social criticism, approaches to securitization and comprehensive security.

The existence of schools of thought for security studies such as the Copenhagen School, the Aberswith School and the Paris School 

– Scientific interventions with the rest of the scientific fields, especially political and military sciences.

Based on the foregoing, the general meaning of security appears, represented in the absence of a threat and undermining the vital interests of life within the environment surrounding the state, society and individual.

Security science is a multi-specialty that requires researchers in its field to be familiar with other social branches and methods of scientific analysis and to employ different approaches for proper diagnosis of problems and good treatment of various security issues. State security and conventional wars to economic, ideological, political, cultural, environmental and societal concerns.

Sources and references:

Amer Mosbah, Security Globalization and Cosmic Analysis of International Relations. Algeria: Dar Al-Kitab Al-Hadith, 2014.

Saliha Kababi, Security Studies between the Traditional and Modern Trends, Journal of Human Sciences, Issue 38 December 2012, University of Constantine.

Muhammad Obeidat, Muhammad Abu Nassar and Oqla Mubaideen, Scientific Research Methodology: Rules, Stages and Applications. Front: Dar Wael for Publishing and Printing 1999.

Muhammad Gharib, Arab Security Media: A Theoretical Study, Riyadh: Naif Arab University Library for Security Sciences 2007.

Mahmoud Shaker Al-Saeed and Khaled Al-Kharfash, Security Concepts, Riyadh: Naif Arab University Library for Security Sciences 2010.

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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