African studiesEconomic studies

The future of African economies according to Agenda 2063

Journal of Politics and Economics, Article 5, Volume 6, Issue (5) January 2020, Winter 2020, page 1-34 

Author Wassila Shabou * Lecturer – A- Abdelhamid Mehri University – Constantine 2 Algeria.

Summary:

During the meeting devoted to the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Organization of African Unity (1963-2013), African leaders signed a document containing their aspirations for the next 50 years, called “Agenda 2063”, which is a joint vision, and a plan of action to be implemented in the form of ten-year plans and to ensure a structural transformation to reach the stage of integration Which were foreseen in the Lagos Plan of Action (1980) on the adoption of the continent’s capabilities, the Abuja Treaty (2001) establishing NEPAD, and the Monrovia Declaration (2010).  
The agenda requires adopting the rules of strategic planning management in consultation with the actors within the continent and the diaspora, and it represents a strategic framework for social and economic transformation through the development of existing continental initiatives for the purpose of increasing growth and promoting sustainable development, provided that it is carried out according to a comprehensive and integrated approach based on governance and implemented in coordination with economic blocs. Regional.
The project aims to promote the blue economy, establish technological poles to keep pace with the digital economy, establish a continental free exchange area, prepare a marketing strategy, establish the African Central Bank by 2030, bring about radical transformations in production, trade and labor market systems, and develop the business climate.
Therefore, the topic raises questions about the content of Agenda 2063, its applicability in light of the challenges facing the continent, and its effectiveness in developing African economies.

Introduction

In recent decades, the world has witnessed comprehensive transformations at all levels that affected structures, institutions and the value system, accompanied by rapid developments in the volume of economic activities, coinciding with the tremendous development in the field of technology. African countries have realized the importance of the challenges they face in light of the globalization of the economy, the fragility of developing economies, and the imperative of positive integration into the global economy, which necessitates the preparation of a comprehensive action plan that directs the countries of the continent to adopt national policies and programs that enhance their competitiveness and enable them to move towards a knowledge-based economy.

From this standpoint, the African Union adopted a strategic framework for the future advancement of African economies in what is known as “Agenda 2063”, which aims to achieve the collective vision of the level and depth of integration and development that the continent should reach over the next fifty years, and build the basis of inclusive and prosperous growth in Africa. Which makes it an influential actor and partner in the international arena. This future vision is based on the idea of ​​renaissance, which finds its support in the rules of good governance.

Indeed, the theorists of this vision rely heavily on the continent’s immense natural resources, its human potential and its institutions. In order to achieve these goals, member states should take practical measures to achieve self-reliant development. However, this development method does not mean self-isolation, but rather a commitment to laying development pillars based, in the first place, on their own resources and means of financing, which requires full mobilization. For all stakeholders.

Accordingly, the research problem relates to the following: What is the general perception of the future of African economies within the framework of the goals and mechanisms set by Agenda 2063? What is the applicability of this agenda in light of the challenges facing the continent, and how effective is it in developing African economies?

The first topic: What is the agenda 2063

Since the African leaders decided to embody continental unity within an institutional framework, they did not hesitate to put forward initiatives and consult with experts in order to develop programs and strategies that enable the member states of the former Organization of African Unity and the African Union now to bring about structural reforms and economic transformations with the aim of extricating the peoples of the continent from the state of underdevelopment caused by Colonialism, and among these initiatives is the “Agenda 2063” which constitutes a guiding action plan that guides the member states to achieve development goals by the year 2063, and is based on a comprehensive vision of the relationships and interactions between the various productive sectors at the national, regional and continental level, by highlighting the determinants of development and submitting proposals on how Addressing deficiencies in the productive process and taking advantage of the opportunities provided by previous programs of the organization to help bring about structural changes and stimulate capacity and production capacity.On this basis, it is necessary, first of all, to define Agenda 2063, and to be aware of its funding sources and mechanisms for implementation, follow-up and evaluation.

The first requirement: introducing the agenda 2063

The “Agenda 2063” is truly the guiding framework for achieving the objectives of the comprehensive and integrated development of the continent, and therefore it deserves to be studied and researched. The principles of the methodology require access to the topic by giving an idea of ​​what this agenda could be, explaining the conditions for its preparation and approval, and defining the seven aspirations whose objectives are summarized so that we can then delve into the details of the topic.

The first section: conditions for preparing and adopting Agenda 2063

During the meeting devoted to the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Organization of African Unity (1963-2013) (1) ([1])  held in Addis Ababa (25.5 2013), African leaders recalled past achievements and challenges and renewed their commitment to implementing the Pan-African vision of an integrated continent. It is managed by its citizens and represents a dynamic force in the global arena. For Zlک, mandated Commission of the Summit of the African Union, with the support of the Planning and Coordinating Agency New Partnership for Africa ‘s Development (agency NEPAD), the Development Bank of Africa, the Economic Commission for Africa of the United Nations set the agenda of continental duration of fifty years are according to the course led by citizens of African ( 2) . ([2])

The agenda was developed based on an important course of consultations that took place with stakeholders, namely youth, women, civil society organizations, African diaspora, African research centers and research institutions, forming the basis of the aspirations of African peoples. The agenda was also prepared on the basis of an in-depth examination and review of African development experiences, past and current continental initiatives, analysis of challenges and opportunities, and continental plans and frameworks provide indicators on development priorities.

During the twenty-fourth session of the Union Conference held in Addis Ababa on January 30 and 31, 2015, African heads of state and government adopted a document containing their aspirations for the next fifty years, called “Agenda 2063. To build a prosperous and unified continent based on common values ​​and a common destiny. It was decided that the agenda would be implemented in the form of ten-year charts in order to ensure a structural transformation to reach the stage of integration envisaged in the Lagos Action Plan (1980) regarding reliance on the capabilities of the continent, the Abuja Treaty (2001) establishing NEPAD, and the Monrovia Declaration (2010) (3) . ([3])

The agenda requires adopting the rules of managing strategic planning in consultation with the actors within the continent and the diaspora, and it represents a strategic framework to bring about a social and economic transformation through the development of existing continental initiatives for the purpose of increasing growth and promoting sustainable development, provided that it is carried out in accordance with a comprehensive and integrated approach based on economic governance and implemented by coordination. Regional (4) . ) [4] (

The second section: agenda ambitions

The consultations provided a clear vision for the future of the continent, which are seven aspirations that include different goals and priority areas, objectives for the year 2063, and proposed strategies, related to contexts that complement each other as follows:

1 – A prosperous Africa built on inclusive growth and sustainable development.

2 – An integrated continent based on pan-African ideals and the vision to revive Africa.

3- ری إ ری ری ری ری ری ری ری تی تی س س س………………..

4 – ریفریقیا فی سلام وأمن.

5- Africa, which has a strong cultural identity, common values, ethics and heritage.

6- Africa, whose development is based on citizens, and which benefits from the potential of its people.

7- Africa as a strong and influential actor and partner in the global arena.

 

The second requirement: financing Agenda 2063

There is no doubt that financing is the engine of development and a method of resource mobilization that allows identifying the agenda’s needs in terms of resources and monitoring the available resources to obtain the necessary funds, and using them to carry out the economic projects planned for by the agenda, develop them, and benefit from their material returns. Hence, the financing needs of the agenda and the challenges facing the process and the resource mobilization strategy should be identified at the national and continental levels.

The first section: the financing needs of the agenda and challenges

The financing needs of Agenda 2063 range from cash subsidies, regular commercial financing based on public and private resources, technical assistance resources, social impact resources, soft loans, market value-based commercial loans, equity instruments and other market instruments such as foreign direct investment and portfolio investments. By the private sector (debt, bonds, stocks and other securities).

Except for the one who faces the representation represented in what is (5) : ([5])

Mobilize a stable, predictable financial basis that can be undertaken with national resources.

– In a regional context characterized by market failures, resources should also be opened and directed to productive investments and implementation of programs within the framework of the agenda, meaning that Africa needs funds in more effective and comprehensive means (including institutional and financial markets) to direct them to where they can be effective.

– As long as the availability of financial resources does not guarantee access to people, SMEs, projects and stakeholders, proactive strategies must be examined in priority areas to obtain the necessary resources for these sectors in relation to the financing agenda process.

In all cases, we should not rely on external grants as the only source of financing and seek to provide local financial resources and exploit the financial potential of the continent (6) , ([6])  even if it receives approximately 52 billion dollars annually in aid for development, which is an amount that is increasing The decrease is estimated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (7) . ([7])

Section Two: Resource Mobilization Strategy

First: At the national level

The national resource mobilization strategy takes into account the following issues (8) ([8])      

– The budget for investment or government spending requires reallocation and increase of taxes, customs duties and tax revenues through the signing of agreements within the framework of the agenda.

– Collective financing or private ownership both require a campaign directed towards the target groups.

Oversight and law enforcement to address illicit capital flows.

Encouraging direct foreign investments.

– Private investment requires the development, structuring and financial closure of projects within the framework of mobilizing private sector funds for infrastructure development.

– The Diaspora Fund must be channeled through bonds or direct intervention in commercial projects.

Microfinance requires enhancing the capitalization of microfinance institutions.

Financing by commercial banks.

– Benefiting from the ACGA guarantee services, the services of the African investment banks, “Africa 50” fund as institutional entities for African investment.

Second: Al-Mustawi Al-Jahwi / Al-Qari

The resource mobilization strategy at the regional or continental level takes into account the following issues (9) ([9])

– The operating budget / program of the AU Commission requires a tax on the private sector as proposed in the report of the high-level panel on alternative sources of AU financing.

– The operational budget / program of the RECs requires the reallocation of their budgets.

Revenue derived from patents.

– Financing under regional bonds by subscription at the level of regional organizations.

– Credit / investment insurance and insurance against political risks by strengthening the capitalization of regional insurance companies.

Third requirement: Implementing Agenda 2063

The main stakeholders involved in the “Let’s Move to Actions” initiative aimed at implementing the agenda are arranged on three levels: continental, regional and national, and have roles to play in implementing, monitoring and evaluating the agenda.

The first branch: the continental level

It consists of African Union bodies and continental coordination mechanisms, which are respectively (10) ([10] )

– Conference; It adopts the Agenda 2063 and related ten-year plans and provides broad policy guidelines on the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the agenda.

– the Executive Board; Responsible for ensuring strategic coordination through the work of the Ministerial Committee on Agenda 2063, making recommendations to the conference regarding the results framework and adopting follow-up and evaluation reports.

– The Ministerial Committee on Agenda 2063; It is a committee of the Executive Council, consisting of selected members such as the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, the executive heads of the Planning and Coordination Agency of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), the Regional Economic Communities, the African Economic Development Committee, some of the African Union and the African Economic Development Bank, and the African Union. Its main tasks are to provide operational oversight over the design, implementation and monitoring of the agenda, and direct supervision of the African Union Commission as the technical coordination unit.

– AU Commission Technical Unit for Agenda 2063; It is under the supervision of the President of the Federal Commission and will act as the secretariat of the Executive Council and the Ministerial Agenda Committee. It will also be responsible for:

  • Coordinate and facilitate technical issues related to developing / reviewing the results framework of the Agenda, in particular the Ten Year Implementation Plans.
  • Establish continental frameworks to support the implementation of the agenda.
  • Review the monitoring and evaluation reports of the RECs.
  • Developing and implementing strategies for resource mobilization and communications.
  • Development of progress reports and annual reports.

The second branch: the regional level

The Regional Economic Communities are responsible for the following (11) ((11))

– Provide leadership early in the regional / national consultative process for implementing the agenda.

– Participating in the executive supervision at the continental level to implement the agenda.

– Adaptation of the ten-year or continental plans in the medium and long term of the agenda.

– Provide guidance to Member States on planning.

Coordinate the development and implementation of regional programs.

– Integrate regional monitoring and evaluation reports and demonstrate leadership in resource mobilization in favor of the agenda.

The third branch: the national level

The national and subnational levels (region, districts, and communities) are an integral part of thematic groups for policy formulation, planning and implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and resource sharing.

First: Under government supervision

Both national and subnational stakeholders have functions in specific areas or in specific thematic groups. Thus, at the national level, the government, the private sector, national associations and others are directed through the national planning framework to achieve the following (12) : ( [12] )

  • Harmonizing the ten-year national vision and plans as part of the agenda.
  • Leading and coordinating efforts in mobilization and resource allocation processes.
  • Leading, coordinating and implementing the national medium-term plans as part of the agenda.
  • Defining goals and objectives and participating in the monitoring and evaluation process.

Second: Under the leadership of local communities and with the support of civil society

Participation of intersectoral groups in (13) (( 13 ))

  • Coordination of the national vision with the agenda.
  • Develop medium-term plans focusing on this program.
  • Defining goals, objectives, and monitoring and evaluation process at the local level.

The second topic: achieving inclusive growth and sustainable development

The planners of the agenda aspire, in the first place, to achieve inclusive growth that is reflected in its positive effects on all, and this is also because the approach used to create wealth is based on the elements of sustainable development that revolve around the development of production to meet the needs of the present generation in Africa without the needs of Coming in the context of succession and continuity. It is likewise because it includes the rational use of the natural resources necessary for economic growth and the adoption of balanced production and consumption patterns without overexploitation of available resources. 

The first requirement: the targeted economic sectors and activities

It is desirable to exploit the elements of production and rationalize the methods of performance in order to add goods and services that achieve economic benefits for individuals, because productivity is not only limited to measuring production, but also benefits the way in which the available resources are used and exploited to obtain the required results. Hence, it is necessary to focus on economics and job transfer, and to give special importance to some economic sectors that would increase production and productivity, such as modern agriculture, the blue economy, and marine services.

The first branch: economics and job transfer

This goal takes the following priority areas:

– Sustainable and inclusive economic growth, the goal is to achieve an annual growth of GDP by at least 07%, and to contribute to the GDP through the minimum quintile for vulnerable or marginalized groups at levels 05 times what the situation was in 2013, and the contribution of the private sector GDP by 50%. The proposed strategies aim to enhance macroeconomic stability, develop policies to increase savings and savings in the investment public sector, improve the business environment and develop entrepreneurship, and promote intra- or inter-regional trade in order to support growth and develop the infrastructure to support economic transformation (14) . ([14]) 

– Establishing the manufacturing and industrial sectors and the added value so that they focus on science, technology and innovation; It aims to increase the GDP by 05 times what was present in 2013 and absorb the manufacturing industries by 50% of the new entrants to the labor market, and the local processing of 90% of the productive agricultural crops, and doubling the share of labor-intensive manufacturing companies in local production by a percentage. 05% by 2035, and the share of technology focused on manufacturing companies to reach 50% by 2063, and the establishment of a commodity exchange for raw materials produced by 2035, with the inclusion of all operating companies in local exchanges, and ensuring that 50% of the shares of each institution are Owned by the population, ensuring that small-scale miners share a share of at least 30% of the productive share of the sector, reaching 80% of total value added, and spending on gross domestic research reaches 10% of GDP(15) . ([15])

Therefore, it is necessary to implement the program for the intensification of intra-African trade ( BIAT ) (16) ( [16] ),  i.e. making the expansion in this area a factor in the growth of the sector, strengthening the capabilities of small and medium industries, designing programs to reduce the cost of competitive industrialization, and investing in science and technology. Manufacturing and extraction services, stimulating the adoption of modern work practices in order to improve productivity, introducing innovative tax systems or licensing systems that take into account the economic situation, increasing resource rents to the maximum extent, enhancing national capacity to negotiate contracts, and developing laws to promote commercial business in the preliminary and final stages, And the development of technical vocational education to serve the extractive industries, the development of policies to manage the resulting rents and the implementation of a framework for operating value exchanges (17) . ([17])

A diversified and resilient economy; This requires improvement of a diversification index of not less than 80%, an increase of 05 times the contribution of tourism to GDP and 10 times of the contribution of creative arts to GDP, the contribution of services by 20% of GDP by 2050, and an increase in new information and communication technology platforms by an amount 10 times to support the growth of productive sectors, ensuring that 25% of new firms stem from innovation.(18) . ([18])

Tourism / reception, it is necessary to increase the contribution of tourism to the GDP by five times, and 20% of the revenues are directed to financing development programs for local communities and to multiply African tourism ten times. The proposals relate to the implementation of the African Tourism Strategy and the creation of an African Tourism Organization (19) . ([19])

The second branch: the role of modern agriculture, the blue economy, and marine services in increasing production and productivity

The aim is to increase total factor productivity by six (06) times the level of 2013, i.e. the share of economic growth that cannot be explained by increasing the size of capital and workload, creating at least 10 value chains for basic commodities, and making food productivity competitive to replace 70% Of imports by 2040, and ensuring that research results will increase productivity by at least 50% annually from 2013. The proposals are directed towards strengthening the agricultural science program, generating knowledge in order to multiply productive factors by 2025, and improving the quality of agricultural data in order to support Sectoral planning, setting up programs to evaluate the resources needed for production in order to ensure their optimal use, establishing joint projects and motivating businessmen to pay attention to the industrial agriculture sector, and promoting policies that contribute to the added value through investments in the agricultural food industry and upgrading agricultural markets (20) .([20])

As for the blue economy, attention will be focused on marine energy resources. This program aims to increase the value added in the fishing sector 05 times more than its level in 2013, 04 times the contribution of environmental tourism to the GDP, increase coastal tourism by 20% by 2020, and allocate 10% of government revenues to finance the community development program. And building at least four gigantic models of aquaculture, the contribution of marine biotechnology and seabed resources is four times more than the 2013 level, and that at least 10% of renewable energy resources come from wave energy (21) . ([21])

To this end, island states establish companies equipped with platforms based on exploration of marine oil and minerals, wave energy (waves and tides), marine biotechnology and aquaculture development, developing skills and technological platforms for the benefit of blue economy institutions, developing policies to reduce pollution, and conducting An assessment of the marine natural capital and its growth potential, and the development of policies to support the implementation of the maritime field planning systems and the integrated ocean management system for adaptation in the exclusive economic zones, and the incorporation of the assessment of blue resources into the national accounting system and the implementation of the integrated African maritime strategy (22) . ([22])

In a related context, priority should be given to port activities and maritime transport. It is necessary to multiply the contribution of these services to the gross domestic product by 04 times, as at least one local shipping company transports 40% of the annual freight volume, and the average mooring time will be reduced by 30% by 30%. By 2020, the average period of cargo clearance will shrink by 50% by 2020. This requires the implementation of the Integrated African Maritime Strategy, and the development of policies to increase and strengthen the capacity of port activities (23) . ([23])

The second requirement: economies and communities in a sustainable and resilient environment with climate change

It is desirable to take into account sustainable consumption patterns, and this issue requires sustainable certification for all companies, submitting an annual report to shareholders on sustainability practices, educating households and governments on sustainable lifestyles, and reforming national income accounts to reflect changes in resource wealth. This requires the application of sustainability certification, capacity-building for national environmental statistics, and the incorporation of the Kyoto Protocol, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the Stockholm Convention on Organic Pollutants into national laws (24) . ([24])

The second priority is related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, as it aims to reduce biodiversity loss by 90%, protect 10% of emerging lands, and conserve 17% of wilderness areas and inland waters while creating protected areas. This requires the adoption of punitive legislative measures to deter crimes affecting terrestrial animal and plant life, reduce the population’s dependence on endangered species, eliminate related trade, integrate economic and cultural values ​​of biological diversity into economic growth paths and indicators, and incorporate the framework and principles of property guidelines. And Guiding Principles for Investment and Application of Corporate Environmental Responsibility (25) . ([25])

The focus should also be on water security, which requires an increase in the level of satisfaction in 2013 with water demand by 100%, water productivity from irrigation by 60% by 2030, and recycling of 90% of wastewater through the development of national frameworks in the context of integrated resource management. Aquaculture for efficient harvesting, use and territorial management of watersheds, and the adoption of new technologies to improve water use (26) . ([26])

It is important to increase the capacity to adapt to climate change and natural disasters, including ensuring that 90% of farmers, herders and fishermen implement production systems that are resistant to these changes by 2035, and reduce the level of emissions in 2013 by 90% due to the loss of agricultural biodiversity, Land use and deforestation by 2035, and that all African cities meet the ambient air quality standards adopted by the World Health Organization by 2025. Therefore, regulations regarding low-carbon production and services systems should be adopted, and climate resilience should be integrated into planning and budgeting, monitoring results and the development path. . There is also a need to encourage climate-smart agriculture, including the Detailed Agricultural Development Program in Africa ( PDDAA ) (27) , ([27]). And climate change adaptation practices in integrated systems for managing marine ecosystems, strengthening capacity to collect and analyze climate data (28) . ([28])

The importance of renewable energies should not be overlooked, as the agenda aims to raise the share of these energies from total energy production to 50% by 2063, which means developing strategies to promote the sustainable growth of the sector, developing energy-saving technology and using clean energy sources (29) . ([29])

The third topic: the pillars of integrated development and the determinants of effectiveness and impact

The goal of Agenda 2063 is to provide equal opportunities for all segments of society in order to obtain work and access to markets and resources, with a focus on productive employment because of its energies that will inevitably contribute to increasing income and reducing poverty, and here the link between the economic and social dimensions of development emerges. Accordingly, the focus is on the pillars of integrated development and the ability to obtain the required results and make a positive impact on international economic relations despite their instability. 

The first requirement: the pillars of integrated development

The framers of Agenda 2063 did not overlook the pillars of the integrated development of the continent and were inspired by their ideas from the values ​​and ideals of pan-Africanism and sought to employ them in economic contexts, realizing their importance and positive repercussions on the level of economic performance, activating trade and financial institutions, and building their financial institutions. . Therefore, the agenda defined the controls that member states should observe, as we will explain.

The first branch: the promotion of trade, services and infrastructure 

The priority areas for 2063 are the frameworks and institutions that make Africa unified, and require the incorporation of protocols and treaties that lead to a unified Africa by 2050 in the national laws, and only an increase in the share of intra-African trade from 10.1% to 60% in 2012. By 2063, the increase in trade with African island states to at least 50% of intra-African trade, and the incorporation of all protocols regulating the free movement of people in each regional economic group by 2023. There should also be guarantees that all financial and monetary institutions are in place By the year 2060 and that the member states of the African Union ratify all relevant treaties and protocols at the national level (30) . ([30])

One of the priority areas in the agenda is to deliver communications and infrastructure in order to harmonize treaties and protocols related to the regional integration of all modes of communication by 2020, ratify and incorporate them into national laws, and complete the establishment of all infrastructure related to air and air communication by 2030, By 2025, with railways by 2040, completing the national grid connection to the African high-speed rail network by 2063, completing the operation of the “open skies” project by 2020, doubling access to internet services by 04 times by 2030, and doubling the contribution of information and communication technology In gross domestic product (GDP) 03 times by 2040, achieving high Internet penetration of 50% by 2025, and ensuring 100% mobile penetration by 2020 (31) . ([31])

To do Bzlک, the implementation of the legal requirements, financial and operational for communication networks National the network of African trains high – speed, skills – building, research and funding needed this to create a network, and the implementation of the program development structures essential in Africa PIDA (32) , ([32])  and the development of strategic corridors Smart ( 33) , ([33]) the  ratification of treaties to liberalize airspace and implementation of the Yamoussoukro Declaration on the “Open Skies Project” (34) , ([34]) Implementation of the oil refinery strategy with large capacities, development of renewable energy production policy, implementation of the summit decision on the framework and guidelines for bioenergy policy, development of comprehensive digital strategies, development of the digital economy, strengthening access to infrastructure for information technology and communication services, and the application of services sector in rural areas. Value-added mobile phones, increasing the ability to research and develop in the functions and operations of information and communication technology, operating the Africa ICT Development Fund, promoting the assembly of information and communication technology and its factories, and encouraging the use of external sources of information technology and communication, technology and work, and the establishment of information technology and communication. And the establishment of joint regional research centers and networks (35) . ([35])

Section Two: Implementing the rules of good governance

The first priority area is institutions and leadership capable of transformation at all levels, which requires ensuring that all levels of government are able to design and implement development programs by 2030, and establish good governance rules for the purpose of providing effective services by 2030. Institutional capacities should be strengthened in the year 2030. The field of development management, including monitoring and evaluation, and the provision of effective and effective programs that would facilitate the provision of services to public institutions, and the implementation of the African Charter on the values ​​and principles of public administration (36) . ([36])

Good governance according to the concept developed by the World Bank is the method by which the authority directs the management of the state’s economic and social resources with the aim of achieving development, which includes government agencies and civil society institutions alike, and requires the application of the rules of effectiveness, transparency, responsibility and integrity, response and public participation in decision-making. According to Freedom House, Africa is heading in the right path to democracy, as it is accompanied by improved governance, more commitment to the rule of law, stronger public institutions, better business environment, and less corruption, while differences in the quality of governance appear through the levels of the “global governance indicators” set by the countries. Every year (37) . ([37])

The second requirement: the elements of effectiveness and impact

The goal of integrated development is not limited to achieving the economically beneficial impact of the member states of the African Union with their own capabilities, but also seeks to make the continent an effective and influential partner in the international arena, in that it has the ability to negotiate and defend the interests of its members and to reach the stage of self-financing, which enables it to become self-financing. The global economy and taking advantage of the advantages provided by the opportunities for economic cooperation, and to achieve this goal, member states must take into account the priority areas referred to in Agenda 2063. 

The first section: relying on African human potentials to reach the economic renaissance

Empowering youth requires reducing unemployment within this group, especially among girls, by 25% by 2020, 50% by 2025 and 90% by 2050, and ensuring that the creation of new institutions for youth reaches 15% by 2020 and 25% by 2030 And 35% by 2063 (38) . ([38])  To this end, it is necessary to create employment and skills development programs for youth, and to implement the African Youth Pact and the recommendations of the 2002 Youth Employment Summit, with the aim of strengthening the links between educational institutions and the labor market, provided that this takes place through programs of apprenticeship and industrial internal training. And the encouragement of vocational orientation with the aim of adapting the experience of qualified youth to the requirements of the labor market.

In addition, the agenda relies on empowering women to guarantee their economic rights, including the right to sign contracts, register and manage enterprises, own and operate a bank account by 2025, and ensure that 90% of rural women have access to the means of production, including land, credit and inputs. Financial services by the year 2025 through the implementation of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, the official declaration on equality between men and women, the development of policies to improve women’s access to productive resources, and the development of mechanisms to monitor progress towards achieving equal access to assets Or productive skills (39) . ([39])

The agenda is also based on the values ​​and ideals of the African national movement, which stimulates the establishment of a business agency or relations with the African diaspora by the year 2020 in order to fully benefit from its contribution to economic development (40) , ([40])  and support the owners of the arts and creative professions in developing their skills for the sake of Preserving cultural assets and managing small cultural projects by 2035 through the implementation of the African Cultural Renaissance Charter and the African Action Plan on culture and the creative industries as one of the tributaries of the creative economy (41) , ([41])  and taking appropriate measures to combat trafficking in cultural property.

The second branch: Africa as an influential partner on the world stage

The Africa Center, as an influential actor and participant in international affairs, requires establishing the infrastructure for national research networks, and ensuring the full contribution of national systems in restricting intellectual property rights and patents in all parts of the world, exceeding 20% ​​in terms of real value for the year 2013 in terms of exports. Hence, the STI project should be implemented in Africa (42) , ((42)) and  harmonized with national, regional, continental and global development plans or systems (such as global development goals). Moreover, it is imperative to ensure respect for the commitments emanating from the global partnership through the implementation of the AU Global Partnership Framework and all relevant agreements (43) . ([43])

In order for Africa to be an active partner in the international arena, it should be able to finance its development, and this requirement comes with the contribution of national resources in the continental development path, including capital markets, to no less than 80% of development capital through setting up a framework for organizing For capital market operations, providing tax incentives for the growth of this market, preparing policies that lead to linking regional, continental and global capital markets, facilitating the development of capital market infrastructure platforms, and developing strategies aimed at strengthening the role of central banks in financing development (44) . ([44])

It is also achieved by focusing on tax systems and public revenues. It must be ensured that tax and non-tax revenues, at all levels of government, cover at least 75% of current and development expenditures from 2025. Good behavior in maximizing the profits of public institutions, establishing effective systems for auditing revenue collection processes, educating the public about their commitment to paying taxes, and developing a framework for expanding the scope of tax collection to include the informal sector (45) . ([45])

It is also achieved by focusing on aid for development, and in this regard it should be ensured that the proportion of aid in the national development budget is zero by the year 2040. Consequently, it is necessary to eliminate illegal external flows and encourage policies aimed at stimulating production and tax revenues resulting from the growth of tax sectors. And negotiate good revenue-sharing arrangements with extractive industry investors (46) . ([46])

Conclusion:

It is clear that Agenda 2063 takes a pragmatic approach that reflects an ambitious vision on how to advance African economies and face the challenges posed by globalization and the need to integrate into the global economy with high competitiveness. However, it must be taken into account that economic interactions have become more influenced and influenced at the vertical level, that is, between local, regional, continental and global matters, and the agenda cannot be separated from this context. Therefore, the system of partnerships established by African countries with the European Union and their negative repercussions should be taken into account as they make local production less competitive. It is advisable to focus on some of the commitments that African countries have taken upon themselves as members of the United Nations, especially the pledge to implement the seventeen sustainable development goals included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. On the African programs and strategies that were prepared in advance and which are still in effect, and to benefit from the plans that were set by them. On this basis, the following recommendations can be added:

– It is necessary to appreciate the challenges and opportunities available to achieve the goals of Agenda 2063 and to understand the dynamics of social and human development on the one hand and the dynamics of economic development on the other side.

– The export activities in Africa are not competitive, which requires addressing the causes.

– Benefiting from the transfer of funds and using them as an additional source of financing for development within the framework of the resource mobilization strategy to implement the agenda, creating incentives for local banks to benefit from the remittances of diaspora Africans and increasing confidence in the existing banking system in their countries of origin.

– African economies are characterized by disparity in levels of development, given the vulnerability characteristic of most African countries, as they possess weak capabilities to carry out the main functions of good governance and face development challenges as a result of weak institutional capacities, in addition to the increased work of political instability. It is charged with accompanying countries suffering from fundamental imbalances in integrating agenda arrangements into their national development plans. 

– The programs associated with the implementation of the agenda should be implemented, especially the African Infrastructure Development Program.

– The obstacles that hinder the business and investment climate, especially the legislative framework, the high tax rate, and insufficient economic infrastructure, must be overcome.

– Weak infrastructure for research and technological development requires redoubling of efforts to access broadband Internet and implement the African Internet Exchange System.

– Many African countries do not have sufficient levels of investment in agriculture or energy due to lack of financing or technological means, which requires additional efforts to expand the market.

– African industries face high production costs in light of low productivity, and are forced to obtain low-priced imports, which calls for strengthening economic integration mechanisms as the engine of economic growth and competitiveness.

– The pace of integration between regional and regional economic groups must be accelerated in order to activate free trade zones.

References

1) The Organization of African Unity was established on May 25, 1963, and the African Union constitutes a continuation of the continental unity project.

2) Ladji Ouattra, Agenda 2063, opportunity and challenge for Africa, policy analysis note, NAP n ° 21, January 2015, p2.

3)     https://www.mediaterre.org/afrique/actu,20150203152725.html(30.12.2017-16:35).

4) There are eight regional economic groups that the African Union recognizes and establishes cooperation relations with, respectively: the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Group of Sub-Saharan Sahel States, the Community of East African States, the Economic Community of Central Africa (ECAS), and the Economic Community of Central Africa (ECAS). For West African Countries (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the Southern African Development Group, and the Arab Maghreb Union.   

5) effectivecooperation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/french-agenda-africa-regional-workshop-GPEDC(5.1.2018-16:40).

6) Shaima Abdel-Fattah, Agenda 2063, The Common Strategic Framework (Principles, Objectives, Strategies), available at the following website:

http://www.sis.gov.eg/UP/5-45.pdf(28.12.2017-14/20).

7) Carlos Lopez, Financing of the Africa Development Program, Africa Renewal, December 2015, P13.

8) African Union Commission, Agenda 2063, draft document, AU publications, May 2014, p96.

9) Idem, p97.

10) http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

11) http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

12) Idem.    

13) Idem.

14) AUC, Agenda 2063, The Africa We Want, First Edition, Popular Version, AU Publications, 2015, p 182.

15) Idem, p183.

16) The Intra-African Trade Intensification Program is a program adopted by the African Union Conference in January 2012 with the aim of maximizing the capabilities and benefits provided by the continental free trade area and the continental customs union to be established. Its priority areas are policies that include trade and related information, trade facilities, production capacity, trade-related infrastructure, trade finance, and market integration. For more, see the following website:   

https://www.uneca.org/fr/pages/plan-daction-pour-stimuler-le-commerce-intra-africain(3.1.2018-15:10).

17) AUC, Agenda 2063, The Africa We Want, First Edition, Popular Version, AU Publications, 2015, p 184.

18) Idem, p 184.

19) Idem, p 185.

20) African Union Commission, Agenda 2063 Framework Document, AU publication, 2015, p 186. 

21) Idem, p 187.  

22) This is about the integrated African strategy on seas and oceans for the horizons of 2050, which is a broad framework for the protection and sustainable exploitation of the African maritime domain for the purpose of creating wealth. It was adopted by the African Union conference during the Thirteenth Regular Session held in Sirte (Libya) in July 2009. See:

https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/30930-doc-2050_aim_strategy_fr_0.pdf(3.1.2018-15:00).

23) African Union Commission, Agenda 2063 Framework Document, AU publication, 2015, p 186.

24) Idem, p 189.            

25) Idem, p 190.

26) Idem, p 190.

27) The detailed program on agricultural development in Africa is an integral part of the New Partnership for Development in Africa (NEPAD) adopted by the African Union conference during its meeting in Maputo (2003), and it is a policy framework for Africa to create agricultural wealth and security in the field of agriculture. It aims to increase investments to stimulate growth in the agricultural sector. For more details see:

 www.nepad.org/fr/cop/programme-detaille-de-developpement-de-l-agriculture-en-afrique_pddaa (12.31.2017-16: 30).

28) https://au.int/sites/defaults/files/documents/333126-doc-14-ten-year-implementation-french.pdf(31.12.2017-15:50).

29) Idem.    

30) https://au.int/fr/agenda2063(13.1.2018-15:45).

31) Idem.

32) This relates to a continental program to promote social and economic development and to establish a framework strategy to develop infrastructure at the regional and continental levels in the fields of energy, transport, water, and telecommunications. It will be implemented under the supervision of the African Union Committee, the NEPAD Secretariat and the African Development Bank. Look:

Mohamed El-Hady and Taf, Paths of Sustainable Development in Africa, Dar Al-Wefaq for Publishing and Distribution, Algeria, 2013, p. 137.

33) The idea of ​​smart corridors was proposed by the Program for the Development of Infrastructure in Africa and incorporated into its programs, then it was presented to the stakeholders at the level of the African Union Committee and approved during the approval committee meeting on 24 February 2016. The strategy of smart corridors includes innovative and smart transportation systems that facilitate commercial activity by simplifying the administrative paths of transportation operations and providing information in real time, which strengthens the control of the movement of transport and unloading of goods. See the following site:

https://au.int/sites/default/files/newsevents/workingdocuments/31372-wd-smart-corridors(2.1.2018-17:30). 

34) Adopted during the regional meeting of African ministers in charge of civil aviation, which was held in Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast) on 6 and 7 October 1988. The declaration provides for the liberalization of air transport in Africa and the merger of African airlines, flexibility in granting the fifth freedom, and improved management of the companies. Look:

Abu al-Qasim Abd al-Ilah, Development in Africa, Elaph Center for Research and Development, Tripoli (Libya), 2001, p. 149.

35) http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

36) The charter provides for the modernization of the public administration, strengthening its capacity and harmonizing public service procedures among member states to promote regional and continental integration and improve services. For more information, see the following:

– Assembly / AU / Dec.337 (XVI), p2.

–     Doc.EX.CL/645(XVIII), p3.

37) Stephen Radlett, Africa’s Renaissance – Has It Stopped? Internal translation, Finance and Development Journal, June 2016, p. 8. [1]

38) https://au.int/fr/agenda2063(13.1.2018-15:45).

39) Idem.

40) The importance of the diaspora in supporting the economic development of the continent was emphasized in the context of the Declaration on the World Summit of African Diaspora issued on 5.25 2012, which emphasized their role in facing the increasing need for human resources, financing, and technical expertise for qualified professionals and competencies. Statistics indicate that (27) thousand African scholars emigrated from various African countries towards industrialized countries between 1960 and 1975 in the 1990s, the number reached (20) thousand annually, and most of the African students who pursue their studies abroad do not return to their countries. Look:

UNCTAD Report, Twelfth Conference on Trade and Development for the Well-being of Africa, 2013, p.8.

41) The African Action Plan on Culture and Creative Industries was developed in Nairobi in 2005, considering culture is the fourth pillar for sustainable development. The African Cultural Renaissance Charter was adopted during the sixth session of the African Union Conference held in Khartoum on 24.1.2006 in an effort by the organization to integrate cultural goals into the strategy of . Look:  

https://www.wipo.int/wipolex/fr/treaties/text.jsp?files.id=202817 (30.12.2017-17: 33).

42) The aim of developing such a strategy is to improve the infrastructure for research and professional and technical skills, to enhance entrepreneurship and create an environment conducive to development. Look:

African Union Commission, STISA-2024, June 2014, p10.

43) AUC, Agenda 2063, The Africa We Want, First Edition, Popular Version, AU Publications, 2015, p 208.

44) Idem, p 208.

45) http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

46) Idem.



– The Organization of African Unity was established on May 25, 1963, and the African Union constitutes a continuation of the continental unity project. [1]

[2] – Ladji Ouattra, Agenda 2063, opportunity and challenge for Africa, policy analysis note, NAP n ° 21, January 2015, p 2.

[3] –  https://www.mediaterre.org/afrique/actu,20150203152725.html(30.12.2017-16:35).

2- There are eight regional economic groups that the African Union recognizes and establishes cooperation relations with, respectively: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Sub-Saharan Community of Sahel, Community of East African States, Economic Community of Central Africa (ECAS), Economic Community For West African Countries (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the Southern African Development Group, and the Arab Maghreb Union.   

[5] – effectivecooperation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/french-agenda-africa-regional-workshop-GPEDC(5.1.2018-16:40).

2- Shaima Abdel-Fattah, Agenda 2063, The Common Strategic Framework (Principles, Objectives, Strategies), available at the following website:

 http://www.sis.gov.eg/UP/5-45.pdf(28.12.2017-14/20).                                   

[7] – Carlos Lopez, Financing of the Africa Development Program, Africa Renewal, December 2015, P13.

[8] – African Union Commission, Agenda 2063, draft document, AU publications, May 2014, p96.

[9] – Idem, p97.

[10] –  http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

[11] –  http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

[12] – Idem.                                                                

[13] – Idem.

[14] – AUC, Agenda 2063, The Africa We Want, First Edition, Popular Version, AU Publications, 2015, p 182.

[15] – Idem, p183.

1- The Intra-African Trade Intensification Program is a program adopted by the African Union Conference in January 2012 with the aim of maximizing the capabilities and benefits provided by the continental free trade area and the continental customs union to be established. Its priority areas are policies that include trade and related information, trade facilities, production capacity, trade-related infrastructure, trade finance, and market integration. For more, see the following website:   

https://www.uneca.org/fr/pages/plan-daction-pour-stimuler-le-commerce-intra-africain(3.1.2018-15:10).

[17] – AUC, Agenda 2063, The Africa We Want, First Edition, Popular Version, AU Publications, 2015, p 184.

[18] -I’m going, p 184.

[19] -I’m going, p 185.

[20] -African Union Commission, Agenda 2063 Framework Document, AU publication, 2015, p 186.             

[21] – Idem, p 187.                       

1- This is about the integrated African strategy on seas and oceans for the horizons of 2050, which is a broad framework for the protection and sustainable exploitation of the African maritime domain for the purpose of creating wealth, and was adopted by the African Union Conference during the Thirteenth Regular Session held in Sirte (Libya) in July 2009. See:

https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/30930-doc-2050_aim_strategy_fr_0.pdf(3.1.2018-15:00).

[23] – African Union Commission, Agenda 2063 framework document, AU publication, 2015, p 186.

[24] – Idem, p 189.                                                     

[25] – Idem, p 190.

[26] – Idem, p 190.

2- The detailed program on agricultural development in Africa is an integral part of the New Partnership for Development in Africa (NEPAD) that was adopted by the African Union conference during its meeting in Maputo (2003), and it is a policy framework for Africa in the field of agricultural transformation and security. It aims to increase investments to stimulate growth in the agricultural sector. For more details see:

 www.nepad.org/fr/cop/programme-detaille-de-developpement-de-l-agriculture-en-afrique_pddaa (12.31.2017-16: 30).

[28] – https://au.int/sites/defaults/files/documents/333126-doc-14-ten-year-implementation-french.pdf(31.12.2017-15:50).

[29] – Idem.                           

[30] – https://au.int/fr/agenda2063(13.1.2018-15:45).

[31] – Idem.

1- This relates to a continental program to promote social and economic development and to establish a framework strategy to develop infrastructure at regional and continental levels in the fields of energy, transport, water, and telecommunications. It will be implemented under the supervision of the African Union Committee, the NEPAD Secretariat and the African Development Bank. Look:

Mohamed El-Hady and Taf, Paths of Sustainable Development in Africa, Dar Al-Wefaq for Publishing and Distribution, Algeria, 2013, p. 137.

2- The idea of ​​smart corridors was proposed by the Program for the Development of Infrastructure in Africa and incorporated into its programs, then it was presented to the stakeholders at the level of the African Union Committee and approved during the approval committee meeting on 24 February 2016 The strategy of smart corridors includes innovative and smart transportation systems that facilitate commercial activity by simplifying the administrative paths of transportation operations and providing information in real time, which strengthens the control of the movement of transport and unloading of goods. See the following site:

https://au.int/sites/default/files/newsevents/workingdocuments/31372-wd-smart-corridors(2.1.2018-17:30). 

3- Adopted during the regional meeting of African ministers in charge of civil aviation, which was held in Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast) on 6 and 7 October 1988. The declaration provides for the liberalization of air transport in Africa, the merger of African airlines, flexibility in granting the fifth freedom, and the improvement of the management of those companies. Look:

Abu al-Qasim Abd al-Ilah, Development in Africa, Elaph Center for Research and Development, Tripoli (Libya), 2001, p. 149.

[35] -http: //www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf (1.1.2018-13: 45).

5- The charter provides for the modernization of the public administration, strengthening its capacity and harmonizing public service procedures among member states to promote regional and continental integration and improve services. For more information, see the following:

– Assembly / AU / Dec.337 (XVI), p2.

– Doc.EX.CL/645(XVIII), p3.

– Stephen Radlett, Africa Renaissance – Has It Stopped? Internal translation, Finance and Development Journal, June 2016, p. 8. [37]

[38] – https://au.int/fr/agenda2063(13.1.2018-15:45).

[39] -Idem.

1- The importance of the diaspora in supporting the economic development of the continent was emphasized in the context of the Declaration on the World Summit of African Diaspora issued on 5.25 2012, which emphasized their role in facing the increasing need for human resources, financing, and technical expertise for qualified professionals and competencies. Statistics indicate that (27) thousand African scholars emigrated from various African countries towards industrialized countries between 1960 and 1975 in the 1990s, the number reached (20) thousand annually, and most of the African students who pursue their studies abroad do not return to their countries. Look:

UNCTAD Report, Twelfth Conference on Trade and Development for the Well-being of Africa, 2013, p.8.

2- The African Action Plan on Culture and Creative Industries was drawn up in Nairobi in 2005, considering culture is the fourth pillar of sustainable development, and the African Cultural Renaissance Charter was adopted during the sixth session of the African Union Conference held in Khartoum on January 24, 2006, in an effort by the organization to integrate cultural goals into the strategy . Look:  

https://www.wipo.int/wipolex/fr/treaties/text.jsp?files.id=202817(30.12.2017-17:33).

3- The purpose of developing such a strategy is to improve the infrastructure for research and professional and technical skills, and to enhance entrepreneurship and create an environment conducive to development. Look:

 African Union Commission, STISA-2024, June 2014, p10.

[43] -CUA, Agenda 2063, the Africa we want, first edition, popular version, UA publications, 2015, p 208.

[44] – Idem, p 208.

[45] – http://www.un.org/fr/africa/osaa/pdf/au/agenda2063-frameworkf.pdf(1.1.2018-13:45).

[46] – Idem.

اقرأ أيضا (read more)  Union for the Mediterranean project

SAKHRI Mohamed

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