Prepared by: Khaled Al-Hamad – Arturo University Mardin College of Economics and Administrative Sciences – Department of Political Science and International Relations
- The Arab Democratic Center
No one can ignore the importance of the Middle East region to the world as a whole or to Turkey, which is part of it in particular, and this comes through Turkey’s important location, where it was divided from its lands in Europe, and also “its oversight of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits gave it a strategic geographic depth that no country enjoyed In the region, in addition to being the link between East Asia and Europe, and the passage of energy and gas lines through Turkey to Europe, made it an important player in international and regional relations, in addition to the acumen of the founders of the Justice and Development Party Abdullah Gul, Rajab Tayyip Erdogan and Ahmed Davutoglu after assuming the Justice and Development Party The reins of power by paying attention to the Middle East region and making it an important source from the political and economic aspects and the recent period in the military aspect, as well as interest in the issues of the peoples of the region, with which they have a strong relationship with religious and cultural heritage, with the desire of some Arab peoples for Turkish friendship.
1 – The idea of the research study: After the Justice and Development Party (AKP) came to the Turkish authority, by winning the 2002 parliamentary elections, and was headed by the Turkish government headed by Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey adopted a new policy on the international scene, and the Middle East region had a share, after The absence and long isolation since the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, as Turkey relied on several foundations and starting points for its new policy, by its engineer, Dr. Ahmet Davutoglu, which he mentioned in his book “The Strategic Depth and Turkey’s Role on the International Arena”, and the search for Turkey’s national, economic and commercial interests, given the importance of countries The Middle East region, with its Islamic religious status and economic resources, and the common borders between Turkey and some neighboring countries (Iran – Iraq – Syria) and its ancient legacy, with Turkey claiming to the Islamic world for four consecutive centuries, drew the attention of the new Turkey to its backyard.
2-The importance of research: The importance of the research study comes, that we are looking deeply into the new Turkish foreign policy for Middle East issues and the extent of its relationship with countries in the region, and find out the nature of the new Turkish role between ambition and obstacles, and provide a strategic vision of the new Turkish political discourse led by the Justice and Development Party, in light of The current turbulent political situation in neighboring countries, as well as to determine Turkish national interests, from their proximity and relations with each country in the Middle East separately.
3- The research hypothesis: Since the new political orientation, the Turkish role in the Middle East, and opening up to Arab countries, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, and in light of regional, western and European political interactions, the American military presence in Iraq and the Arab Gulf, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and Turkey’s entry under the leadership of the Justice and Development Party (AKP) Strongly in the Middle East region by drawing political lines and paths that serve Turkey’s economic, commercial and national interests, and its war with the PKK, which poses a threat to its national security by the presence of its camps in the Qandil Mountains in northern Iraq, we have tried through this research study to shed light on the new Turkish policy between ambition And obstacles, have you reached to achieve their national interests through the relationship with the countries of the Middle East? Why and what are Turkey’s motives for orienting its new policy in the Middle East?
4 – Research methodology: In order to achieve the research hypothesis, which is related to the study of the new Turkish policy towards the Middle East, and about the extent to which the policy of whistling up the problems expressed by the godfather of Turkish policy, Ahmed Davutoglu, we adopted the descriptive analytical approach by reviewing the studies, books and facts that dealt with this Aspect, and trying to find convincing answers to the questions asked through this simplified study.
5- Research Structure: The study included several aspects that dealt with three demands, although it is short and not worth the distribution, but for the sake of the separation of events.
A- The first topic: it dealt with the definition of the importance of the Middle East, the importance of Turkey’s geostrategic location, and the foundations of Turkish foreign policy, and foreign policy towards the Middle East.
B – The second topic : The discussion touched on the Turkish openness to the Arab countries and the relationship with the Arab Gulf states, Turkish-Iranian relations and their role in Iraq, and also touched on the Turkish rapprochement and the Kurdistan Regional Government, as well as the Turkish-Israeli relationship and the Palestinian government, the Turkish-Syrian relationship before and after the Palestinian revolution.
C- The third topic: It deals with the future of Turkish strategy in the Middle East region and the strengths of Turkish foreign policy.
We have come to the conclusion of Turkey’s geostrategic importance as a country within the Middle East region and its interest in recent years in the region’s issues in order to achieve its “national interest in addition to mutual economic and commercial benefit, in light of the circumstances that pass through the region from the (Arab Spring revolutions).
Time that the study passes: the beginning of the twenty-first century to the present time.
The first topic:
The location that the Turkish Republic is distinguished between Europe and Asia in addition to the heritage and religious link between it and the people of the Middle East region made him an important strategic player in international and regional relations, we will talk here about Turkey’s geostrategic position from the Middle East, in addition to the new political foundations and Turkish foreign policy in the Middle East .
First ”- Turkey’s geostrategic position from the Middle East: The Middle East region is a link between South and East Asia and Europe, as its strategic location has given an important place to its countries at the global level, and among these countries is Turkey  .
Where the geostrategic location of Turkey has played an important role in the crystallization of its foreign policy, through several centuries and with changing international conditions, its location has some advantages, which have played and are still a major role in international relations such as the Bosphorus and Dardanelles strains that connect the waters of the Black Sea to the waters of the Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmara, it is located In the Anatolia region of the Asian continent, part of its territory is located in the European Balkan region, which gave it tremendous strategic importance as it is the crossroads of land, sea and air transportation routes in the region and controls energy transmission lines, whether to the Middle East or to Europe and the United States  .
Second – the foundations of the new Turkish foreign policy
After the Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, and the government was headed by the party’s Chairman, Mr. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkey adopted a new policy at the international level, relying on new foundations to pursue the greatest economic and commercial benefit of the country.
1 – Achieving a balance between freedom and security: The state must strive to achieve freedom for its citizens, and it must seek at the same time, a machine for achieving security for society and the country, and here the effort to achieve security must not overwhelm the goal of freedom, and attention should not lead to achieving freedom A threat to security, so balance is a strategic goal that must be achieved between freedom and security.
2- Trying to solve the outstanding problems between Turkey and its neighbors, or the so-called “whistle-blowing problems”, then removing Turkey from the image of the country surrounded by problems, and entering into the image of a country with good relations with everyone, and this to achieve, gives foreign policy an exceptional ability to maneuver .
3- Follow a multidimensional foreign policy related to Turkey’s position at the intersection of power and vital areas in the world. Therefore, active Turkish participation in all the regional issues to which Turkey belongs, must be done with awareness and care that Turkey should have enmities.
4- The development of a new diplomatic method in foreign policy, and until now Turkey has been defined in the international system as a bridge from several sides, this means that the role of the bridge is to meet the passage of the parties over it, while Turkey must be defined in the new stage as a focused country, Here, Turkish diplomacy has to adapt its movement, starting with the square in which it moves, and each square has its discourse and style, and Turkey will thus be a contribution, not a burden, to international interaction.
5- Moving from rigid politics and stillness to permanent movement and communication with all countries of the world important to Turkey
Firstly: Turkish foreign policy towards the Middle East:
The Eastern Mediterranean Region is the second important meeting point for Turkey, as it is the lowest belt of the Caucasus – East Mediterranean – Balkan hubs, and Turkey has become obliged to develop an Eastern Mediterranean policy  .
And with a view to its regional role activation in the Middle East, Turkish policy has found that it must adapt its foreign policy in line with the international and regional realities in light of the international and regional variables that reflected on the Middle East , especially the developments that came repercussions after the events of September 11 the 2001 war occupation of Iraq in 2003 and the developments of the settlement The political nature of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Arab Spring revolutions, in addition to the emergence of Iran as a regional power that has influence in the Arab Gulf region, and therefore these changes imposed on Turkey the restructuring of its policy towards these regional variables  .
They witnessed the increasing emergence and interest of the Turkish role in most of the central issues in the Middle East, especially after the arrival of the Justice and Development Party to rule in 2002 and its announcement of the inauguration of a new Turkish policy towards the region based on asserting Turkey’s presence and position as a central force for stability and an active party in addressing various issues and conflicts in the region. Mediation between Syria and Israel in 2008, where four rounds of indirect negotiations were held in Istanbul, as well as mediation in the Lebanese crisis between the two teams of 8/14 March  .
However, this policy soon faced many challenges in the wake of the outbreak of the first sparks of the Arab Spring, which soon spread in the Arab region, which violated the existing balances, and the seasons of the Arab Spring are still continuing and accelerating threatening the entire regional policies and balances, the most prominent of which is the Turkish role. 
The second topic
We will discuss in this topic the Turkish openness to Arab countries and Turkish relations with the Arab Gulf states, Iran and Iraq.
First ”- Turkish openness to the Arab countries:
Turkish diplomacy is characterized by openness and a deep understanding of the feelings of the people in the region, especially the Arabs, and the invocation of restraint and the promise of resorting to demagogic methods in addressing the Arab masses, at the expense of their governments, and the appearance of a loyal and understanding friend to the problems of the region keen on cooperation, peace and prosperity for all parties  .
The Turkish openness to the Arab countries, and building strong relations with them such as one of the pillars of activating the Turkish role in the Middle East, but the great popular movement that many Arab countries witnessed (the Arab Spring) confused the Turkish government, and made its position on the Arab movement different, so Turkey dealt with all A party according to its specificity, in the Tunisian and Egyptian case, which resulted in the early fall of both regimes, Turkey supported the Tunisian and Egyptian people, and supported the liberation of peoples and their orientation towards democratic transformation, and after the fall of Muammar Gaddafi’s regime in Libya, the Turkish regime continued to support the Libyan people, so Turkey saw that What is happening in the Arab world is a natural path, and Arab rulers should not stand in the face of this path, the revolutions of the Arab Spring, in addition to Turkey adopting principles in its foreign policy that require respecting the will of the people and their desire for freedom, and preserving the peaceful path of this popular movement, in addition to To reject foreign military intervention in these countries, and to provide supportIn addition to preserving the Turkish economic interests in these countries and preserving the safety of the Turkish community in them, Turkey has also focused on relying on international legitimacy and its movement within the framework of international laws and United Nations resolutions.
However, Turkish policy changed, with some Arab countries, including Egypt, after 2013, as a result of the overthrow of the regime of President Mohamed Morsi and the handing of Muhammad Fattah al-Sisi. Until the date of the study, Turkey did not recognize the government and presidency of Muhammad Fattah al-Sisi.
We can say that economic and political relations constitute the main motives for changing Turkish-Arab relations. Turkey’s disappointment that it did not accept membership in the European Union, which made it lose the hope of opening the European common market to its trade and industrial and agricultural production, especially after the establishment of giant water dams and dams and the start of huge Anatolia agricultural projects The production of agricultural crops will surpass the need of the local Turkish market. Consumed Arab markets are considered the best alternative to the disposal of products, because they need them first and because of their proximity to them secondly geographically, and abundant Arab funds will find the appropriate place for them to invest in Turkish-Islamic joint-stock banks. 
Secondly – Turkish relations with the Arab Gulf states:
The Turkish and Gulf relations did not witness a strong correlation, but it was characterized by coldness and divergence in the past period, but in 1990 after the entry of Iraqi forces to Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states began to improve their relations with Turkey, says writer Majid Hudayb – Palestinian writer and journalist: With the occupation of the former Iraqi President (Saddam Hussein) For Kuwait, the Turkish-Gulf relations began to live in a period of recovery and revival, in the beginning of the nineties of the twentieth century, where the joint relations had activated between the two parties more and more due to the support of the Turkish President ( Turgut Ozal ), in that period, the Saudi position opposing this occupation, with Provide some logistical support to the Arab and international alliance established under the leadership of the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to eliminate the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. 
Turkey was interested in developing its relationship with the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, especially after the Justice and Development Party took power in Turkey since 2002. This interest came in the context of the Turkish foreign policy that the party pursued in opening up to the region surrounding the region with which Turkey has various historical and cultural ties, in addition to economic aspects. As Turkey needs to secure the growing domestic demand from oil derivatives, which import more than 90% of it from abroad. The Arab Gulf region accounts for about 60% of the world’s oil reserves and 23% of the global reserves of natural gas. These countries also account for more than 23% of the daily global production of oil and about 8% of the global daily production of gas. 
Turkish-Arab relations have advanced and developed significantly in recent years. In a visit to the Prime Minister of Turkey to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2010, he described Saudi-Turkish relations as no less important than Turkish-European relations. Trade between the Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Turkey grew from 17 billion US dollars in 1998. To reach $ 166 billion in 2008. 
After the media disappearance of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi at the Saudi Embassy building in Ankara, Turkish-Saudi relations took a reverse curve at the political level. After media pressure and investigations of a crime inside the Saudi embassy building proving Khashoggi’s death at the hands of Saudi officials, Turkey adopted from the first moments of the assassination of Khashoggi, inside His country’s consulate building in Istanbul in early October 2018, a positive attitude by inviting the Saudi authorities to cooperate to uncover the truth. 
Saudi Arabia recognized the occurrence of the crime, which added to the tension in relations between the two countries, in addition to Saudi Arabia’s position towards Turkey after the landing of Turkish forces at the Qatari base of Al-Qaida, following the declaration of a complete blockade by the Gulf Cooperation Council states on Qatar.
The Turkish-Qatari relationship has a special approach and close interdependence between the Qatari government and the Turkish government and the size of the trade and economic exchange in general and the presence of Turkish forces on the Qatari lands, after the escalation of the Gulf crisis and the besieging of Qatar, by the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, the military agreements signed between Turkey and Qatar and the entry of forces have been activated Turkish to Qatar, and in general, the fifth meeting of the Qatar-Turkish Higher Strategic Committee is preparing; Another important milestone in the relations between the two countries, as the course of the relationship has taken an upward trend since 2002. From the Turkish point of view, this was due to two main factors: First: The political agenda of the Justice and Development Party, which came to power through a transformative program at the political level And economic in addition to the reforms that were made at the national level. The Justice and Development Party has changed its foreign policy vision. In contrast to the “go west” policy, which was established during the Kemalist era, when Turkey ignored the Middle East for decades .
The second branch:
First ”- Turkish-Iranian relations and their role in Iraq
The political competition between Turkey and Iran in Iraq has intensified during the past few years, if each of them intends to support the opposition political blocs, during the last parliamentary elections in Iraq, Iran supports the Shiite parties, and Turkey supports the secular Iraqi National Coalition. 
The Turkish government and Iran enjoy long-term energy relations, although disputes often arise over the implementation of signed agreements, and that for Turkey, Iran remains a lucrative commercial market and an important energy resource 
Consequently, Turkish-Iranian tensions stem from real challenges, including the Iranian-Turkish presence in northern Syria, and each side’s attempt to deepen their influence in the region.
Secondly – Turkish rapprochement and the Kurdistan Regional Government
The Turkish government led by the Justice and Development Party and its President Recep Tayyip Erdogan decided in 2012 to recover crude oil directly from the Kurdistan Regional Government, despite the objection of the central government in Baghdad, and such a decision should be seen as based on a broad strategic background. 
Turkey also opposed the establishment of a Kurdish state in northern Iraq from the start 
For many reasons, I realized that Turkey is afraid of the reflection of this matter on its citizens, the Kurds living in the southern and eastern Anatolia region, and will not allow the success of the Kurdish separation project in Iraq by various means for many reasons, including the presence of the Turkmen majority in the province of Kirkuk, the connection of the regions of northern Iraq to southern Turkey and the Kurdish majority In those areas, with the PKK and its military activity in those areas.
Third – Turkey’s relationship with Israel and the Palestinian state
Turkey was the first Muslim country to recognize Israel in 1949 (justifying this by winning a Middle Eastern ally) 
The diplomatic representation between the two countries and military cooperation took place, and with that diplomatic dialogue between the two countries suffers from tension after the Israeli invasion of the Palestinian territories (Gaza) in 2009
Also, in return, Turkey recognized the State of Palestine at the United Nations in 1988, recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization and opened a representative office in Ankara, opposed to Israel’s annexation of the Golan Heights and the 1967 Israeli aggression against Syria, and demanded that Israel withdraw from the occupied territories and give the Palestinian people the right to self-determination.
It can be said that the Turkish-Israeli relationship was marked by tides and that the facts confirm the extent of the breach suffered by the Arab peoples, including the Palestinian people, from the Zionists and Israel through organized aggression and mass exodus, despite Turkey taking some positions required form, and political ambition towards Israel such as reducing representation The diplomat is minimal, and the Israeli Airlines office is closed, due to Ankara’s desire to improve its relations with Arab and Islamic countries while maintaining economic relations with Israel. 
Turkey reached out to Hamas after its victory in the parliamentary elections in 2007 and received its chief of political bureau, Khaled Meshaal, in Ankara, and mediated the inclusion of Hamas in the political process instead of blockading and isolating it. 
Mediate with the Palestinian Authority headed by Mahmoud Abbas and Israel through the famous meeting between Mahmoud Abbas and Shimon Peres at the invitation of Turkish President Abdullah Gul in the month of November 2007 AD and keep a speech by Peres before the Turkish parliament. 
Fourthly – The Turkish-Syrian relationship before and after the revolution :
Dr. Ahmed Davutoglu says :  The path of Turkish-Syrian relations, which was based on the old trend that prevailed in the Cold War period and which was further aggravated by the Ocalan crisis, constitutes a model of laziness, lethargy and volumes, in a manner that is said to be seen by two instances of two neighboring countries, which does not belong to a concept A rational diplomatic vision, as the two countries have the longest common land, political borders, in which Turkey occupies the site of the open gate to northern and western Syria, while Syria occupies the site of the open gate to southern Turkey, and these two countries are now Saddam Square, while they have the capabilities and capabilities to establish close, fruitful relations In the fields of agriculture, trade and transportation.
Although there are many tensions in Turkish-Syrian relations, these relations witnessed great stability and cooperation between the two countries before the outbreak of the Syrian crisis in 2011. With the arrival of Bashar al-Assad as successor to his father, Hafez al-Assad, Turkey strengthened relations with Syria and closed the file of many differences, which boosted the development of relations Between the two countries, this cooperation amounted to the two countries lifting travel visas for citizens of both countries. The openness in Turkish-Syrian relations did not last long and returned to tension after the outbreak of the Syrian crisis due to the different orientations of both countries, where Bashar al-Assad heads towards the Iranian Shiite axis while Turkey leads the Sunni axis In the Middle East, which highlighted the Turkish position hostile to the regime of Bashar Al-Assad. With the start of the Syrian crisis, the Turkish President went to Syria to reach a settlement with the Syrian regime, expressing his country’s dissatisfaction with the regime of Bashar al-Assad’s military intervention against a special division after the Syrian regime’s tanks entered Aleppo .
Turkish diplomatic relations with the Assad regime ended in estrangement, as a result of brutal acts and systematic displacements against segments of Syrian society by the forces of the regime and the accompanying militias, and the migration of most Syrians to the countries of asylum, including Turkey, which has embraced nearly three and a half million Syrian refugees as a result of the war and control ISIS on most of the Syrian lands in the north and east of Syria after 2013, when Turkish forces expelled ISIS from the rural areas of Azaz and the Jarabulus region and the door in northern Aleppo, and handed them over to the Syrian opposition and the national army and managed them, and later in the beginning of 2018, Turkey launched a military operation with the participation of the opposition forces (the national army) On the Afrin region, north of Aleppo, its goal is to expel the Democratic Union Party and PKK elements from the area, and it is currently managed by the civil and military institutions of the Syrian opposition, and during the last period of 2019 to the beginning of the current year 2020, military confrontations took place between the regime forcesThe Turkish army, as a result of the regime’s action to hit the Turkish forces stationed with observation points deployed in the southern Idlib countryside, extending to the northern Hama countryside and some of the western Aleppo countryside.
The third topic:
First ”- The future of the Turkish strategy in the Middle East:
In an interview with Dr. Davut Ahmetoglu he spoke : We will work towards establishing a regional world order that is more peaceful and prosperous, and we will support people who demand democracy and their basic human rights, and we will stand against regimes that seek to deny these legitimate demands through coercion, we will use all diplomatic means to deal with cases Emergency is a just solution without devastating military intervention. 
Attention has increased in the Turkish role in the Middle East region and its issues, especially after the Justice and Development Party came to power, and the leaders of the new government are keen to confirm their adoption of a qualitatively different vision of Turkey’s policy and its external relations in the various circles, in the different circles in the different regions, The elements of Turkish power are positive developments during this period, especially in its economic dimensions, as Turkey succeeded in occupying the first rank among the economies of the region and the sixteenth on the global level, in terms of the size of the gross domestic product, and this was accompanied by an increase in the presence of the Turk The region, whether in relation to the Iraqi issue, the Arab-Israeli conflict with its multiple tracks, the Iranian nuclear program crisis, or Turkey was presented as a model.In reform issues in the region in its various dimensions and other issues.
Secondly – strengths of Turkish foreign policy:
Turkey has tremendous human power and also historical depth and status of military power in terms of equipment and equipment and a member of NATO and the second military force in NATO after America, in addition to its economic strength and its historical legacy of leading the Islamic world for more than four centuries, says: Dr. Ahmed Davutoglu, former Turkish Foreign Minister “Turkey formulates its foreign policy based on a comprehensive understanding of historical trends, a sense of ability to act, and Turkey refuses to understand reactionary foreign policy and develops its positions on international regional issues, taking into account its own conditions and above all Turkey’s position reflects its historical depth, geographical location and rich heritage in international issues And the former minister, Dr. Ahmet Davutoglu:
Turkey’s strategic vision is reflected in the fact that it possesses elements of strength that enable it to play the role of guarantor and stability, or the party accepted by all parties, which is what has succeeded so far, to a large extent. Tension about it, and trying to play the role of diplomatic mediator as it can, and present itself as an attempting stability force, using its capabilities to speak to everyone.
Indeed, Turkey’s political ability stems from the consistency of its vital mass, human power – the area of the region – with its unique strategic location, its economic and military strength, its secular orientation, and the area of democracy, in addition to being a member of NATO, which ultimately leads to achieving its strategic goals and interests. Supreme. 
It can be said from the above that Turkey’s strategic location qualifies it and forces it to pay attention to regional issues that are hot and up to it, and it removes from it any form of security threat to its lands on the one hand, by engaging in these issues with economic benefits, through trade relations from neighboring countries, Or the passage of energy resources from gas pipelines to Europe through its lands, and gives Turkey its distinguished and sensitive geographical location a wider field of movement and maneuvering by playing with more influential regional and international cards, in addition to possessing human capabilities in terms of population and youth in the age group.
As we show the importance of the Middle East region to Turkey, which is part of it, with the occurrence of a portion of the Turkish Republic’s lands in Europe and Asia, and its supervision of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, it gave it a strategic geographic depth that no country in the region has enjoyed, as it is the link between East Asia and Europe, The passage of energy and gas lines through Turkey to Europe, in addition to the acumen of the founders of the Justice and Development Party, Abdullah Gul, Rajab Tayyip Erdogan and Ahmed Davutoglu, with interest in the Middle East region in terms of political, economic and trade, as well as interest in the issues of peoples in that region, with which they have a strong relationship, religious heritage and desire Arab peoples with Turkish friendship, and also Turkey’s rapid access to economic progress, urban civilization and local industrialization at all levels, with the presence of scientific cadres and ambitious youth and an abundance of manpower and geographical area, and with regard to Turkish policy towards the region, was a policy built on respecting the will of peoplesWith its rightful demands for freedom and democracy, and the experience of the Justice and Development Party alongside the Turkish parties, it raced to serve the Turkish citizen and secure livelihoods and provide an atmosphere of security for democratic practice in its best form, and with regard to challenges, it is present in the region in the face of the modern Turkish trend, so that some countries of the region are unwilling to implement the new Turkish policy With the presence of the American and Russian presence, in addition to the Iranian one, it is incompatible with the Turkish policy to respect the will of the people demanding freedom, and to challenge the expansion of the PKK, at the expense of Turkey’s neighboring countries from its southern borders bordering Syria and Iraq.
In light of the current circumstances, the turbulent situations in the Middle East, and the Arab Spring revolutions, we conclude whether Turkey managed with its policy to win the hearts of the Arab peoples and generalize its democratic experience of the present time in the Justice and Development Party despite the existence of internal conflicts between the Turkish parties, or has it widened the circle of conflicts and the Turkish Kurdish Arab dispute ?, and the future Its national security from future external threats.
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2- Author Firas Muhammed Elias, Analysis of Turkish Foreign Policy according to the Perspective of the New Ottoman School, pp. 35-36
3- Dr. Ahmet Davutoglu, Book of Strategic Depth and Turkey’s Role in the International Arena, p. 435
4- Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar Al-Gammal, Book of Aspirations and Regional Balances, Non-Arab, p. 155
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6- Samir Sbeitan, The Book of Turkey in the Recep Tayyip Erdogan Era , Al-Janadriyah Press,
7- The writer Muhammed Nur al-Din, The Book of Turkey in the Transforming Time (Anxiety of Identity and the Conflict of Options ), paragraph 276, Section Seven, the New Middle East – Turkish-Israeli Relations – Agreement – Difference.
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 Arab Democratic Center https://democraticac.de/?p=53689
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Turkish relationship with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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 Alireza Nader – F. Stephan Larabi Research Institute (RAND) Turkish-Iranian relations in the Middle East is changing –
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 – Firas Muhammed Elias, a source that was previously hated
 – Firas Muhammed Elias, a source that was previously hated
 -D. Davut Ahmadoglu, book, Strategic Depth, Turkey’s position and role in the international arena, p. 437
 .- Hussein al-Odat, Syrian-Turkish relations between the past and the present https://www.albayan.ae/opinions/articles/2011-05-07-1.1434227
 – Sam’s Center for Strategic Research of the Turkish Foreign Ministry Interview with Dr. Davut Ahmetoglu, former Prime Minister of Turkey http://sam.gov.tr/wp -content / uploads / 2012/12 / vision_paper_arapca_03-nihai.pdf
 -Ahmed Suleiman Salem Al-Rahahleh, The New Turkish Role in the Middle East “Opportunities and Challenges” This thesis was submitted to complement the requirements for obtaining a master’s degree in political science, Department of Political Science – Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Middle East University, the second semester of 2014.
 – The Center for Strategic Research (SAM) of the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, interview with Dr. Ahmet Davutoglu, former Turkish foreign minister.
 (29) Researcher: Ahmad Aref Arheel Al-Kafarneh – Research study entitled (Strategic Options for Turkey Regionally and Internationally) – Humanities and Social Sciences Volume / 45 / Issue / 4 / 2018. https://dirasat.ju.edu.jo/HSS / Article / FullText / 12354? Volume = 45 & issue =