The role of regional organizations in facing the issue of climate change: the European Union as a model

Regional organizations are among the most prominent and accelerated responses that resulted from the largest pillars of contemporary international organization represented by the United Nations. The regional blocs reflected the reality of international interactions and the growing awareness of the magnitude of current and future challenges, which called for concerted efforts to address international environmental concerns, and shed light on the need to sound the bell. The danger with regard to the proper exploitation and sustainable development of the Earth’s resources.

With the escalation of international concern about the increasing rate and concentration of greenhouse gas emissions to dangerous levels in the atmosphere as a result of the massive technological advances in the aftermath of World War II, the global interest in pollution emanating from the deadly rumors of nuclear tests that caused an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases, in addition to the international fear of the consequences of those The phenomenon and its negative impacts on natural ecosystems and humanity.

The European Union acts as one of the most successful regional organizations in using the unprecedented mobilization of public resources at the level of the European Union to combat the climate change crisis in order to build a sustainable and more resilient economy, which aims to achieve job-rich growth in the European Union in the short and medium term by prioritizing investment In green and digital technologies, a gradual increase in carbon prices will provide the necessary revenue while creating greater incentives to invest in clean technologies and use energy efficiently.

The European Union is leading the way towards achieving its medium-term goals and ambitions to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, until the impact of its harmful emissions becomes climate-neutral by 2050, as stated in the “Agreement.” “European Green”, with the European Union as a regional organization realizing that the implementation of such a significant reduction in emissions is not an easy matter, but rather requires a major shift in the structure of the European economy towards more reliance on renewable energy and raising the efficiency of energy consumption, in addition to the shock of the negative economic repercussions it has caused The Russian war on Ukraine and its repercussions on the global economy, especially the European economy, which had already begun this year to make intensive efforts to eliminate the repercussions of the Corona virus on its economies since 2020.It seems that the cost of the Russian-Ukrainian war will exceed the GDP in the European Union for 2022 (estimated at 175 billion euros), as expected by economic experts, which constitutes a greater burden and challenge to complete the ambitious path of the European Union in terms of confronting climate change and its strategy in this regard. 1])

Research problem.

International and regional efforts to protect the global environment are at the forefront of the highest priority in the current era, due to the increasing common environmental risks that threaten the survival of the globe itself as a framework that accommodates humans and the rest of the creatures, which necessitated the development of effective scientific thought adopted by international and regional organizations coupled with an effective executive administration, including the European Union, which attaches Attention to ecosystems, environmental management of harmful substances, resource efficiency, and climate change, believing from his organizational thought in the necessity of activating a strategy towards confronting and containing global warming, to control the negative effects of climate change as a phenomenon affecting the course and objectives of the European Union’s organizational bloc economically, socially and politically.

The study revolves around the following main question.

What is the nature of the role of the European Union in confronting the issue of climate change?

In order to answer the main question, the following sub-questions emerge.

How did regional organizations emerge, and what are their types and competencies?

How did the European Union arise, and what are its mandate and organizational objectives?

How does the European Union face climate risks and issues in light of its organizational idea at a practical level?

the importance of studying.

Academic studies that follow-up and analyze the performance of international and regional organizations on environment and climate issues receive wide attention, to investigate the actual consequences of these organizational roles in achieving the goals entrusted with containing environmental and climate risks and threats on the planet, based on the imperative of concerted scientific and organizational efforts on issues that necessarily affect organisms. life in general and humanity in particular.

The real importance of the study lies in making an applied impact on the thought and management of regional organizations in the field of the researcher, especially the countries of the African Union and the League of Arab States, where these two organizations in particular did not witness any real transformations towards confronting the increasing environmental risks, in addition to the continuous inaction by these two organizations regarding Adopting and implementing effective plans to contain environmental damage in light of the undesirable repercussions of torrential floods, famines, the spread of epidemics and the drying up of rivers in the Arab and African countries in particular.

Objectives of the study.

The study aims at examining how the regional organizations have emerged, and examining their specializations and types.

Examine the origins and motives of establishing the European Union as one of the models for regional organizations, in addition to identifying its competencies and objectives entrusted to achieve them.

Study and research the strategy of the European Union to confront the issue of climate change, and focus on the implementation mechanisms of the strategy and the immediate and expected results.

Study Approach.

Approaching the role:

The individual is the unit of analysis in the role approach as a tool for analysis by focusing on the behavior of an individual. However, there are other levels of analysis that should not be neglected, including the institution and the role of the individual within it as the reformer and the achievement of the objectives of this institution.

The study of both “Almond” and “Powell” entitled “Comparative Politics” defined the concept of the role as one of the basic units of the political system, and that the secondary or sub-system consists of interrelated, interacting roles such as the legislature, voters and pressure groups seeking to enact new laws as sub-systems. She distinguished between role and structure, pointing out that every political system is constantly interested in recruiting individuals into political roles, so we are talking about the recruitment function that must be performed in the structural and institutional organization of the European Union if its structures are to fulfill their function and objectives.[2] )

The study will adopt the approach of the role of regional organizations, and its application to the European Union, to identify the performance of the regional organization and bloc of a group of countries that have taken a voluntary trend towards crystallizing regional organization, and institutional integration in the application of a practical strategy to combat the issue of climate change.([3])

Functional curriculum.

It is the scientific method that depends mainly on the function as a mechanism for explaining the phenomena, and the analysis of the function on the action or work performed by an object. To perform its role while it is dependent in this performance on other parts, and therefore what the study will follow from standing on those practical functions that are specialized in the organs and institutions of the European Union towards confronting the issue of climate change and limiting its negative effects, the method of the flow of actual implementation and the announced results as well as future ambitions .([4])

History Curriculum: This approach is used in order to find out all the historical events that contributed to the formation of the European Union.

The study is divided into three main themes:

First: The theoretical framework of regional organizations, their types, and their characteristics.

Second: The European Union: Origin and Objectives.

Third: The European Union’s regulatory treatment of the issue of climate change.

First: The theoretical framework of regional organizations, their types, and their characteristics.

The modern era, since the nineteenth century, has been characterized by the crystallization and development of international organizational thought in a large way, especially after World War II. Given its gifts and the features of its political or cultural orientations, the trends of international organizational thought have necessarily evolved to become more specific in regional organizations, and the scene of international organization can be extracted from two important phenomena: the crystallization of a global civil society from outside governmental or official frameworks. And the rise of regionalism in light of globalization in a way that the world has never seen before.

The first axis of the study revolves around the following:

How have the features of regional organizations crystallized, and what are their types and specializations?, to identify the most prominent features and features that distinguish regional organizations from international organizations.

The emergence of regional organizations.

Many researchers attributed the first proposal to mold the concepts of international organizations to be concerned with the protection of international peace and security since 1724, in the idealistic philosophy adopted by Immauel Kant in his book Permanent Peace, in the hope of promoting peace between states, so that the states that joined the international organization voluntarily commit to adhere to lasting peace in society internally and externally, without the need to establish a world government.([5])

The nineteenth century witnessed many continuous international efforts to organize international relations, in the hope of achieving international cooperation and the search for peace and justice in its utopian image. The development of these relations requires the existence of an organization for them, because situations of war and peace require a specific framework within which these cases are resolved. Then, legal and organizational thought developed since the Vienna Conference in 1815, which laid the foundations for European relations within the framework of the balance of power after the Napoleonic wars, and from there to the Paris Conference in 1856, then the Berlin conferences of 1868 and 1872 to take care of European interests at the continental and global levels, and the idea of ​​international cooperation developed towards the idea of ​​international organization with the establishment of several international federations led by the countries of the European continent to organize cooperation in specific facilities.Such as the Federation of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures of the year in 1865, as countries established for the first time international organizations to cooperate on specific matters, the International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now agencies United Nations Specialized.(6)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the road turned towards the development of collective efforts to establish a global international system that is not limited to European countries and the necessity of involving small countries in this system. The Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907, with the participation of European and non-European countries, to study ways to avoid war, and ways to settle international disputes by peaceful means, including the formation of international commissions of inquiry and the establishment of the International Court of Arbitration, which began its work in 1902.([7])

However, the international organization in its comprehensive, and more specific, sense was after the First World War with the establishment of the League of Nations in 1919, to serve as the first international organization open to all countries, and open to studying the world’s problems in all its details, where the League of Nations acquired a global status through Open membership, noting that the founding countries are those that won the first war and those who allied with them from other countries.

But this international organization has not been able to achieve its goals in: applying the principle of collective security to maintain international peace and security, settling disputes by peaceful means, and disarming by asking member states to reduce arms. And when the European countries overwhelmed their actions, and hesitated to take firm positions on a number of hot international issues, the League of Nations necessarily fell with the expansion of the Second World War because of its failure to achieve its primary goal of avoiding any future wars, the way was opened for a new international organization It is the United Nations, which officially began its work on October 24, 1945, and the United Nations has become the mother organization of all international organizations, in terms of the transcendence of its Charter of the United Nations in public international law, and in terms of its membership open to all independent countries, and in terms of carrying out three major goals that concern the family International combined, it is:

Maintaining international peace and security.

Achieving international cooperation in all political, economic, social and cultural fields.

Defending human rights and the rights of peoples without discrimination between humans.([8])

The birth of the United Nations was the first building block for the actual establishment of regional organizations, which came under international legal auspices that was devoted to Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations to organize and clarify the nature of interactions between the United Nations and other regional organizations, where the Charter of the United Nations spoke about regional organizations and their role in helping the United Nations on achieving its objectives. It allowed the establishment of regional organizations, provided that they do not conflict in their objectives and activities with the parent international organization, specifically Article (52) which states: “Nothing in this Charter precludes the establishment of regional organizations or agencies that deal with matters related to the maintenance of international peace and security that make regional action valid. and appropriate, so long as such regional organizations or agencies and their activities are consistent with the purposes and principles of the United Nations,

Then the role of regional organizations evolved after the Cold War since 1991 as a result of the expansion of the circle of ethnic, national and regional conflicts in many regions of the world. Since that period, and the increase in economic competition, the necessity of applying regional organizational thought to meet new challenges in order to preserve development rates, with continued expectations of more economic and social growth within the regional scope, and therefore regional organizations stand to defend national and national privacy within the framework of the regional interests of the countries within their scope. In addition to achieving the specific interests and objectives of the organizations themselves.[10]

The concept of regional organizations: types and competencies.

Regional international organizations are called as a group of entities and individuals that transcend one nation state as organizations with international membership. Regional organizations are considered a form of international organization in general, given that the regional organization is a permanent body enjoying legal personality. It also enjoys the self-will that is established by agreement between a group of countries linked by a geographical, political, doctrinal or civil bond as a means of voluntary cooperation between them in a specific field or areas determined by the agreement establishing the organization within the framework of the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Voluntary solidarity, by agreement of the countries entering into the regional organization, does not detract from their sovereignty despite their joining this coordinating group, which has an independent self-will that is expressed through permanent bodies that enable it to carry out the tasks entrusted to it, in which membership is limited and limited to a group of countries.

Types of regional organizations and their competences.

Researchers differed in dividing regional organizations into four directions that define their competencies:

The first trend: in terms of the geographical criterion: It is based on geographical proximity, meaning this criterion is limited to organizations that include geographically adjacent countries. There are organizations that are not global, but this geographical description does not apply to them, such as OPEC and OAPEC.

The second trend: in terms of the geopolitical criterion: This view gives regionalism a political concept in addition to the geographical location, as it adds to the geographical neighborhood other conditions that link the countries of the region such as religion, language and common origin.

It is noted that these two concepts of geographical and political regionalism are so narrow that many organizations that cannot be considered global, such as OPEC, are outside their scope.

The third trend: the flexible trend of regionalism: It goes to consider the organization as regional if the scope of membership in it is determined by a number of countries and is linked to each other with any association, whether geographical, political, national or economic, permanently or temporarily. If the countries are geographically contiguous, they are geographical, and if they are of one origin, they are national, and this trend includes even military alliances.

Fourth: In terms of the nature of the activity:

Organizations shall be of a legislative nature, such as the International Labor Organization.

It shall be of a judicial nature, such as the International Court of Justice.

It is of an administrative or executive nature, as is the case with most organizations.

Many organizations may have all of these competencies.

Second: The European Union: Origin and Objectives.

The reality of contemporary international relations imposed before the countries of Europe the inevitable necessity that requires the development of these relations to keep pace with global events, especially since the end of the Cold War era and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, when political contacts accelerated, and the common interests intertwined and complicated among the countries of the world, and the intensity of international competition intensified with the rise of Major international poles such as the United States of America, China and Japan require searching for a new template of relations that ensures keeping pace with peoples’ aspirations towards achieving security and prosperity prospects and ensuring stability and prosperity.

Motives for the creation of the European Union.

The process of laying the foundations of the European Union passed through many stages resulting from the throes of many internal dynamic interactions of European countries and the world through periods of recent history. Benn” through his article published in 1693 “Towards European Peace in the Present and the Future through the Establishment of a European Parliament” as an attempt to save the lives of Europeans devoured by wars. It is the same proposal made by the German philosopher “Emmanuel Kant” through his article in 1883 “perpetuelle Paix la pour”, in which he called for the inauguration of a unified framework that brings together the warring European kingdoms. These calls were repeated until they were translated into political structures that continued to grow gradually until they reached the current form known as the European Union.[12]

During which the European continent witnessed the conclusion of a number of treaties that were pouring into the process of the infrastructure of European institutional work. Institutionalization by adding new institutions or merging existing ones, as it modified the decision-making mechanisms by changing or reconfiguring the powers and competencies of the old institutions, but these new treaties were starting from where the old treaties ended, adding to them or deleting them without trying to re-melting and reshaping what It exists in a new, harmonious and integrated structure, and these treaties had several features.([13])

The historical and legal interactions that led to the emergence of the European Union.

The historical and legal interactions began to establish a unified organizational bloc that would manage its affairs by itself, including European countries, after the establishment of the United Nations quickly, when Winston Churchill called on the British Prime Minister in 1946, in a speech at the University of Zurich, to establish a form of the European Union, which was codified through The establishment of the European Union in the French capital, Paris, in December of the same year.

In the following year, the United Europe Movement was established in May 1947 with the support of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, a movement against institutions that are not subject to national authority and supports cooperation between governments, on the other side, and in June of 1947, Rennes Curtin founded the French Council for a United Europe (French Council for a United Europe), which later became (1953) part of the European movement, created by the Christian Democrats (Nouvelles Equipes Internationales), which in 1965 became the Christian Democrats of the European Union (Union européenne des démocrates-chrétiens).

The Socialist United States of Europe, which became known since 1961 as the European Left, was also founded.

The European Federal Congress convened in Montreux, Switzerland in August of 1947, which was followed on December 14 of the same year by an executive meeting of representatives of European federations and federations.

In a more advanced move, France, Britain and the Benelux countries decided in January 1949 to establish the European Council, and invited Denmark, Ireland, Italy, Norway and Switzerland to participate with them in preparing the Basic Law of the Council. This was followed on May 5 by the signing of the Basic Law of the European Council. Then the Basic Law of the European Council entered into force in August of the same year.([14])

Thus, the main pillar in his proposal was to place the steel and coal production enterprises of France and Germany under the management of a joint body, provided that this body is open to requests from other European countries to join it. He stressed that talking about any European unity will not see the light except through development and economic partnership, and the transformation of European factories from the manufacture of war munitions towards industries of the peace era. ([15th])

The result of these joint policies was the emergence of a state of mutual economic benefit” between the European parties. This benefit, in turn, required moving to the stage of inaugurating common institutions such as the single market, the common defense and security policy, the common currency, and a parliament representing the countries of Europe that will come to join the emerging European bloc. What resulted in the final formula for this bloc, which became known as the European Union, where the European Council began to convene at the level of heads of state and government in regular sessions since 1974, but it did not turn into an official institution stipulated in the organizational structure of the European Community until 1987, after the entry of the Common Law of 1986 came into force.([16])

The European member states of the three European Communities: the Coal and Steel Community, the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community in February 1986 signed the Single European Act; Then it entered into force in July 1987, according to which the treaties of the three European Communities were amended, whereby European cooperation at the political levels was approved, and the European Council was recognized as one of the European Union organizations. The Court of First Instance was established to assist the European Court of Justice.([17])

The European Economic Community became known under the 1992 Maastricht Treaty as the European Union, and with the establishment of this union it required the beginning of a new stage in the process of creating an ever closer unity among the peoples of Europe, in which decisions are taken at the level of citizens as close as possible. Also known as the Agreement Establishing the European Union, the most important change in its history since the founding of the European Community at the end of the fifties, as it was agreed upon by the European Council in the Dutch city of Maastricht in December 1991, and is considered a real turning point in the process of European integration, because it was not limited to the annexation of The European Union of the Three Historical Communities:The European Economic Community, the Economic Community of Coal and Steel and the European Atomic Energy Community, and indeed went beyond this to enrich the already broad competences that those groups had, and this happened in the traditional economic sector, particularly through the establishment of the European Economic and Monetary Union, in addition to other sectors such as European citizenship The Maastricht Treaty introduced new policies and new forms of cooperation in the field of foreign and security policy, justice and internal affairs.([18])

The Amsterdam Treaty signed in 1997, which entered into force as of May 1991, included a paragraph indicating the need to take into account all the legal effects of the entry into force of the Coal and Steel Agreement with regard to the work mechanisms in the European Union. On another level, it is noted that the process of vertical and horizontal expansion Which did not stop throughout the European integration process, had imposed important amendments to the organizational and institutional structure before it was codified in subsequent stages. The Treaty of Nice, signed on February 26, 2001, and which entered into force on February 1, 2003, tried to collect the crumbs of what the previous treaty had left. 19])

The mainstays of the European Union.

The European Union is based on two pillars, namely, “the rule of law and democracy”, and it is not a new country or a substitute for the existing countries of the Union, and it is not similar to other international regional organizations. Its members voluntarily ceded some of their sovereign affairs to the institutions of the Union that represent their common interests as a whole. All decisions and procedures are derived from basic treaties ratified by members.

 The main objectives of the union:

The European Union believes that the success of its continuation of its organizational work will only be achieved in the light of humanitarian principles and objectives that ensure its survival and the convergence of European peoples around it as a lifeline against the dangers of globalization.

The objectives of the European Union are as follows:

First: the establishment of “European citizenship” in terms of protection of basic rights, freedom of movement, civil and political rights.

 Second: Ensuring freedom, security and justice (cooperation in internal affairs and justice)

 Third: Supporting economic and social progress (the common market, the common currency, the euro, regional development, environmental protection issues)

   Fourth: Strengthening Europe’s role in the world through a unified foreign and security policy.

The main institutions of the European Union and their competences:

European Parliament (elected by the European peoples).

The European Parliament plays different roles according to the three pillars of the European Union which are the European Community pillar, the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar, and the Justice and Home Affairs pillar.

Functions of the European Parliament:

The European Parliament exercises three basic powers:

Legislation, budget supervision and implementation control, but we cannot neglect the political role of the European Parliament, as it is the cornerstone in the process of building the European Union. It is considered a pressure group within the institutions of the European Union, because it contains within it a large group of European parties that enjoy wide popular support in European countries, as these parties play a vital and effective role by pressuring their governments to speed up the process of European integration. Therefore, Parliament is the main driver of the Union’s policy. There is no doubt that its role is gradually increasing, as the Lisbon Treaty confirms the role of the European Parliament once again alongside national parliaments.([20])

The Council of the European Union (consists of the governments of the member states).

The President of the Council chairs and takes care of the work of the European Council and ensures the preparation and continuation of the Council’s work in cooperation with the President of the Commission and work to facilitate cohesion and consensus within the Council.

The Council of Europe’s work is mostly limited to formulating policies, recommendations and general directives and issuing statements, appeals or recommendations. It does not make decisions and does not enact binding laws. In general, the Council sets the general policy of the Union and solves the problems that the Ministerial Council fails to solve, and thus the European Council is described as an intergovernmental institution and not a supranational institution.([21])

European Commission (executive organ).

The European Commission is the second essential element in the European Union policy-making process, which is a framework for expressing the interests of the Union as a whole, unlike the Ministerial Council, which expresses the interests of member states, and the Commission is the representative body of the Union as it leads the Union’s external economic and trade negotiations. 22])

The primary jurisdiction of the European Commission is executive, but at the same time it has the right to participate in the legislative process according to the mechanisms specified in the European treaties where the Commission can submit proposals and draft laws on its own or at the direction of the European Parliament or the European Council. It may also provide advice to European governments and to commercial and industrial centers. It enjoys a legislative conciliatory role between Parliament and the Cabinet when conducting legislative participation and conducting legislative cooperation. It also has the right to issue regulations authorized by the Ministerial Council in the field of agriculture.

The Commission is also responsible for managing the European integration process, in addition to issuing regulations, directives and guidelines to carry out its executive function, as well as preparing and issuing internal regulations and daily administrative decisions.

The European Commission oversees the implementation of payments by national governments. and oversight of everything related to the financial and banking matters of the European Union.

The European Commission is responsible for monitoring and following up how and to what extent national bodies implement the provisions of European treaties in the field of general customs, agricultural bodies and fisheries inspection, in addition to detecting violations and violators, whether from countries or companies, notifying them and calling them to correct these violations. It is up to you to correct the violation, and if the state or the company does not respond, it issues a reasoned opinion where the violating party complies with it. The Commission can also refer the case to the European Court, where the court’s decision is binding on the parties to the dispute. The Commission can seek the assistance of the competent national judicial authorities, if it receives complaints from individuals and individuals on issues related to the implementation of the provisions of European treaties and legislation, in order to investigate these complaints and issue the appropriate decision in them.

Finally, the Commission is a supranational authority over European governments and the persons and individuals of Member States on all matters relating to the implementation of European Union treaties and legislation.[23]

European Court of Justice (overseeing the implementation of laws)

This Court is the supreme judicial organ of the European Union and it plays a major injustice in the process of European integration, not only because of the broad jurisdiction of the Court, but also because the European Community is considered a solidarity contractual community based, above all, on the idea of ​​respect for the law.([24] )

Competences of the European Court of Justice:

Settling disputes that arise between Member States over the interpretation of laws, treaties and agreements related to the European Union.

Settling disputes that may be conceived between the institutions of the Union on the one hand, and between the member states on the other hand, or between the institutions of the Union with each other, about the powers of these institutions and what they issue or what activities they carry out.

Settling disputes that may arise between individuals and companies on the one hand, and between them and Member States on the other hand, regarding the rights and obligations arising from the activities of the Union.

Interpretation of international conventions and treaties concluded by the Union.

Decide on the issues brought to it by the national courts and determine the laws applicable to these issues. It is worth noting that judgments rendered by the European Court of Justice are final and cannot be appealed by any other court that is binding on Member States and Community institutions.

Finally, it must be said that the powers of the European Court of Justice are supranational in nature because its decisions bind all Member States and institutions of the Union as well as individuals and persons.[25]

Accounts Control Court “Accounting Bureau” (Supervision of the Union’s Budget)

Administrative Bodies of the Federation:

In addition to the five main institutions that we have discussed successively, the European Union includes a number of subsidiary organs, which are advisory and technical in nature.

European Economic and Social Committee: Represents civil society institutions in economic and social issues.

Regions Authority: It is concerned with representing local administrations in regional and environmental policy and education.

The European Investigator: oversees citizens’ complaints regarding mismanagement in the institutions of the European Union.

European Investment Bank: contributes to the objectives of the European Union by financing long-term public and private investments.

The European Central Bank: oversees monetary policy and monetary exchange. This bank was established in 1998 after the issuance of the single European currency, the euro. It is worth noting that the European Central Bank carries out its duties completely independently, away from the interference of the governments of member states and the institutions of the European Union, and thus the European Central Bank may not request instructions from the central banks of the member states, and national banks may not interfere in its affairs in any way. 26])

Third: The European Union’s regulatory treatment of the issue of climate change.

The European Union operates according to a dynamic system based on its belief in the general principles, objectives and charter of the United Nations, and the declarations and international agreements that have emerged from the United Nations organization dealing with the risks and negative consequences of climate change, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights. and cultural

And the declaration of the right to development together, leading to the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, and the subsequent non-binding pledges of rich countries and regrettable warnings at the COP26 Glasgow Summit in 2021, then the hopes that the world awaits from the global summit to fulfill the commitments as some call it COP27) in Sharm El-Sheikh The Egyptian elections taking place in November 2022, in light of the commitment of the European Union to the need to achieve effective rates to protect the planet from the damage caused by the issue of climate change as it affects life itself, and to cooperate with the countries most affected and in need, to achieve the most global response to preserve the globe, which is now in An escalating threat due to the issue of climate change.

The continent of Europe was affected by climate changes in the summer of 2021, as it witnessed the worst unprecedented droughts in nearly five centuries, and other consequences that affect various sectors, but the number of challenges facing the European Union escalated with regard to climate action in the context of the current international situations, especially in the In light of the Russian operation in Ukraine and its various repercussions that threaten the European Union countries with a harsh winter, including the energy crisis that prompted European countries to turn to coal, in light of the economic repercussions of the war in Ukraine and its effects on the commitments of major countries to support and finance developing countries and fulfill their commitments regarding the file Climate change. In addition to impeding the transit of ships loaded with food and energy, which deepens Europe’s crises along with other crises it is experiencing.

The European Union’s strategy to confront the issue of climate change.

The European Union is the third largest polluter in the world after China and the United States of America, as it emits 12% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. It requires determining the rate of global warming by two degrees, which requires reducing the planet’s emissions of harmful gases to half the rate or more by the year 2050, compared to the percentage recorded in 1990, when the European Union adopted a qualitative strategy to achieve this end described as practical and future, in addition to Issuance of more than sixty regulations and laws on climate change.

The European Union played a leading role in the development of two international instruments of great importance: the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which is the implementing tool for this agreement, which were ratified on April 25, 2002 by Council Resolution No. 2002 / 358 “CE/358/2002. ([27])

One of the most important executive steps adopted by the European Union on March 9, 2007 was the conclusion of a historic and binding agreement for all its members making nuclear energy one of the recognized European means to combat the global warming crisis and reduce carbon emissions. %, in addition to increasing reliance on renewable energy sources (sun, wind, sea waves) to generate 20% of the total European energy needs by the same year, with the possibility of increasing the percentage to 30% if America, China and India join the agreement, as well as the inclusion of energy Nuclear as one of the regulated sources for generating energy and reducing carbon emissions, while emphasizing the practical necessity to take into account the consideration of “security and safety” when deciding to use nuclear energy.([28])

Among the most prominent mechanisms of the strategy allocated by the European Union to confront the issue of climate change are the following:

Climate Change Program:

This program is based on a number of European directives, including:

Directive No. 77/2001/ “CE/77/2001 Directive relating to the development of electricity production from renewable energies;

Directive No. 2003/30/CE/30 2003 Directive relating to the development of the use of fuels in means of transport produced from renewable energies;

Directive No. 2002 “/91/ CE/ 91 2002 Directive related to improving energy use in buildings.

The European Union’s program to combat climate change was strengthened by the issuance of the White Paper Blanc Livre in 2001, which includes the European Union’s policy in the field of transport and its relationship to climate change, where it stipulated the need to establish a center for the exchange of information on the risks and consequences of the phenomenon of climate change, and the best practices to be followed to confront this phenomenon.[29]

Recognizing the shortcomings of the program, the European Union laid new foundations for the European strategy for climate change, which it called the Climate Change Strategy for the horizon 2020 and beyond, and by explaining the green paper issued by the European Commission on April 29, 2007, which includes a new strategy for the European Union, aimed at strengthening the capacity of The Union has to confront climate change, especially expert reports indicating the growing harmful effects and environmental problems resulting from climate change, and their disparities and differences from one country to another in the Union, which calls for urgent and harmonized measures at the local and regional levels.[30] Focusing in particular on the production and consumption of energy, the sectors of transport, industry, agriculture and waste management, as well as the field of research and financing local development.([31])

b- The gaseous emissions monitoring program.

The European Union has approved the Gas Emissions Control Program, which imposes an environmental tax on emissions from aircraft flying to and from European airports. The program, which will enter into force in 2012, covers all airlines, whether European or non-European.

The gas emissions monitoring program requires airlines to purchase licenses within the framework of the program, to contribute to reducing pollution resulting from aircraft engines that use European airports back or forth.([32])

c- The European Union’s Planetary Observation Program.

The European Union issued Regulation No. 911/2010 on September 22, 2010, which includes the establishment of a program to monitor its climate strategy and put it into effect during the period from 2011 to 2012. This program consists of three main departments: the first is the Services Department and provides access to information in six main areas These are: air monitoring; Climate Change Monitoring; Emergency Operations Management; Planet earth monitoring, security and monitoring of the marine environment, where space monitoring is one of the most prominent mechanisms in this program, which works on space monitoring and provides all relevant observations in the six aforementioned areas. provides information in six main areas: air monitoring; Climate change monitoring, emergency operations management, planet earth monitoring, security, and marine environment monitoring.([33])

The European Union’s Planetary Monitoring Program aims to achieve the following objectives:

– Developing a system for the use and exchange of environmental data, and ensuring the permanence and continuity of the flow of all information and data regarding the planet, in addition to ensuring comprehensive and direct access to all information that collects only the interests of the Planet Monitoring Program

Land, as stipulated by the provisions of international agreements, security rules and terms of licenses for influence, as well as strengthening the labor market in the European Union by creating new jobs in the field of environmental monitoring.

d- The Global Alliance to Confront Climate Change between the European Union and the poor and affected developing countries.

The European Union launched a global alliance to confront climate change between it and the poor developing countries affected by climate change on September 18, 2007. The so-called global alliance to confront climate change between the European Union and poor developing countries affected by climate change, where this alliance constitutes a comprehensive framework for dialogue to exchange views and experiences from In order to integrate the problem of climate change into all national development strategies in these countries, it also provides them with technical and financial support to take the necessary measures and procedures to confront climate change. This idea of ​​alliance is not new, as it was previously proposed by the Green Book in 2007.([34])

The main areas of work of the Global Alliance to Combat Climate Change between the European Union on the one hand, and poor developing countries affected by climate change on the other hand, are limited to five main areas:

First: Putting measures to confront climate change into practice: by preparing and formulating national action plans for these developing countries, financing projects that take into account the problem of climate change, and supporting scientific research on the impact of climate change on developing countries and innovative solutions to confront it.

Second: Reducing the emissions resulting from the depletion of the forest field in the developing countries, by strengthening the capabilities of these countries and helping them to prepare national strategies to confront the depletion of the forest area and put an end to the problem of desertification.

Third: Providing support to developing countries to participate in the clean development mechanism: by strengthening their capabilities and providing the necessary technical support to implement projects in the fields of renewable energies.

Fourth: Reducing the risks of natural disasters in developing countries: by improving forecasting and information systems on climate, and using these data to take the necessary precautionary measures to confront natural disasters related to climate change.

Fifth: Integrating the climate change problem into poverty eradication strategies and programs: by strengthening the institutional capacities of developing countries to integrate the climate change problem into their public policies, national programs and development strategies, provided that the European Union finances only those projects that take into consideration the environmental impact. [35])

Q_ Climate and energy package.

The European Union Climate and Energy Package is of great importance, both at the internal and international levels, as the European Union Climate and Energy Package makes an effective contribution to the fight against climate change, especially as it will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus reducing health problems and reducing pollution control expenses. It is also an example for the rest of the world to follow, not only related to the European Union countries, but also to the industrialized countries, and developing countries alike, which may encourage these countries to conclude a binding international instrument on climate.([36])

The practical implementation of the climate and energy package allowed the European Union annually until 2020 to save an estimated amount of 50 billion euros from the volume of its imports of oil and gas, and it also allows the European sector of renewable energies, with an estimated 300,000 jobs, to create about one million additional jobs by 2020. It will also contribute to creating new job positions in the rest of the other sectors related to the environment.([37])

The Climate and Energy Package developed by the European Union on the occasion of the Climate Summit, which took place from 17 to 18 December 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, aims to achieve the following objectives:

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and by 30% in the case of an international agreement.

Reduce energy consumption by 20%.

Producing 20% ​​of the energy consumed in the Union from renewable energies.

– Developing an environmental protection policy in the field of geological carbon storage.([38])

Conclusion.

The European Union succeeded in neutralizing the regulatory obstacles that hinder its economic, political and cultural unity, and the latest leap in the level of organizational thought deserves study in implementing its ambitious goals now and in the future, in addition to the streamlining and integration in the practical application of the plans developed in the short and long term, especially adherence to the implementation of its strategies in the field of confronting an issue Climate change, and its continuous endeavor to integrate the developing and most affected countries within its cooperative protocols in combating the negative effects of the damages of climate change, as a global collective issue, the responsibility of which is not borne by the European Union alone. The past two years have faced the implementation of the goals and plans of the European Union due to the negative effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the global economy, and the economy of the Union in particular,In addition to the repercussions of the Russian-Ukrainian war that directly affect the EU countries in the field of energy and supply chains, the European ambition to mitigate and adapt to climate change has not stopped the progress made towards the sustainable development goals, even though they have not satisfactorily reached the UN warnings so far.

Results.

The study reached the following results in the light of studying the theoretical framework of regional organizations in general, and the European Union in particular, and then monitoring the strategy of the European Union and its implementation mechanisms in containing the risks of global warming caused by climate change:

The intellectual and organizational labor of molding regional blocs with special features, characteristics and goals is one of the most prominent results of the dynamic interactions of the international organization, which have been integrated with the United Nations organization in order to achieve the objectives of the Charter and the provisions of the United Nations, but it is worth noting that the role of organizations may escalate at the expense of the United Nations in light of this The decline in the performance of the international role in several sensitive and pivotal files, which resulted in the importance of the rise of regional blocs and organizations in light of the ominous signs of multipolarity that have emerged around the international system since the rise of other economies against the United States, and the consequences of the Russian-Ukrainian war, in addition to the possibility of the ability of these regional organizations to Preserving its identity in the face of fear of threats from the dangers of globalization more clearly than international organizations.

With the development of the intellectual and applied maturity of the international organization, many effective models of regional blocs have crystallized under the auspices of the United Nations, the most prominent and the fastest in the integration of the European Union. and stability for the peoples of the European Union.

The European Union is one of the most successful models of regional organizations institutionally and organizationally, especially in managing and confronting the issue of climate change, despite the continuous opposition to the European ambition on the part of China and the United States of America to implement an effective and binding strategy that guarantees helping the world to preserve the planet, and in the belief of the European Union Addressing the climate crisis is the decisive challenge in the current era, and failure to meet this challenge will have undesirable consequences for the environment, health and livelihoods, which constitutes a greater danger than what humanity has witnessed due to the repercussions of contemporary pandemics and epidemics, most notably Covid 19 and the Russian-Ukrainian war.

recommendations.

The study recommends the following, even if the recommendations are not related to the European Union itself, but rather is concerned with studying the Union model in the geographical scope of the study, where there are two regional organizations, the League of Arab States and the African Union, after a brief presentation of the goals of the European Union regarding its treatment of the issue of climate change in the light of its strategy Comprehensive and Scientific:

The necessity of developing the organizational and institutional thinking of the League of Arab States and the African Union towards achieving applied integration at the level of implementation of goals and plans in general, for the success of the unitary model, in light of the increasing severity of political, security, economic, health, environmental and humanitarian risks and threats to the countries within the scope of the two organizations.

The study recommends that the League of Arab States and the African Union try to absorb the lessons learned from the existence of the European Union as an effective regional organization and capable in a successful manner of committing itself, its governments and peoples to achieve its goals, despite the devastating effects of the world wars that befell the countries of the Union, but it has succeeded in adopting a comprehensive and real strategy To activate the implementation of its set goals, especially to confront the issue of climate change in a scientific manner with a future approach, in addition to the ability to implement and follow up on the strategy that it implements on the ground to confront the greatest threats of the era from which the countries within the scope of the two organizations mentioned will be affected more than others, instead of relying on resonant slogans. without actual implementation. [1])) Dora Iakova, Alfred Kamer, and James Ruff. How to Achieving Ambitious EU Climate Change Mitigation Targets, IMF Blog, (IMFBlog), September 24, 2020.

Available at: https://www.imf.org/ar/Blogs/Articles/2020/09/24/blog-how-to-meet-the-eus-ambitious-climate-mitigation-goals

Hassan Refaei. The war economy: a current European crisis and an upcoming Russian disaster, euronews, 07/18/2022.

Available at: https://arabic.euronews.com/2022/07/18/economics-war-current-european-crisis-upcoming-russian-disaster [2])) Gabriel E. Almond, J. Wingham Powell, Jr. Translated by Ahmed Ali Al-Anani. “Comparative Politics”, Cairo: Arab Consciousness Library. pp. 22-23.

([3]) Omar Hamdan Al-Hadrami. (2013) “The Small State: Power and Role, a Theoretical Approach”, Al-Manara Journal for Research and Studies, Vol. 19, p. The functional approach between theory and practice: An applied study in the political geography of the Sultanate of Oman, Al-Bahith Journal.

2019, Volume 21, Issue , Pages 178-188 [5])) Ghadban Mabrouk. The International Community: Origins, Evolution, and Persons (Algeria: Diwan of University Publications, 1994) [6])) Muhammad Saeed al-Daqqaq and Mustafa Salama Hussein, Contemporary International Organizations, University House, Beirut, 1990. [7])) Abd al-Salem Saleh Arafa. International Organization, 1st Edition, Tripoli: Open University Publications, 1992, p. 14-

18.

Predecessor: The League of Nations. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/about-us/history-of-the-un/predecessor

([8]) Wilson’s Final Address in Support of the League of Nations Speech made 25 September 1919

History (1919–1946) from the United Nations Office at Geneva, League of Nations Archives from the United Nations Office at Genev [9])) Charter of the United Nations, Chapter VIII: Regional Organizations. Available at: https://www.un.org/ar/about-us/un-charter/chapter-8 [10] Adnan al-Sayyid Hussain. International and regional organizations under the pressure of globalization, National Defense Magazine, Lebanese Army, No. 37 – July 2001.

Available at: https://www.lebarmy.gov.lb/ar/content

([11]) ↑ “Regional organization”, www.wikiwand.com, Retrieved 2019-07-21. Edited

Ahmed Al-Moussawi, International and Regional Organizations, Dar Al-Buraq, Ahmed Al-Moussawi, International and Regional Organizations, Dar Al-Buraq, 1999. [12])). Ahmed Ibrahim Al-Baz. Historical conditions that contributed to the emergence and establishment of the European Union, Center for Research and Historical Studies.

Available at: https://hev.journals.ekb.eg/article_230685_ [13])) Hassan Nafaa. The European Union and Lessons Learned in the Arab World, Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2004.

Good useful. The Institutional Building of the European Union, Cairo, International Politics Journal, Issue 157, July (2004), Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies.

Imad Gad. The European Union: The Evolution of Experience, Cairo, International Politics Journal, Issue (161, July, 2005, Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies. [14])) See https://www.eu-arabic.org/history.html [15] )) Ahmed Ibrahim Al-Baz. Historical conditions that contributed to the emergence and establishment of the European Union, Center for Research and Historical Studies.

Available at: https://hev.journals.ekb.eg/article_230685 [16])) Ahmed Ibrahim Al-Baz. Previous reference.

([17]) Ibid. [18])) Maan Abdul Aziz Al Rayes. The European Union and International Interaction in the New International Order: Constraints and Opportunities, Master Thesis, Department of Political Science, College of Arts, Middle East University, Jordan, 2014.

([19]) Maan Abdel Aziz Al Rayes, previous reference. [20])) Bashtiwan Ali Abdul Qadir, European Union, a group of lectures given to doctoral students, General Department, Koya University, Iraq

2010 [21])) Jawas Hassan Rasoul, The Nature of the European Union, Master Thesis submitted to the Council of the College of Law and Politics at Salah al-Din University – Erbil, 2007, pp. 80-81.

([22] (Ali M. EL-Agraa, The European Union financial times, Sixth Edition, England, 2001. [23])) Bashtiwan Ali Abdul Qadir, previous source. p. 21.

([24]) Pashtiwan Ali Abdel Qader, a previous source. p 30

([25]). Pashtiwan Ali Abdul Qadir, previous source. p. 36 [26])) Jawas Hassan Rasoul, previous source, pp. 107-108 [27])) Fatiha orphan, Nadia’s orphan. European Union Climate Control Strategy, Policy and Law Notebooks, Ninth Issue, June, 2013.

Available at: https://dspace.univ-ouargla.dz/jspui/bitstream/123456789/7280/1/D0908.pdf [28] Yousra El-Sharqawy, “Nuclear Energy and Green Policies,” International Politics, Cairo, Al-Ahram Center Volume 42, Issue 168 (April, p. 232), 2007.

([29]) Adaptation to climate change: the European Union must prepare for the consequences, Notre Planète, 16 April 2009, http://www.notreplanete.info/actualites/actu_1957_adaptation_changement_climaritique_Europe.php

([30]) Adaptation to climate change: the European Union must prepare for the consequences, Op. Cit.

5 Daniel Delalande, Op.Cit, P.161

([31] (Strategy on climate change to 2020 and beyond, Europa, 2011,

http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/energy/european_energy_policy/l28188_fr.htm

([32]) Fatiha’s orphan, Nadia’s orphan. European Union Strategy to Combat Climate Change, Policy and Law Notebooks, No. 9, June, 2013. Available at: https://dspace.univ-ouargla.dz/jspui/bitstream/123456789/7280/1/D0908.pdf [33]) ) orphan Fatiha, orphan Nadia. European Union strategy to combat climate change, op. [34])) Fatiha’s orphan, Nadia’s orphan, previous reference. [35])) Yousra El-Sharqawy, “Nuclear Energy and Green Policies,” International Politics, Cairo, Al-Ahram Center, Vol. 42, No. 168), April, 2007, p. 232. [36])) Fatiha’s orphan, Nadia’s orphan, previous reference.

The Measures Taken By The European Union In The Matter Of Climate And Energy, Europa, 2012,

ec.europa.eu/climateaction/docs/climate-energy_summary_en.pdf([37])

([38]) Daniel Delalande, Op. Cit, P.161

Prepared by: Maysa Khalil Hassan El-Sayed – PhD researcher in political sciences – Faculty of Politics and Economics – Suez University. Supervision: a. Dr. Abdel-Aal Al-Derby – Assistant Professor of Political Science – and Vice Dean of the Faculty of Politics and Economics for Graduate Studies and Research Affairs – Suez University.

Arab Democratic Center

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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