By- Amro Selim: (Chairman of Elmoustkbal for media, policy and strategic studies – Member in GAPMIL/UNESCO):
A global constitution uniting the countries of the world on peace, stability and cooperation for the sake of human well-being and preventing wars and conflicts.. That was the main goal of a meeting in which a number of world leaders participated on October 24, 1945 in the American city of San Francisco, after many countries of the world left burdened and exhausted. One of the ravages of destruction caused by the Second World War, so they decided to set a point and launch the United Nations Organization to be an alternative to the League of Nations that did not fulfill the purpose for which it was established, and proved its failure to achieve peace and prevent the spread of weapons around the world, and to settle international disputes through negotiations and international arbitration. He demonstrated the need for an alternative organization that plays a global role in maintaining international peace and security is indispensable. Therefore, at the time, the birth of the United Nations Organization was announced, and hopes were attached to it to be the best way to achieve world peace and prevent conflicts before they flare up, but in the recent period we see the opposite of that. The ground of reality, and renewed international hopes and aspirations for real, serious reforms within the United Nations, especially after the victory of the American President “Biden” in the presidential elections of the United States of America. And his statements confirming his desire for the country to play a greater role in the global crisis and to be an effective part for conducting many international reforms, perhaps the most prominent of which is the phenomenon of climate change, Human rights issues and armed conflicts that threatens the entire planet.
The United Nations system of work branched out and its official missions spread across the countries of the world, and its membership expanded to include 193 countries, that is, most of the independent countries, with many of its security, political, social, cultural and developmental arms extending from its main bodies, to see in the end summit meetings, seminars, international conferences and diplomatic and political discussions in the middle A beehive that works day and night from the far north of the southern hemisphere, so that this scene forms the image of the organization that is supposed to manage the affairs of the world, and works to achieve the charter that the member states signed and pledged to respect, from the maintenance of international peace and security and the peaceful settlement of disputes until the achievement of cooperation International among member states, while working to enhance respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all inhabitants of the planet without the slightest discrimination. However, reality is witnessing the exact opposite. Conflicts and conflicts increased between countries, extremism, terrorism, famines and humanitarian crises spread, and the role of the great powers in achieving economic cooperation and settlement retreated. The conflicts were intact, to be replaced by the many bloody conflicts that have worsened during the recent period, to be satisfied The organization expresses concern and calls for an end to violence and calls and appeals. Some people ask about the feasibility of the existence of the organization whose primary goal is to settle disputes peacefully and maintain international peace and security !!
The Syrian crisis as a model
When we talk about reforming the United Nations, we must not ignore the Syrian crisis, which is still going on until now, despite the passage of nearly 10 years since its outbreak. The international community, headed by the United Nations and the Security Council, has failed to provide security and safety for the Syrians, and Syria has turned into a global stadium in which to play. Supporters of the regime of the Syrian President “Bashar al-Assad” represented in Russia and Iran, and behind them Hezbollah, while the second is the opposition, represented by the Syrian opposition and the international forces that support it, most notably the United States of America, Turkey and some Gulf countries on the other side in an undeclared way, so that Syria turns into a major cemetery For its citizens, including men, women and children, the latest statistics of the “UNICEF” organization indicated that the number of those affected by the war reached 11 million individuals, in addition to more than 7 million children affected in various ways by this crisis, so that the daily Russian-supported raids on the ground continue from the Iranian side in The lives of Syrian civilians were claimed in light of the silence of the United Nations, and the Security Council’s standing under the Russian veto against international income decisions there, so that the United Nations would be satisfied with statements of condemnation and concern, amid the continuing humanitarian crisis The situation from which the Syrian people are suffering, and the neighboring countries are seriously affected.
United Nations reform
Amidst that absurd scene that strikes the planet from north to south, with the lack of confidence of some citizens in many of the foundations of the global system, we find that there are many voices across the world that began to strongly call for reform of the United Nations to take a more serious and realistic form in settling crises, and intervening to confront humanitarian crises In a more realistic way on the ground to allow a more effective role in protecting the global system, which is beginning to be strongly affected by the conflicts between states and blocs that struggle with each other or devour small states without any mercy, any pity, and among the most prominent and recent voices that came out during the last simple period to confirm that there are intentions Serious to that reform and development is what the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Egypt, Richard Dictus, referred to when he said: “We are on a journey together to implement the General Assembly resolution to embark on the largest reform process for the United Nations development system in history.”
Indeed, the first serious attempts at reforming the United Nations began in 1963, when the number of non-permanent members of the Security Council increased from 6 to 10, and the number of members of the Economic and Social Council increased twice (in 1963 and 1971), and new attempts at reform appeared afterwards, which were resumed in the year 1963. 1975, when a special committee was formed for the Charter of the United Nations to strengthen the role of the organization, and the Secretary-General of the United Nations at the time, Boutros Ghali, presented in 1992 a vision to reform the organization to renew its blood and revitalize its global role, and in 1993 the issue of fair representation and membership of the Security Council and what is related to that were discussed It is affected by international issues in a new attempt to reform the system of work within the Council.
In 2006, the Secretary-General of the United Nations at the time, “Kofi Annan” urged all countries to take a serious move towards reform, considering it an opportunity that may not be replaced. After that, several individual voices appeared on the part of some countries calling for the need to move to reform the organization, and we see this clearly in Liu Chen’s call Min “Deputy Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations in 2008 during his demand before the General Assembly session of the necessity of reforming the Security Council and giving priority to increasing the representation of developing countries, especially African countries, as the Chairman of the International Relations Committee of the Council of the Russian Federation Konstantin Kosacheov announced in 2018, Moscow is ready to cooperate with the member states of the United Nations in the matter of the organization’s reform file, as was also evident in the French proposal in 2013 in which France announced its support for the initiative to reform peace-keeping operations in order to be able to achieve its goals, and more recently, in January 2017, the Secretary presented General “Antonio Guterres” proposals for the reform of the United Nations from the beginning of his mandate in order to implement fundamental changes in the areas of development, management, peace and security.
The United States and Reform
As for the United States of America, its position on reform was different during the era of President “Obama” than his counterpart “Trump”. In January 2012, America announced through “Joe Torsila”, its representative to the United Nations for management and reform, its four-part plan to reform the organization through 4 main axes. Represented in development and reform, accountability, integrity, and excellence, and at the time he directed a strong criticism of the United Nations work system, saying, “Management systems within the organization are outdated, and they no longer contain only a little transparency and accountability, and astonishing waste of reason.” In the era of the current American president Donald Trump, the matter differed greatly, as he stated that “the future does not belong to the advocates of globalization, but rather belongs to the patriots” in a call to focus on attention to domestic internal performance at the expense of international participation and cross-border cooperation, which was strongly demonstrated during his speech before the General Assembly On September 24, 2019, which did not address any discussion of the organization’s role in international issues or the reform and development of the work system within the United Nations to activate its global role.
However, the United States of America and its possession of wide global influence, in addition to its economic and political power, can be the owner of the serious initiative that is implemented on the ground, and can easily attract many supporters of the reform process from its allies, and countries affected by the conflicts and the spread of terrorism and extremism, especially in the Middle East region. Therefore, the hope for achieving the reform and development plans of the United Nations – which is one of the main pillars of the global system – is linked to the leadership of the United States of America for a global conglomerate moving strongly towards that path.
The interest is the one that moves the countries, and if a consensual vision is set between the major powers, or at least a part thereof, which is a common path among all members based on serving the interests of all and motivating them economically and politically, then it becomes likely at that time to see serious action on the ground and realistic activity that comes out of the framework of diplomatic statements. And conference tables, seminars, discussions, and taking pictures in front of the media, some of which have become like that scene by replaying a series several times, so that everyone can follow it or even pay attention to it.
The global interest now in the sustainable development goals, which, if they are dealt with more seriously, away from rhetoric media statements, could be a golden opportunity to reintroduce the idea of reforming the United Nations in a more serious and consistent manner among member states, provided that there is an intention by the great powers for that reform and development that It will benefit their interests around the world, such as peace and stimulating economic cooperation and trade exchange, as well as protecting their trade corridors and various sources of economic resources.
Let us be optimistic that the idea of common global interests can be a golden gateway in parallel with the international media interest in sustainable development to achieve that reform, let us rest assured that there is hope for developing plans and implementing real reform and development of the United Nations Organization, especially with the increasing challenges that may threaten us all around the world, And put humanity in serious danger in the near future