India’s Claims on Azad Kashmir: Evaluating the rationale behind India’s claims and the historical context of its position

An ongoing source of tension in the Kashmir dispute is India’s stated goal of annexing Pakistani-controlled Azad Kashmir. Azad Kashmir, which literally translates to “Free Kashmir,” is the name given to the region of the erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that is now under Pakistani rule.

Attempts by India to annex Azad Kashmir are unrealistic and based on wishful thinking. India’s hope of annexing Azad Kashmir is unrealistic in light of the United Nations resolutions, international agreements, and the recognition of Azad Kashmir as a self-governing state that have all been passed in response to the Kashmir dispute.

Historical and Legal Context

In order to comprehend India’s aspiration to incorporate Azad Kashmir, it is imperative to scrutinise the historical backdrop of the Kashmir dispute. The Himalayan region of Jammu and Kashmir has been a subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since their respective independence from British colonial rule in 1947. The emergence of the conflict can be attributed to the divergent territorial assertions made by both nations, which have resulted in multiple armed conflicts and persistent animosity.

Azad Kashmir emerged as a separate political entity subsequent to the 1947-48 war and the ensuing ceasefire between India and Pakistan. The region is administered by a legislative assembly and a president, with its political centre located in Muzaffarabad. Pakistan maintains authority over the region, however, it has acknowledged Azad Kashmir as an autonomous entity possessing a distinct political identity. This acknowledgement serves to strengthen the distinct standing of Azad Kashmir and underscores the intricacy of any prospective incorporation by India.

Geostrategic and Political Realities

The area is geographically located in the Himalayan mountain range and is adjacent to the nations of Pakistan, India, and China. The strategic significance of the area stems from its geographical location, which facilitates access to pivotal trade routes such as the Karakoram Highway and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Furthermore, the area exhibits a significant abundance of water resources, characterised by the existence of rivers that play a crucial role in supporting agricultural activities and facilitating the production of hydroelectric power. The governance of Azad Kashmir carries noteworthy ramifications for the connectivity, security, and economic concerns of the region.

The Kashmir conflict is characterised by intricate political dynamics that encompass various stakeholders. India maintains that the region of Jammu and Kashmir is an inseparable constituent of its territorial sovereignty, whereas Pakistan contends that the populace of Kashmir possesses the entitlement to self-governance. The issue is further complicated by the aspirations of the Kashmiri people, who have endured prolonged political unrest and violations of their human rights. The intricate political landscape of the region is further shaped by the involvement of diverse political parties, militant groups, and separatist movements.

The act of annexing Azad Kashmir would have significant ramifications for both regional stability and international relations. The Kashmir conflict has been a persistent cause of strain between India and Pakistan, both of which possess nuclear capabilities. The potential annexation of Azad Kashmir by India would likely result in an escalation of the conflict and could potentially trigger a comprehensive military confrontation. The Kashmir conflict is a matter of great interest to the global community, and any independent measures that challenge the existing state of affairs may have significant implications, adversely affecting the diplomatic ties not only between India and Pakistan but also with other nations in the vicinity.

Humanitarian and Ethical Considerations

The Kashmir conflict has been characterised by significant transgressions of human rights and pressing humanitarian issues. Various human rights organisations have documented instances of extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances, arbitrary detentions, torture, and sexual violence. Allegations have been made against India for perpetrating such transgressions, thereby intensifying the plight of the populace in Kashmir. The act of annexing Azad Kashmir in the absence of addressing the aforementioned human rights concerns would serve to sustain the cycle of violence and exacerbate the infringement of the rights and dignity of the Kashmiri populace.

The annexation of Azad Kashmir would have a significant impact on the rights and aspirations of the Kashmiri populace residing in the area. It is imperative to acknowledge that the populace of Azad Kashmir has formulated their distinct political identity and systems of governance. The international community acknowledges the entitlement of individuals to exercise self-determination. Therefore, any determination concerning their political destiny must uphold their autonomy and mirror their preferences. The act of annexation in the absence of the Kashmiri people’s consent and involvement would constitute a violation of their fundamental rights and aspirations.

It is crucial to achieve a nonviolent and all-encompassing settlement that upholds the autonomy of the populace residing in Azad Kashmir. The attainment of a sustainable and equitable solution necessitates the active participation of pertinent stakeholders, including the Kashmiri populace, through the facilitation of meaningful discourse. The proposed course of action must encompass the resolution of human rights issues, establishment of channels for redressal and liability, and facilitation of the involvement of the populace of Kashmir in determining their political destiny. This approach is not only morally defensible but also has the potential to foster enduring stability, tranquilly, and economic growth in the area.

International Repercussions and Diplomatic Consequences

The potential annexation of Azad Kashmir by India could result in noteworthy global ramifications. The Kashmir dispute has been a subject of significant apprehension for the global community, owing to its capacity to intensify into a complete military conflict between India and Pakistan, both of which possess nuclear capabilities. The annexation of Azad Kashmir by India through unilateral action would be perceived as a transgression of established international standards, and would compromise the fundamental principles of self-determination and territorial integrity. The aforementioned action could potentially lead to disapproval from the global community, resulting in repercussions such as the imposition of economic sanctions, diplomatic seclusion, and harm to India’s standing in the international arena.

The annexation in question would have significant diplomatic implications, resulting in a potential deterioration of both bilateral and multilateral relationships. Pakistan strongly opposes any potential move by India to annex Azad Kashmir, as it views itself as the legitimate protector of the aspirations of the Kashmiri people. The bilateral relations between the two nations, which were already delicate, would further deteriorate, potentially leading to an elevated likelihood of military escalation. The impact of the aforementioned situation on other nations in the vicinity, including China, which holds its own territorial concerns in the region, may lead to further intricacies in their associations with India. In addition, it is likely that international entities such as the United Nations and other forums would be obligated to confront the matter, thereby increasing diplomatic pressure on India.

The peaceful resolution of the Kashmir conflict requires the employment of diplomatic channels, constructive dialogue, and collaborative efforts at the international level. It is imperative that pertinent stakeholders, with a particular emphasis on India and Pakistan, engage in substantive negotiations and establish a favourable atmosphere for the peaceful resolution of the conflict. It is imperative for the international community, comprising prominent global powers and regional organisations, to assume a constructive role in promoting dialogue and fostering mutual understanding between the involved parties. The imperative for inter-state collaboration cannot be overstated in the context of the Kashmir imbroglio, as it serves as a crucial bulwark against the risk of a broader regional conflagration and facilitates the cultivation of tranquilly and equilibrium in the South Asian region.

The potential annexation of Azad Kashmir by India raises significant considerations regarding international repercussions and diplomatic consequences. Achieving a resolution to the Kashmir conflict necessitates the employment of dialogue, diplomacy, and international cooperation. Achieving a peaceful and sustainable resolution requires substantive negotiations, confidence-building initiatives, reconciliation efforts, and trust-building measures between India and Pakistan.

India’s desire to incorporate Azad Kashmir is firmly rooted in a historical and legal framework that makes such aspirations unfeasible. The intricate character of the Kashmir conflict, as evidenced by the United Nations resolutions, international accords, and the acknowledgement of Azad Kashmir as an autonomous entity, highlights the difficulties and intricacies of any efforts towards annexation. Acknowledging the prevailing circumstances and pursuing peaceful and diplomatic means to address the Kashmir conflict while upholding the aspirations and entitlements of the populace of Jammu and Kashmir are imperative.

The intricate nature of any endeavours to annex Azad Kashmir is underscored by the geostrategic and political circumstances surrounding the region, as well as the ethical and humanitarian implications involved. Acknowledging the importance of the area, upholding the entitlements and ambitions of the Kashmiri populace, and pursuing nonviolent and comprehensive resolutions are imperative for the stability of the region, global diplomacy, and the welfare of the Kashmiri community.

Muhammad Wasama Khalid is a Correspondent and Researcher at Global Affairs. He is pursuing a Bachelor’s degree in International Relations at National Defense University. His interests include history, politics, and current affairs. He has been published in the London Institute of Peace and Research, South Asian Journal, Diplomatic Insight, International Policy Digest, Eurasian Review, Gauri Lankesh news, Sri Lanka Guardian, Global Village Space, Global Defense Insight, Global Affairs, Modern Diplomacy, Kashmir watch, Kashmir Media services, other news and He tweets at @Wasama Khalid and can be reached at

Wasama Khalid
Wasama Khalid

Muhammad Wasama Khalid is a Correspondent and Researcher at Global Affairs. He is pursuing his Bachelors in International Relations at National Defense University (NDU). He has a profound interest in history, politics, current affairs, and international relations. He is an author of Global Village Space, Global Defense Insight, Global Affairs, and Modern Diplomacy. He tweets at @Wasama Khalid and can be reached at

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