Justice by Means of Democracy

The concept of justice is central to any well-functioning society. Justice refers to the fair and ethical treatment of all members of society. It encompasses ideas like equality, human rights, and the rule of law. Historically, different societies have had different conceptions of justice based on their cultures, values, and forms of governance. In modern democracies, justice is often seen through the lens of democratic principles and processes. The close relationship between justice and democracy stems from some core overlap in their values – including equality, representation, participation, and human dignity. This article will examine how democracy can serve as an important means to achieving a just society.

Democracy and Justice

Democracy at its core promotes political equality – the idea that all citizens, regardless of background, should have equal rights, protections, and access to power. This directly ties in with principles of justice around equal treatment under the law. Democratic ideals reject systems where power and rights are determined by hereditary factors like nobility or gender. Instead, democratic power and rights are vested in the people. This popular sovereignty and political equality provide the foundation for pursuing a fair legal and political system.[1]

Beyond just equality, democracy’s focus on electoral representation helps create conditions for justice by giving groups agency in choosing leadership and setting policy. Competitive elections incentivize leaders to appeal to a broad base of constituents. This makes addressing unequal treatment of disadvantaged groups a relevant electoral issue. Representatives from diverse backgrounds also ensure marginalized groups have a voice in policy debates. Democracy’s response to disadvantaged groups contrasts with historical aristocracies, oligarchies, or monarchies where the privileged few had little incentive to consider justice for the marginalized.[2]

Additionally, democracy actively engages citizens in maintaining checks on potential government overreach. Democratic participation gives citizens nonviolent outlets to challenge unjust policies. Protests, referendums, recalls, and public advocacy are built into the democratic system, creating pressure valves for debate over justice. Authoritarian systems often violently suppress this kind of civic dissent and activism around injustice.[3]

Key Democratic Institutions and Practices for Justice

Democratic societies employ certain governance structures and practices aimed at upholding rule of law and justice. While specific institutions vary, most modern democracies utilize a combination of separation of powers, checks and balances, an independent judiciary, and protections on civil liberties.

Separation of powers between branches of government prevents unilateral action by dividing authority across executive, legislative, and judicial offices. This limits the possibility of an individual or small group dominating the state in a way that leads to unjust rule. Relatedly, institutional checks and balances like executive veto power, legislative confirmation votes, judicial review, and impeachment help different parts of the government stop overreaches of power by other parts. This constraint on government helps uphold justice by protecting against unfair policies or unequal treatment before the law. An independent judiciary free from political pressures or governmental interference is also essential for fair application of the law. Judges need autonomy to render judgments based on facts and legal principles rather than allegiance to the regime in power. Finally, democracies constitutionally enshrine civil liberties like free speech, assembly, and due process. These preserve space for citizens to vocalize injustice and demand redress through civic channels.[4]

Competitive elections are the most high-profile democratic practice impacting justice. The need to win elections incentivizes politicians to listen and respond to citizen concerns over fairness and equality. Representatives and parties that promote justice and inclusion are rewarded at the ballot box, while those seen as unjust risk electoral defeat. For example, in the 1960s and 70s, US politicians passed major civil rights laws and programs in response to activist pressure and changing public opinion around racial justice. The threat of losing office pushed action on issues of injustice historically neglected. Competitive elections help translate public priorities about justice into official policy.[5]

In a similar fashion, universal suffrage and political participation give citizens leverage and voice to demand fairer treatment. Excluded groups often bear the brunt of injustice given their lack of representation. Broad electoral participation changes this dynamic by allowing disadvantaged populations to vote and actively shape politics. Democratic participation provides a counterweight to the influence of elite economic and political interests who may oppose reforms to the unjust status quo. Extensive participation makes promoting justice a political necessity, not just ideal. For example, expanding the vote to women and minorities in the US led to new policies and legal protections addressing their specific justice concerns.[6]

Majority rule via elections is a democratic principle whereby leaders and policies are chosen based on popular consent, not despotic dictate. This idea aligns with justice by giving the broader public power to enact laws in their collective interest, blocking unjust policies that only benefit the few. While majority rule risks trampling minority rights, democracies build in constitutional safeguards to uphold legal equality and protect minority voices. Concepts like ‘tyranny of the majority’ emerged precisely to highlight how democratic majorities must balance their power with minority protections to ensure justice.[7]

Several key democratic practices aim at facilitating informed, responsive, and ethical governance. Government transparency through free flow of information empowers journalists and citizens to expose injustice. Robust public debate allows truth and justice to triumph over misinformation and prejudice. Democratic norms on rule of law, anti-corruption, and public service instill just governance. Oversight procedures like legislative hearings, independent audits, and public comment periods create accountability and feedback mechanisms to catch and remedy injustice. An engaged civil society of citizens, civic groups, and social movements provides bottom-up pressure on the system to uphold justice.[8]

Challenges and Limits

While democracy provides tools to pursue justice, it has real limitations and challenges. Unjust policies and treatment have emerged even in mature democratic systems.

Democracy’s reliance on electoral majorities means that minority groups still risk having their rights and interests neglected orsteamrolled. Constitutional protections on rights and separation of powers aim to mitigate this but don’t completely solve it. Persistent issues like prisoner disenfranchisement, police brutality, anti-immigrant sentiment demonstrate holes in the system.[9]

Similarly, democracy’s commitment to free speech and pluralism means it allows space for hateful, unjust views. Democratic values prevent outright bans of racist or nationalist ideologies, for example, so these unjust forces still exert influence. This forces disadvantaged groups to constantly fight for justice and inclusion against vile opponents.[10]

The democratic principle of popular sovereignty does confer ultimate power to ‘the people.’ However, influence in democracies still tilts heavily toward societal elites even if formal rights are equal. Wealth gives some citizens outsized influence on elections and policy through campaign finance, lobbying, think tanks, and other channels. These means can distort policymaking in ways that undermine justice and equality.[11]

Finally, democracies remain vulnerable to populist surges that can weaken protections for minority rights and constitutional constraints on power. Populist leaders centralize authority and inflame majoritarian impulses in ways that risk trampling principles of impartial justice. Recent democratic backsliding in places like Hungary and Turkey illustrate this danger if democratic norms and institutions erode.[12]

Pathways Forward

While imperfect, democracy remains humanity’s greatest institutional hope for achieving justice in actual governance. But continued progress is not automatic. Maintaining justice in democratic societies requires eternal vigilance by engaged citizens and leadership animating our better angels. It demands doubling down on inclusion, reforming systems skewed toward the powerful, and upholding norms of fair play and equal treatment. Fulfilling democracy’s promise on justice also means learning from peers around the world experimenting with novel democratic reforms. A system built around popular power must continue striving to redeem the abuses of that power and direct it toward the cause of justice.


Justice and democracy share a profound connection. Democracy’s foundational principles – political equality, inclusive representation, majority rule, participation, and civil liberties – provide mechanisms to pursue fair and ethical treatment for all. Key democratic institutions – like separated powers, competitive elections, and protections for minority rights – aim to enshrine justice against threats of despotism or mob rule. However, democracies still struggle to fully deliver justice, particularly for disadvantaged groups. Discrimination, corruption, and demagoguery continue to test democracy’s capacities for justice. But at its best, democracy channels society’s diverse voices into a self-correcting system willing to confront injustice. The journey toward justice is winding and incomplete. But by adhering to its core values and reforming institutions, democracy provides hope for travelers on that road.


[1] Dahl, Robert A. On Democracy. Yale University Press, 2000.

[2] Lipset, Seymour M. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review, vol. 53, no. 1, 1959, pp. 69-105.

[3] Carey, John M. “Does It Matter How a Constitution is Created?” Lessons from Democratic Constitutional Design, edited by Tom Ginsburg and Rosalind Dixon, Cambridge University Press, 2022, pp. 167-200.

[4] Vile, John R. Essential Supreme Court Decisions: Summaries of Leading Cases in U.S. Constitutional Law. Rowman & Littlefield, 2018.

[5] Mayhew, David R. Congress: The Electoral Connection. Yale University Press, 2004.

[6] Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. Basic Books, 2009.

[7] Powell, G. Bingham. “Constitutional Design and Citizen Electoral Control.” Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol. 1, no. 2, 1989, pp. 107-130.

[8] Norris, Pippa. Why Electoral Integrity Matters. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

[9] Guinier, Lani. The Tyranny of the Majority: Fundamental Fairness in Representative Democracy. The Free Press, 1994.

[10] Sunstein, Cass R. #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media. Princeton University Press, 2017.

[11] Gilens, Martin, and Benjamin I. Page. “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens.” Perspectives on Politics, vol. 12, no. 3, 2014, pp. 564-581.

[12] Levitsky, Steven, and Daniel Ziblatt. How Democracies Die. Crown, 2018.

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SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a bachelor's degree in political science and international relations as well as a Master's degree in international security studies, alongside a passion for web development. During my studies, I gained a strong understanding of key political concepts, theories in international relations, security and strategic studies, as well as the tools and research methods used in these fields.

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