Regional sovereignty and the principle of self-determination in a time of globalization

Prepared by: Hamad Qaddoura – PhD Researcher, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Tunis Al-Manar

One of the concepts that rose to prominence on the international scene after the fall of the Berlin Wall was the phrase “globalization” (mondialisation) or globalisation. Globalization covered all economic, social, cultural and political fields, where the secularization of democracy, human rights, and the principle of self-determination took place. Decline in the regional state of national sovereignty to the universal sovereignty, was contained in an article by Professor Samir Hamiaz Faculty of Law and Political Science in Tizi Ouzou , Algeria: [1]Every transgression against the values ​​of the new international community anywhere in the world is considered an assault on the entire human community. The international community bears all the consequences of that transgression, and calls on it to intervene in order to protect humanity according to standards set by those who self-proclaimed the world’s policemen. How did globalization arise and what is globalization? What are its different dimensions? What is its impact on human rights principles in general, and on the principle of self-determination in particular?

 The first branch : the emergence of globalization :

The Arab thinker Ali describes the globalization war as “the reality of the age, and a universal conquest.” [2] Globalization is one of the stages of Western capitalist development in the post-Cold War period and the end of bipolarity with the disintegration of the former Soviet Union in 1991, the collapse of the eastern bloc, and the victorious exit of the western camp led by the United States of America, alone in controlling the center of international politics. But the prelude to globalization began at the end of the Second World War, as the Western capitalist countries led by the United States of America, since the end of the Second World War, began to pave the way for building a new world order aimed at liberation from the restrictions of the old international system.

FMI and the International Fund for Reconstruction and Development (BIRD), and concluded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Qat G.ATT) in 1947 of its objectives:

  • A- Working to liberalize international trade.
  • B – Removing obstacles to trade exchange between countries.
  • C – Resolve international trade disputes through negotiations
  • D – Creating an international climate and preparing for the establishment of the World Trade Organization [3] .

Since 1994, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade has been replaced by “khat” the World Trade Organization (it moved from an international agreement to an international institution), usually called the “Marrakesh Treaty”, which is the embodiment of the concept of economic globalization, i.e. working to remove quantitative restrictions in trade exchange Among the member states of the Organization, this policy is achieved to the maximum extent possible [4] , that is, opening the borders to the flow of goods, and the movement of capital and investment, which is in other words the opening of borders to the strong, and the exception of the weak to not

Their ability to compete, as well as the high percentage of tariffs for poor countries, and the rich enjoy greater tariff reductions for goods imported from developing countries 45% compared to 20% to 25%, while developing countries are now facing as a group tariffs 10% higher than the global average The least developed countries face tariffs that are 30% higher because tariffs remain high on goods with great potential for the poorest countries such as textiles, leather and agricultural commodities [5] . Great powers determine the fate of the world. The secularization of the principle of self-determination took place as its national dimension went beyond the cosmic dimension.

The United States and its Western partners paved the way for devoting the concept of new globalization since the end of World War II by word and deed. When referring to what was said by American politicians since the end of World War II, and their emergence as a global superpower, it becomes clear that they are planning to create a new world order according to their size, they are the masterminds And march in it unchallenged. US President George Bush Senior said during the Gulf War on 01/29/1991: “The United States of America alone among the countries of the world possesses the moral level and capabilities sufficient to create a new international community.” [6] Americans also see themselves as the honorable messengers sent to elevate the human being from the rank of animals to slightly below the angels, as it was reported in the New York Times Magazine. The American Weekly, in an article by an American writer during World War II, states: “Americans are able to advance humanity from the level of animals to the rank of little pre-angels.” (7)The Americans in the global system that they created for themselves and are working to impose it do not accept any dispute or partner, says Madeleine Albright, former US Secretary of State, “The matter of leading the world without issue is the interest of the United States of America, and all countries must realize if we want any change. We must do it, the world is ours, the world belongs to the Americans. ” Experience has shown that unipolarity is a cause for arrogance, and the policy of interest is imposed by military, civil and material force. There is no regard for the principles of international law, nor the right of peoples to self-determination. Raymond Aron goes on to say that “there are only two people who run and manage international relations: the soldier and the diplomat, as both of them from their positions represent and defend their country.” (8)

The second branch: the concept of globalization:

       The term globalization was first used by the Canadian sociologist “Marshall McLehan” in his famous book “War and Peace in the Global Village” [9] , in the sixties of the last century during the American war in Vietnam, in which he explained how Americans moved thanks to the television set from viewers to Actors in the course of the war. [10] In his view, this would lead to the abolition of the borders between the military and the civilian, making the electronic media an engine for social change. But it was not limited to that, but rather an indication of the abolition of the sovereign borders of countries.

The US National Security Adviser, under President Jimmy Carter, preferred Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski [11] to use the term “Global City” instead of the term globalization, according to his opinion of what was imposed by the development of international entanglements in the era of Electronic technology. The idea of ​​globalization raised several problems and challenges in the international community, some of whose parties did not get rid of concepts enshrined in the old international system for several decades ago. Some of them see globalization as a ghoul coming from behind the Atlantic Ocean to swallow the whole world, and those who see it as a form of harbingers to the human community. And there are those who consider it a historical inevitability produced by the postmodern era, the era of communication technology and satellites. Hassan Matar mentions, “Among the terms of globalization: the world is a small village, the Americanization of the world, the constellation, commodification, the colonial octopus, the new world order, and other terms.” [12]Faced with this divergence of trends in defining the nature of globalization, it is very difficult for all jurists in international law to gather around a unified concept of globalization. Several definitions emerged that differed according to the ideological background of this or that jurist. The Egyptian researcher Mr. Hussein believes that globalization is based on three processes:

  • The first process is the spread of information as it becomes popular with all people.
  • The second process concerns the dissolution of borders between countries.
  • The third process is to increase the similarity rates between groups and societies

And institutions. [13] Some of them give definitions of globalization, according to its four main dimensions

The economic dimension, the political dimension, the social dimension, and the cultural dimension.

The first definition: Globalization is an economic phenomenon: there are those who consider globalization to be a form of growing cooperation between countries supported by the development of communication technology. To international capital, and the rapid spread of technology throughout the entire world. ” Whereas, “Robins Ricapero,” Secretary General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Growth, sees it as a global economy of production and marketing that replaces national economies. Divided into economic regions, and not into national economies linked to trade and investment relations ». Muhammad al-Atrash said [14]»With this definition of globalization, he focused on the fact that globalization is the opening of international borders to the movement of products without customs restrictions and without a protectionist policy for the national product, which harms the economies of weak and impoverished countries, because they are unable to compete with advanced economies. The increase in the number of unemployed, the stagnation of the local economy, the decline of the regional state’s sovereignty The sovereignty of states is from the sovereignty of their people, so how can a people who lost their sovereignty over their economy and their natural wealth be able to have their right to self-determination in today’s world, in which economic power has become the first pillar of the principle of self-determination and the independence of political decision-making? Sadiq al-Azm believes that globalization is: “the era of profound capitalist transformation for all humanity under the hegemony, leadership and control of the Central Countries, and under the rule of a global system of unequal exchange.” . the definition “The era of profound capitalist transformation for all of humanity under the hegemony, leadership and control of the Central Powers, and under the rule of a global system of unequal exchange.” . the definition “The era of profound capitalist transformation for all of humanity under the hegemony, leadership and control of the Central Powers, and under the rule of a global system of unequal exchange.” . the definitionThe second: globalization means the domination of the American style: Muhammad Abed Al-Jabri says: “Working to generalize a civilized pattern that concerns a particular country, namely the United States of America, to the countries of the whole world.” With this definition globalization is to link the principle of the right of peoples to determine their cultural, economic, political and social destiny with the will of the United States of America. Perhaps the American thinker of Japanese origin, Francis Fukuyama, author of the book “The End of History and the Last of Humanity,” sees an end in the Cold War, the final outcome of the ideological battle, which began after World War II between the former Soviet Union and the United States of America, the era in which American technology was dominated. [15]

The third definition: It is a technological and social revolution. In his definition of globalization, sociologist James Rosenau says: “Globalization is a relationship between multiple levels of economic analysis, politics, culture, and ideology, and it includes reorganization of production, cross-border cross-border industries, spread of finance markets, similarity of consumer goods to different countries, results Conflict between immigrant and resident groups. [16]Some of them defined it as: “The growing trend in which the world is becoming a relatively borderless social ball. That is, the geographical borders are negligible, as the world becomes more connected, which makes social life intertwine between nations. ” There are those who know it as: “Increasing the degree of interconnection between human societies through the transfers of goods, capital, production techniques, people and information.” Ismail Sabry defined it comprehensively, saying: “It is the clear overlap of matters of economy, politics, culture and behavior, without regard to the political borders of sovereign states or belonging to a specific country or a specific country and without the need for governmental measures.” The Arab thinker Ali describes the globalization war as being “a current saying of post-industrial and postmodern sayings associated with the explosion of communication technologies in a way that narrowed spaces and shrunk distances, to the point of making the earth a village swimming in this numerical world that is made up of superanic space[17] … on the basis of which the world is united today, and through it communication between human beings takes place. [18]

  Some definitions and sayings that researchers have dealt with about globalization: 

Globalization is a translation of the French term globalisation, and it means giving something a global character. [19] Globalization is a Western civilization project with integrated structures, created by the convergence of Western aspirations and needs on the one hand, and the enormous material capabilities created by the great booms in communication and information technologies and advanced industries on the other hand. [20] As it is seen by many thinkers and writers, it is the domination and predominance of one of the cultures over all cultures in the world. [21] There are those who distinguished between universality and globalization.

Globalization is the negation of the other. Globalization is the negation of the other and the substitution of ideological conflict by cultural penetration. [22]

It is noticeable that no matter how different definitions of globalization differ, and there are many, all agree on the purposes of globalization, which is the orientation towards building a new world order in which regional sovereignty recedes in the interest of global sovereignty, which introduces new changes and approaches to the principles and values ​​on which the old international system was built, especially the principle of self-determination that was Its framework is basically the state with its three components: the region, the people, and the authority that enjoys absolute sovereignty within its territory and in its relations with other countries. That is, it concerns a people demanding the liberation of their occupied territory by a foreign power, whose aim is to build their free, independent national state with full sovereignty at home and abroad.

The third branch: dimensions of globalization

Globalization has permeated all aspects of contemporary economic, political, cultural and social life. These four dimensions have been taken from the media and modern communications from television channels, and social networks (Facebook, Twitter …) as a basic means to increase penetration and implement its media invasion of the countries of the world, and the principle of self-determination has become dependent on The word and the image transmitted remotely over the air, after that it was subject to the soldier, gun and direct diplomacy. If we think about the reality of the chaos that prevailed in the Arab countries in the winter of 2011, where we find social networks, [23] and satellite channels the main role in street movement in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, in the New York Times article for the year 2011 by the American writer (Thomas Friedman) In it, he describes what happened in the Arab world as the face book révolution.

First, the economic dimension: It is the basic dimension of globalization. Economic globalization means the emergence of a cosmic space without borders in which the movement of goods, people, money, and investments takes place in an absolute and free flow, [24] and is unprecedented. Where the buying and selling process takes place and all transactions between dealers remotely without incurring the hardship or dangers of travel, as the thinker on war goes on to say: “An existential upheaval takes place, embodied in the production of goods of a new type, of a virtual or ghostly ethereal nature, on which knowledge and material production depends on Equality … ». [25]The economic dimension alone can affect the other dimensions:The socio-cultural political policy in today’s world in which capital has become the master of the situation in all fields, multinational companies with huge capitals control the fate of weak countries and determine the policies and orientations of the great countries because they control the sources of wealth, energy and their production, which today is the driving nerve, for all tools Civilization and urbanization What we are witnessing today in the Arab region in terms of wars, destruction, and the rupture of regions, and the collapse of countries of the recent past that were sovereign, and regions with respectable borders, and secured by the governments of their countries, these regions either as energy producers or as a strategic pathway to them, and the rulers of those The regions refrained from entering under the coat of great power (the United States of America, they wanted to build their countries, determine the fate of their people away from foreign interference, and exploit their underground wealth away from the plunder of multinational companies with large capital, which exceeds the balance of many developing countries, even if they meet, and examples On it multipleThe Iraq crisis and its occupation in 2003 by the United States of America,[26] And the destruction of all its cultural, material and human components, and the plunder of its stockpile of oil and gas, which is among the largest in the world of those materials. Military intervention in Libya in 2011, [27] and the assassination of its leader, and the abuse of him in front of ears and eyes of the whole world, leaving Libya alone without authority, and a people unable to determine their own destiny. Libya has become an arena for the international struggle over the centers of influence between the great powers, and everyone has an eye on its strategic location and the wealth of this country, which is very rich in its natural resources.

Secondly, the political dimension: The economic protection that foreign companies find in countries from the governments of origin (Chinese, American, Russian, European companies …) and the intervention policy to protect economic companies for the United States of America was not a product of the era of globalization, rather it preceded it by decades, but it increased An expansion in the era of globalization, since the beginning of the twentieth century, US President Theodore Roosevelt said that the United States has a right to guarantee its interference in Latin American affairs, to strengthen US economic companies. [28]These interference in the internal affairs of countries have negative repercussions on the political system of these countries, as they lead to a reduction in the role of the state, and its retreat in front of these companies at the expense of the national interest and more plundering of the wealth of these peoples, these economic companies move on the basis of the laws of globalization and with the support and support of the actors in society The new international, multinational companies decide the fate of the world. [29]Foreign countries intervene to protect their companies, and the repercussions of this appear on the political situation in general in the host country. This is more evident in developing countries, where talk is about democracy, public freedoms and media freedom, followed by talk about the state’s laws, its social and economic policies, and its regulations towards minorities And human rights, terrorism and other resulting political goals and dimensions lie behind these economic agreements. The donor and lending international financial institutions contribute to the tension of the situation in poor countries, as they follow any grant or loan with often crippling conditions, and affect social balances within those poor countries, and their political, economic, social and cultural choices, which makes determining their fate subject to the dictates of the donor powers. Or the lender. What we are witnessing today in Lebanon in terms of striking its economy and its national currency (the Lebanese pound) against the US dollar, because the Lebanese government did not respond to the dictates of the International Monetary Fund, which included removing a certain Lebanese political component from the authority and stripping it of its weapons, because most donor countries consider that component an organization An armed terrorist. And last but not least, the entry into force of the so-called Caesar Act against the Syrian state during the summer of 2020, which is a package of economic sanctions imposed by the American states against Syria on the grounds that the Syrian regime has practiced torture against its citizens, and the sanctions also include all those dealing with the Syrian regime: countries, Companies, individuals, organizations …

Third: The Cultural Dimension:   The Lebanese thinker Ali War summarizes the cultural dimension in that it is the globalization of identity and the counter-invasion, and considers that the cultural problem in Arab countries is not represented in the forces of globalization or the invasion of Americanization, but in the people of identity and its protectors from the educated elite, which has been unable to keep pace with developments Globalism. [30]One of the goals of globalization in the cultural dimension is that all human beings follow the western pattern, according to its traditions and behavior, and this is more evident in the activities of Western institutions in developing countries, for example what the American aid agency, Australian aid and Canada do, which are affiliated with the Canadian government Daneda Denmark, Finland, Norada Norway, Sweden, and others. The aforementioned institutions provide funding to civil and humanitarian societies in third world countries, taking advantage of their scarcity of resources. What indicates the exploitative trend of these institutions is that their financing is limited to poor countries such as Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Sudan, and Mauritania … and to add the cultural goal of financing institutions, they do not absent themselves from the cultural activity of these associations, but rather they are implemented to participate in various activities such as conferences, exhibitions and lectures . 31]. Among the activities that are considered a manifestation of cultural control as well, international women’s conferences, such as the Beijing Conference that was held in 1995, which came out with a famous document calling for the abolition of reservations based on a religious or cultural basis. Considering that family, motherhood and marriage are among the causes of women’s oppression, and that the right to reproduction is a guaranteed right for individuals and married couples alike, and the document addressed international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to ensure its application where the aid of international financial institutions is conditional on adopting a specific cultural pattern, even if that is. At the expense of the constants of national cultures, which is considered a flagrant violation of the resolution issued by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and its adoption of the two international covenants related to human rights, as the first unified article for both states: “The right to self-determination is a universal right and calls upon states to work to achieve this. Right and respect for it.[32]Among the implications of globalization on the cultural side are what appeared to be clear in United Nations conferences, such as the United Nations Population Conference that was held in Cairo in 1992, and the Human Rights Conference that was held in Vienna in 1993, which revealed the primacy of Western cultural standards, it seems clear that what comes out like These conferences, in terms of decisions, and the activities carried out by Western financial institutions betray a true reflection of the concept of globalization in its cultural dimension. This is inconsistent with United Nations resolutions and the principle of the right of peoples to self-determination. In recent decades, organizations claiming to spread democracy, human rights, and associations have also emerged that carry on the face of charitable work and in their core the extension of their influence and the influence of their countries and spread their ideas through material temptations, which contradicts what was stated in the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples issued by the United Nations General Assembly. Dated December 14, 1960. Where the second article of it states the following:[33]

Section Four: The Right to Self-Determination and the Media Conquest The media in itself is one of the main dimensions of globalization. [34]It is also considered an indispensable mechanism for implementing the other dimensions of globalization. It is also considered one of the main forces on which globalization depends, the global communication that results from the development of satellite technologies. From here emerges the role of satellite television channels and social media, in particular in the consolidation of globalization, and the intention of globalization, which is surfacing to the surface, is the removal of barriers and borders between cultures, the movement of the economy and society and making them available to all throughout the world. This is acceptable in terms of the overview. But the question is: Can the urgent and future issues and concerns be the same for all peoples and nations? Are its financial, technological, and scientific capabilities equal? And communication devices are equivalent? There is no doubt that the developing world is the one who will emerge a loser from this equation, due to its weak financial capabilities, communication capabilities and limited scientific and technological development. In fact, globalization is the mechanism behind which it is sought through a systematic media invasion, defining goals and objectives, and working to strip peoples of their cultural values ​​that distinguish every other people. Culture is the identity, the West wants to strip peoples of their national and national identity and to have their western identity. And for the world to walk according to its concepts regarding issues of economy, culture, politics, security, peace, human rights, freedom … etc., which is a tireless work to confiscate the right of peoples to self-determination, as if colonialism brought out the principle of the right of peoples to self-determination in the international system. The old overseas is back in the new international order over the air. Information is monopolized by four global agencies. Their monopoly on information was not limited to confidential scientific information that justifies its monopoly on security and economic interests only, but also reflected on news and other information. These agencies are:[35]

Concepts, visions, and trends to measure their various issues, hence the means of communication in developing countries in general, and satellite channels in particular, are facing a great challenge, which is the effect of the multiple, complex and overlapping currents of globalization, where people’s homes have become open to an enormous number of channels in their entirety Western culture broadcasts cultural models completely different from national cultures, showing that Western culture is a culture of freedom, human rights, and the well-being of life in contrast to what they have in their countries, which affects the minds of young people, and their main concern is to migrate north. Evidence abounds in our time, the flow of waves of immigrants from the continent and North Africa across the Mediterranean to the European continent. Many of them are swallowed up by the sea before reaching the shore of safety to achieve a dream that is as close to a mirage as it is, and they have weaved into his mind those picturesque and deceptive programs that are broadcast through Western channels that pay for the price, with specific goals, and what this has a negative impact on the fate of developing countries in all fields. In fact, Western culture does not recognize any other culture. Even if cultural manifestations of a different society are presented, they are presented in a folkloric manner that revives the viewer that this culture is a traditional culture governed by customs and ideological laws that cannot keep pace with the requirements of the era of globalization. Some American writers try through their writings to suggest that the cultures of other countries are traditional cultures inappropriate for the era of globalization because they are either elite or elite cultures, or cultures that are bound, with restrictions, or are cultures with religious orientations. They have forgotten that the difference in cultures is a factor of enrichment. Western culture today is a silt accumulation of human cultures, especially the eastern (Indian, Chinese …) and Middle Eastern cultures (the Mesopotamian civilization, the ancient Greek civilization, the Pharaonic civilization, the Islamic Arab civilization …). Culture is a geographic product of historical origin. It is a sustainable interaction between Earth and people. The culture of one community may be affected by the culture of another society within the framework of some of its elements of cultural variables, such as clothing, types of foods, and marriage ceremonies, as for cultural constants such as beliefs and language, they do not accept assimilation easily into another culture, regardless of the temptations and influence of the dominant culture. We have the best example of the Algerian people who preserved their Arab-Islamic identity and stood up to all the campaigns of distortion and cultural distortion that were practiced by the French colonialist during the one hundred and thirty years of direct occupation of the Algerian territory (1830 to 1961), because peoples consider their national cultural components are among the constants of their right to determine their cultural destiny. As stipulated in the United Nations regulations. The poet Abdul Karim al-Iraqi says:

The sun is my sun and Iraq is Iraqi + what is the moral of intruders.

Fifth Branch: The relationship between the principles of regional sovereignty and self-determination in the era of globalization after addressing the definitions of globalization and its various dimensions, it can be said in it: as it is an ideological formulation of Western civilization from thought, culture, economy, and policy to control the whole world by using advanced media, and major capitalist companies to apply and spread this civilization. on the world. In the past, direct colonialism occupied the land, relying on the large number of soldiers and the power of armaments to deprive peoples of their right to self-determination. In the era of globalization, the means to achieve the same goals have changed, as the method of domination has become dependent on several types of conquest: economic, cultural, political, and media without a single drop of blood being shed from the invaders, but in return the fate of nations and peoples that are unable to confront the challenges imposed by globalization is destroyed. . Globalization is one of the facts of the new international community, when it is said that it is a war in a new guise based on robbing of minds, hindering it from managing its own affairs, and keeping it dependent on the will of the powerful global powers. Globalization has mobilized the media and political discourse at the national and international levels led by the United States of America, which has become the great global power unchallenged for its possession of all the causes of contemporary power: economic, military, technological, cultural and media, and for its very advanced military and civil communication and communication technologies, the conquest of space Satellite aerial, and other spy and control devices across the world. And the strength of diplomacy, which made it attract most of the countries of the world to its side, thus dominating the United Nations and the Security Council, and directing international positions in its favor. It managed to impose its project to globalize the pattern of its liberal regime economically, socially, culturally and politically.[36]. Both the principles of the territorial sovereignty of states and the right to self-determination are among the basic principles of international law enshrined in the United Nations Charter, which placed them in one level of importance; As the fourth paragraph of Article Two of the United Nations Charter stipulates the following: “All members of the Commission shall be prohibited in their international relations from threatening or using force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country or in any other way that does not conform to the purposes of the United Nations.” Another aspect that does not accord with the purposes of the United Nations, and the principle of the right of peoples to self-determination among these purposes, as it was referred to in Articles 1 (1) and fifty-five (55) of the same Charter.

The principle of national self-determination has been overlooked in the era of globalization, and that the will of the people is no longer the only determinant of the right to self-determination no matter how high the percentage of popular support for it. Deciding the fate of the Syrian people and the Syrian state is determined by the Sochi meetings, a Russian resort, and Geneva, Switzerland, among the world powers, which is the supervisor of the constitution The Syrian, who will determine its political system and national identity, as he did this previously with Iraq, and the fate of Libya is determined by foreign powers whose concern is not the Libyan people but rather the sharing of their enormous wealth. As for the fate of the Palestinian people, it has been overshadowed by the events that afflicted the Arab world, the scabies in Iraq and Yemen, and in Syria and the transformations What happened to the political reality in Tunisia, Egypt and Sudan … made the Palestinian issue retreat from the first Arab concerns, and it is worth saying that: it has been forgotten.

In addition to the classic self-determination, new concepts emerged that increased the complexity of the concept of self-determination, and the emergence of ideological currents that justify the abandonment of the principle of armed resistance for liberation and self-determination, criminalizing it at times, and describing it as terrorism, and national liberation movements are classified as terrorist organizations. After the events of September 11, 2001 [37] , a new concept of globalization has become commonplace , namely: “the war on terror,” [38] a war that does not involve a concept nor a temporal or spatial space, a war that has violated all temporal and spatial cosmic space, without prior declaration .

 [1] Samir Hamiyaz, The Problem of the Concept of National Sovereignty in Light of the Current International Changes, Journal of Social Sciences, Issue 24, Miloud Mamari Tizi Ouzou University, Algeria, June 2017, p. 12.

 [2] Ali Harb, Hadith of the Endings, Conquests of Globalization and the Dilemma of Identity, p. 9-10.

[3] Dr. Ahmed Jameh, previous reference, p. 51

[4] Abdel Moneim Al-Sayed Ali, Globalization from an Economic Perspective and the Inclusion Hypothesis, 1st Edition, Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research, Emirates, 2003, p. 41-43.

   [5] The Human Development Report for the year 1997 AD: publication for the United Nations Development Program, Journal of Jurisprudence, Issue 38, Year 10, Winter of the Year 1998, p. 7.

 Dr.. Abdul Majeed Al-Abdali, previous source, p. 498. (6)

 Same as the previous source. [7]

 Madkour in Al-Datour Al-Abdali, previous source, p. 24. [8]

[9] Dr. Maimoun Al-Taheri, The Role of Communication Means in Contemporary International Relations (the study was originally presented as a contribution to the Media and Globalization Symposium that Muscat, Oman witnessed from 20 – 21 October 2008), Sultan Qaboos University Publications, Muscat, 2008.

[10] Marshall Mc Luhan and Questin Fiore ,War and Peace in the global village :An inventory of Some of current Spastic Situations . Thatcould be Eliminated .BY More feed forwar,New York ;  969 .

 [11] A political scientist, an American of Polish origin, who served as the US President’s advisor for national security affairs in the years 1977-1981 during the era of President Jimmy Carter.

[12]   Globalization Posted by: Hasan Matar.U2W – Last updated: 31.12, March 7, 2015, topic. Com   http://mawdoo3.com/%D9%85%D8%A7_%D9%87%D9%8A_%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA_% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B9% D9% 88% D9% 84% D9% 85% D8% A9

 Mr. Yaseen, On the concept of globalization, Arab Future Magazine, No. 22, February 1998, p. 7. [13]

 Muhammad al-Atrash, The Arabs and Globalization: What To Do? Fikrun & Criticism Magazine, Issue 7, March 1998, p. 97. [14]

Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Seal of Human Beings, ed. 1, Al-Ahram Center for Translation and Publishing, Cairo, 1993. (translated by Ahmed Akhmine). [15]

 [16] James Rosenau, The Dynamics of Globalization: Towards a Practical Formulation, Strategic Readings, Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, Cairo, 1997.

 cybernétique [17] Cybernétique is the science of control and discipline. The cyber is a description of the reality or the world resulting from the information revolution that allows, with its complex and superior technologies, communication, surveillance, and work at long distances. (On War of a previous source, Dictionary of Terms, p. 199).

[19]   Dr. Mansour Zuwaid Al-Mutairi: Globalization in its Cultural Dimension, King Khalid Military College Journal, No. 58, Safar 1420 AH, May 1999, p. 33.

 . [20] Dr. Ahmed Othman Al-Tuwaijri: Religion and Globalization, The Arab Journal, No. 273, Shawwal 1420 AH, February 2000 CE, p. 38.

 [21]. Berber Alawi, sirs: Globalization is the path of hegemony, Journal of Islamic Awareness, Issue 409. Ramadan 1420 AH December 1999 AD / January 2000, p. 6

 [22] Muhammad Abed Al-Jabri: Globalization and Cultural Identity .. Ten Theses, The Arab Future Magazine, No. 248, October 1999, p. 15

[23] Jean Philippe Bichard, What role do social networks play in the Arab Spring ?.

 Abdul Aziz Sarhan, General Origins of International Organizations, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Cairo, 1997, p. 6. [24]

Ali Harb, previous source, p. 8. [25]

 Dr.. Abdul Majeed Al-Abdali, previous reference, p. 514. [26]

 Dr . Abdul Majeed Al-Abdali, previous reference, p. 589. [27]

 M. Alwan Al-Darwish, previous source, p. 15-16. [28]

[29] Serge Latouche, “The new masters of the world”, Le monde diplomatique, November 1995, p.3.

 Ali Harb, previous source, p. 14. [30]

[31]  Dr. Abd al-Rahman Yusri: Towards a unified economic policy for the Islamic world in the face of globalization, Journal of Islamic Economics, Issue 217, July 1999, p. 5.

 Dr . Abdul Majeed Al-Abdali, a previous source, p. 108. [32]

 Dr.. Abdul Majeed Al-Abdali, a previous source, p. 692. [33]

 Maymoon Al-Taheri, The Role of Communication in Contemporary International Relations, Sultan Qaboos University Publications, Muscat, 2008. [34]

[35]    Muhammad Najeeb Al-Sarayrah, The International News Flow: The Problem of Balance or Difference in Concepts, Journal of Social Sciences, First Issue, Volume 17, Spring 1989, p. 240.

[36] CIJ, JUNE 30, 1995, T imor Oriental, (Portugal / Australia), Rec. 1995, p. 90.

See Dr. Al-Abdali, previous source, p. 109.

[37] Sofie Body Gendord, The American society after September 11, 2001, Political science press, France 2002, p.124.

[38] Abdelli Abdelmajid: Regional and terrorist organizations. Study of two cases (LEA and OIC), Proceedings of the Symposium: Criminal Law Against Terrorism, Tunis 26 – 27 – 28 June 2002, Criminal Law Association (undated) أندر د. العبدلي ، مصدر سابق ، ص. 553

SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a Bachelor's degree in Political Science and International Relations in addition to a Master's degree in International Security Studies. Alongside this, I have a passion for web development. During my studies, I acquired a strong understanding of fundamental political concepts and theories in international relations, security studies, and strategic studies.

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