The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): An Analysis of Key Provisions and Implementation


The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is often described as the international bill of rights for women. Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1979 and in force since 1981, it defines discrimination against women and lays out steps to end such discrimination. With 189 states parties, CEDAW has near universal ratification, making it one of the most widely accepted human rights treaties. However, full implementation remains a challenge in many countries. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of key provisions of CEDAW, implementation mechanisms, progress made, and continuing challenges.

Background and Adoption

The roots of CEDAW can be traced back to the early days of the United Nations. The UN Charter adopted in 1945 affirmed fundamental human rights and the dignity and worth of the human person without distinction based on sex. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights also proclaimed rights for all human beings regardless of sex. However, the persistence of extensive discrimination against women led the UN Commission on the Status of Women to call for a treaty dedicated to women’s rights.

Drafting of CEDAW began in 1974. It was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 18 December 1979 with 130 votes in favor, none against, and 10 abstentions. It entered into force as an international treaty on 3 September 1981 after receiving the required 20 ratifications. The timing coincided with the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985) which promoted equality, development, and peace for women worldwide. The convention consolidated decades of work by the international women’s rights movement and codified a comprehensive framework for achieving women’s equality.

Key Provisions

CEDAW defines discrimination against women in Article 1 as “…any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.” This provided a universal definition of discrimination going beyond just the public sphere.

The convention outlines civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights of women in 30 articles. Some key provisions include:

  • Article 2: Condemnation of discrimination against women and commitment by states to pursue polices eliminating discrimination.
  • Articles 3-5: Measures to be taken in the political, social, economic and cultural fields to ensure full development and advancement of women.
  • Articles 6-16: Women’s rights in areas including political participation, education, employment, health care, marriage, and family life.
  • Article 5(a): Elimination of harmful gender stereotypes and promotion of positive portrayals of women.
  • Article 11: Equality in employment and prohibition of discrimination on grounds of marital status or maternity.
  • Article 12: Access to healthcare services including family planning.
  • Article 13: Elimination of discrimination against women in economic, social, and cultural spheres.
  • Article 15: Equality before the law and autonomy in legal matters such as contracts and administration of property.
  • Article 16: Equality in marriage and family relations including choice of spouse, parenthood, and property rights.

In addition to laying out substantive rights, CEDAW establishes monitoring mechanisms and requires action in the form of legislation, policies and programs to realize equal rights for women. It was the first human rights treaty to affirm reproductive rights of women. The interrelated civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights defined in CEDAW remain the key international standards for women’s equality globally.

Implementation and Monitoring

As a treaty ratified by states, the primary responsibility for implementing CEDAW lies with state parties. Governments are obligated to pursue policies eliminating discrimination and achieving de facto equality for women through legislative, judicial, administrative, budgetary, economic and other appropriate measures. CEDAW has no formal enforcement mechanism or penalties for non-compliance. Implementation depends on measures taken voluntarily by states.

Monitoring implementation is the task of the CEDAW Committee – an independent body of 23 experts elected by states parties. State parties are required to submit reports to the Committee within a year of ratification and at least every four years thereafter. The reports should describe measures taken to comply with treaty obligations. Committee members discuss these reports with government representatives and make recommendations through “Concluding Observations”.

NGOs can provide “Shadow Reports” to supplement official government accounts. The Committee also conducts “Inquiry Procedures” in response to reliable information of serious or systematic violations in a country. CEDAW’s Optional Protocol adopted in 1999 allows the Committee to receive complaints from individuals against states alleging violations of rights. The Committee conducts investigations and communicates its views and recommendations. These procedures aim to hold states accountable and assist them in effecting change.

Progress and Impact

Four decades since its adoption, CEDAW has had substantial impact in advancing women’s rights globally. Governments in many countries have incorporated gender equality into national constitutions and laws reflecting CEDAW principles. It provided momentum to reform discriminatory laws related to marriage, violence against women, employment, property rights, equality in legal and civil matters, trafficking and participation in public life.

CEDAW has informed the creation of national machinery for the advancement of women such as ministries, action plans and gender focal points in government agencies. It led to targeted policies and programs increasing women’s access to education, health services, economic participation and social protection. The treaty inspired robust civil society movements that monitor government compliance and push for reforms. Its reporting process creates dialogue between governments and women’s groups. The Optional Protocol and inquiry procedures have provided avenues for justice in cases of serious violations.

195 countries have ratified or acceded to the treaty – more than any other human rights convention. While progress has been made, implementation gaps persist in many countries. Laws prohibiting discrimination are often not vigorously enforced and slow to transform deeply embedded biases. Customary practices and stereotypes that diminish women’s status remain prevalent.

Continuing Challenges and Issues

Full realization of CEDAW principles remains a work in progress globally. Challenges and critiques include:

  • Persistence of adverse cultural norms, discriminatory laws and lack of enforcement in many countries.
  • Inadequate funding and political will to implement required policies and programs.
  • Lack of awareness about CEDAW and women’s rights among government officials, judiciary, police, communities and women themselves.
  • Uneven participation by women in political life and decision making.
  • Slow progress in achieving equal access to education, employment and economic assets.
  • High rates of violence against women and girls globally.
  • Lack of reproductive autonomy and access to health services for many women.
  • Insufficient measures to recognize and redistribute unpaid domestic work shouldered by women.
  • Failure to eliminate harmful practices such as child marriage and female genital mutilation in some countries.
  • Monitoring and accountability mechanisms under-utilized to press governments for compliance.
  • Conservative backlash in some countries against reforms mandated by CEDAW.
  • Debate whether CEDAW adequately addresses intersecting inequalities based on race, class, sexual orientation, gender identity etc.

Realizing the transformative vision of CEDAW requires overcoming deeply rooted structural barriers and social institutions that perpetuate gender hierarchies globally. Continued advocacy, alliance building and political will is essential to achieve full equality in law and practice. Creative approaches must dismantle persistent economic, social and cultural disadvantages holding women back.


The CEDAW Convention pioneered international standards for women’s human rights. Its comprehensive framework covers inter-related civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights essential for the advancement of women globally. CEDAW has inspired major legislative reforms and policies in many countries enhancing women’s rights and status. Implementation remains uneven across countries as systemic barriers persist. However, CEDAW laid strong foundations for transnational women’s rights activism. It opened avenues for change by spotlighting abuses, codifying demands and creating accountability mechanisms. Realization of CEDAW principles in countries worldwide will require sustained political commitment, multi-stakeholder efforts and social transformation challenging entrenched patriarchal norms that continue to limit women. CEDAW remains a powerful tool and rallying point in the ongoing global struggle for women’s empowerment and gender equality.


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SAKHRI Mohamed
SAKHRI Mohamed

I hold a Bachelor's degree in Political Science and International Relations in addition to a Master's degree in International Security Studies. Alongside this, I have a passion for web development. During my studies, I acquired a strong understanding of fundamental political concepts and theories in international relations, security studies, and strategic studies.

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