European studies

Amid Energy Crisis, EU Fights Over Whether Nuclear Is Green

With European energy prices skyrocketing and pressure growing on the European Union to cut carbon emissions more quickly, it was only a matter of time…

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European studies

Russia Is Worried About Challenges in the Caucasus

The first two weeks of 2022 have been eventful and consequential ones for Russia and its neighbors. Last week, Russia sent troops into Kazakhstan  via the…

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European studies

Mario Draghi Doesn’t Have ‘Whatever It Takes’ Anymore

On Jan. 24, Italy’s parliamentarians and a caucus of regional representatives will start the process of electing a new president. What is normally an arcane…

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Historical studies

Feudalism in Medieval Era

From the point of view of political institutions, the early medieval period was characterized, not only by the formation of a powerful ecclesiastical organization which exercised…

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Historical studies

The Holy Roman Empire

Throughout the whole period of feudal anarchy, the ideal of an empire, and of an emperor whose authority must be confirmed by a papal coronation…

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Historical studies

The Relation of Spiritual to Secular Authority

The Relation of Spiritual to Secular Authority. In the early days of Roman Christianity, the emperor had been recognized as head of both state and church. The…

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Historical studies

The Nature of Medieval Political Thought

During the greater part of the medieval period, political life was influenced but little by conscious purpose or by deliberately formulated theory. Certain ideas, surviving…

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European studies

The Real Philosophy of Emmanuel Macron

By Blake Smith If French President Emmanuel Macron is as confident about reelection in April 2022 as he often appears to be, it is because he…

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Middle Eastern studies

Turkey’s Tough 2021

For Turkey, 2021 was a year marked by its plummeting currency, soaring inflation, and destructive climate change events. The terrible year has fueled the steady…

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