Prepared by: Mohamed Warshi – PhD researcher, Faculty of Legal, Economic and Social Sciences, Fez, University of Sidi Mohamed Bin Abdullah.

  • Arab Democratic Center

Summary:

The world knew the spread of the Coronavirus pandemic, which posed a great danger to mankind, which led to a significant increase in the number of infections, and the death of huge numbers of the world’s population, starting from Wuhan, China, reaching Europe and Africa, but despite all the measures put in place by countries, especially relying on The self and the near total closure, and the cessation of the rotation of the wheel of the economy, has become a great danger to the countries of the world, which has become obligatory with the solidarity of countries in order to eradicate the virus collectively, despite the US-Chinese accusations of planting the epidemic through international laboratories in the two countries.

Abstract

The world knew the spread of the Coronavirus pandemic, which posed a great danger to humanity, which led to a significant increase in the number of infections, and the death of huge numbers of the world’s population, starting from Wuhan, China, reaching Europe and Africa, but despite all the measures put in place by countries, especially relying on The self and the near total closure, and stopping the rotation of the wheel of the economy, has become a great danger to the countries of the world, and with which it has become obligatory for the solidarity of countries to eradicate the virus collectively, despite US-Chinese accusations of planting the epidemic through international laboratories in the two countries …

Human societies have faced – throughout history – some epidemics that spread on a large scale, infected huge numbers of people, and claimed the lives of millions in a short period of time, and these crises affected individuals who lived this exceptional experience, as they changed a side of their value trends and raised them. Many existential questions that have no answers, and in some cases left effects on the psychological structure for whole generations, which, even if they were able to physically survive the epidemic, did not recover from its psychological and social effects [2] .

This experience remains stuck in the collective conscience of societies and an essential component of its history, just as the plague epidemic, or “the Black Death”, was entrenched in European history, and many literary works reflected the human experience of European society during this period, which still exists in the European public sphere even after the passage. Hundreds of years, epidemics are the same as the experience of wars (here it is possible to talk about the two world wars, in the aftermath of the First World War, which killed 10 million people and 20 million wounded and disabled, and its material cost amounted to 833 billion dollars. As for the Second World War, the number of human victims reached what Between 45 and 50 million dead, and the number of wounded and maimed, at least 100 million people, whose material cost amounted to
4 trillion dollars) [3]For societies, where they witness radical changes in their daily lifestyle, the features of life change, and the experience ends with creating different meanings, values, ideas and patterns of human life [4] .

All future studies of the twentieth century, which outline what will come on the basis of the data of the present, have lost their value, so we are still predicting what will come in 2025 and 2050 while we are unable to understand 2020. Our awareness has not comprehended unexpected mutations in the movement of history, and the truth is that the most important thing to expect It is not expected, and from here was my famous Muslim “Wait for yourself in the unexpected.” (5)

But now, the world is witnessing one of the most dangerous epidemics on humans, which is called Covid-19, which is known with it in light of its backwardness and the repercussions and deterioration that this crisis will leave at the expense of the international cooperation system that represents the existing international system, as one of the mechanisms adopted by the community. The international community is devoting the task of joint action among states to face global challenges with a collective and participatory logic, not with the logic of the closed nation-state [6]. This was expressed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Antonio Guterres, on the occasion of the International Day of Multilateralism and Diplomacy for Peace on April 24, 2020, when he stressed that “the Covid-19 pandemic is a tragic reminder of our deep connection, and that the virus knows no borders and is, in essence, a global challenge, It is imperative to address it, and to work together as one human family, and the necessity to do everything in our power to save lives and mitigate economic and social devastation, and it is crucial that we draw from this experience the appropriate lessons about the weaknesses and inequalities revealed by the virus, and to mobilize investments. In the areas of education, health systems, social protection, and resilience, this is the biggest international challenge since World War II, however, even before this test, the world was facing other major risks that transcend national borders – chief among them climate change. ” (7 ] .

In the same context, we recall what was also expressed by his special advisor, Mr. “Fabrizio Hochschild”, on the same occasion when he said, “We must overcome this wrong division between my choices. Either you are national or international, either you care about your country or you are an international ..If you are truly national and patriotic, you must be an international as well, because this is the way the world works. These phrases and words are extremely important in declaring a kind of anxiety and disappointment, and not being convinced of the international cooperation effort, which is one of the foundations of international work that you are proud of. The international community before the Corona crisis, what will happen until the world organization warns, through its officials, of excessive populism, and of the sudden trend of states towards retreat instead of activating the cooperation mechanisms accumulated by international practice. The purposes on which it was founded are now facing a real test regarding the global management of the Corona pandemic, as it has been observed since the beginning of the epidemic that the world is already going through an unprecedented crisis.[8]
However , despite this, it seems that the world is still united and cooperating until now to prevent the spread of this epidemic and avert the catastrophe, given that this epidemic has no nationality, and does not care about geographical borders or sectarian affiliations, and represents what looks like a common enemy for all countries and nations, threatening Its collective security, and it will inevitably push it to cooperate to confront it. And if the epidemic worsens further, we will certainly witness actual and direct cooperation between some countries that have long enmities between them, and joint mechanisms may arise between them to confront this epidemic and avoid its recurrence in the future [9] , because conditions of international cooperation continue and deepen despite the interruptions caused by sudden crises and others Expected [10] .

Importance of the topic:

   Each topic is important based on multiple readings by researchers, and since we are only a small part in the field of scientific research, we decided to shed light on the difficulties facing the world, especially international actors in dealing with the epidemic crisis represented by Covid-19, which has paralyzed all activities. Globalization, which requires concerted efforts among all actors, whether they are states, or regional or global organizations, for international cooperation and solidarity to address the pandemic that afflicted all parts of the world without exception, which made all countries of the globe face the Coronavirus epidemic, which makes it difficult to be closed and self-reliant.

Motives for choosing a topic

The world is going through many crises and difficulties through wars, climate change, the phenomenon of terrorism, and the race to armaments that contribute to destruction rather than building people and nations. We have become global epidemics that appear suddenly without knowledge of them through some examples (such as the plague, Spanish flu, bird flu, swine flu, Ebola, and SARS 1…) to Covid-19, which calls on the world to work jointly and cooperative mechanisms for Preserving the human commonality, and trying to develop programs and plans that contribute to addressing transnational epidemics, without relying on what is internal only.

Problematic topic

   When the researcher goes into the midst of searching for or receiving information, he is faced with a group of points that are difficult to
disassemble, and therefore several questions come to mind, and in front of this humble topic, which constitutes more than a question mark regarding what is happening, and to try to understand what is happening on the international and national arena, the answer is answered Several problems and questions are as follows:

What is the reality of international solidarity in the face of the global epidemic crisis? What are the most important blocs that worked to combat the Covid-19 virus?

Difficulties related to completion of the topic

If any subject is accomplished, it is necessary to have strengths and weaknesses, and it is not neutral to receive notes, and to take them into consideration in order to refine the research to be worked on. Among the most important difficulties encountered in this topic is the difficulty in obtaining references due to their lack of information first, then relying on some Electronic references, in addition to the nature of the topic and its currentness, which made it difficult for us to obtain all the various references in its relationship to the “Covid-19” epidemic.

Subject methodology

To analyze all the ideas and data, we relied on several scientific methods so that this work was at the required level, and among the approved approaches, we find the analytical method as we relied on multiple documents in our analysis of our topic under study, as well as the historical method by examining the events that the world had previously known through Previous epidemics due to their devastation in human life.

The plan of the topic
   from the previous starting points, and based on the mentioned approaches, we decided to follow the development of an integrated and organized research plan, which led us to stand on the following design:

The first axis: international solidarity between disruption and activation during the pandemic.

_ The second axis: the role of the major conglomerates in facing the epidemic crisis.

 The first axis: international solidarity between activation and disruption during the pandemic

The world is witnessing a crisis of another kind due to the outbreak of viruses and epidemics, which threaten human life in general and lead to the cessation of all activities that contribute to the development of mankind. Corona crisis, in Chomsky’s belief, is just one part of a future terrible nightmare, even if people do not immediately initiate In organizing themselves and joining together to achieve a world that is much better than the world in which they live, they will face enormous difficulties that have always hindered the path of truth and justice, as well as preparing to deal with the existential dangers of nuclear war, climate change, and disasters, which will be caused by global warming, which will not We will recover from it unless we are firm in facing it when we reach that stage, and it is imminent. ” [11]Because of a virus that appeared in Wuhan, I was forced to quarantine my home by the jurist bin Saleh, and this is what we are witnessing today through the Corona virus, here several interconnected questions come to mind, which necessitates a mental journey to resolve these lingering problems, so how did the countries of the world deal with it? Were matters taken individually in dealing with the epidemic, or did the matter form another form of volunteering and support for countries affected by the pandemic?

  First: _ China between facing the epidemic and major humanitarian work

   On December 31, 2019, the World Health Organization Center in China reported that there were 27 cases in Hubei Province in China suspected of having pneumonia, and the causes of this were unknown, and on January 1, 2020, the seafood market was closed after making sure that it was closely related to patients, and doctors and specialists were excluded That severe pneumonia (SARS) or bird flu could be a cause of disease. On the other hand, Hong Kong reported suspected cases of the virus, in addition to other confirmed cases, in addition to recording deaths, so the disease was diagnosed as a new type of coronavirus, and China worked to quarantine the entire city of Wuhan, and the World Health Organization has stated that the world should To prepare for the spread of infection from one person to another around the world, and I called the new Corona virus “COVID-19”. On January 16, 2020, it was confirmed that a man from Tokyo, the capital of Japan, was infected with this disease, after traveling to Wuhan, China, and Thailand announced that it had discovered a case of a woman who was living in Wuhan, so the United States of America and many countries began examining arrivals from Wuhan through airports . At that time, the virus began to spread throughout China, and despite the strict measures taken by some countries, the virus began to spread in most countries of the world, and it was confirmed that the first American, a man in his thirties, was infected with the new Corona virus in Washington state. Italy, Spain, Germany, Iran, the United States, France, and South Korea, the first in the list of countries with the most number of injuries, and the Chinese President (Xi Jinping) said that saving lives is a top priority and that information about the disease is published at “time”. the appropriate”[12].

Immediately after the virus began spreading, social media and the media circulated several pages of the novel “The Eyes of Darkness”, written by the famous American writer “Dean Kuntz” in 1981, which talks about the appearance of the Chinese army modification of a dangerous Chinese virus in Wuhan in China in 2020, that is, 39 years before the virus appeared in real terms and spread in the world, but the first accusations were made by the American side, when the Republican senator was accused on Fox News Channel last February, that the Chinese army is behind the virus as a biological weapon of war. .On the other hand, China directly accuses the United States of being behind the spread of the virus, and there is a very popular story, which is the exploitation of the World Military Games in Wuhan during October of last year, where an officer within the US Army spread the virus silently because the first cases were recorded on November 17 Last year, two weeks after the end of the games, which is the incubation period for the virus in the body and the start of its symptoms[13] ،

The Chinese application showed a different behavior. All the health, scientific and technological capabilities of the state were harnessed to protect the lives of the Chinese by providing an “efficient” health service. It was able to besiege the epidemic and find a treatment for it in a short period of time, and it strives with great enthusiasm to produce a vaccine that protects people and preserves their lives. [14]

On the international level, China was able to show solidarity with the countries of the world to address the epidemic pandemic, and it also succeeded in containing the epidemic, and obtained international recognition for avoiding the disaster, and its management ability to respond to the demands of the rest of the world, by providing assistance to it through a set of medical and technical services to face The epidemic.

In this regard, China was able to respond to the calls of Italy, Iran, and other countries by sending many artificial respirators, protective masks, and medical equipment, in addition to medical teams, and to discharge its successful experience in dealing with the epidemic in an attempt to win the friendship of these countries, in light of the inaction and impotence of the Union. The European Union expressed its response to the demands of the member states affected by the virus with the required speed and effectiveness (Italy and Spain), which may have dangerous repercussions on determining the future of the entity after the crisis, which was clearly expressed by the Prime Minister of Italy and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain [15] .

But related to the matter, there are those who said that China, through its large medical aid, is trying to atone for being the first source of the Corona virus … [16] Nevertheless, it can be recognized that it overcame the spread of the epidemic without international support, and defeated it through isolation, quarantine and the prevention of mixing between its citizens, and no cases of infection or death were recorded, and it began to implement a gradual return to normal life program [17] .

  Second: Cuban genius

Cuba considers the Caribbean island mired in a 60-year blockade imposed on it by the United States of America as a punishment for the victory of the socialist revolution led by Fidel Castro, and for its refusal to be a “back garden” for Washington. “The big ones,” like the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Spain, are unable to confront Corona. Cuba has emerged as a key partner in combating its spread [18] , and Noam Chomsky has asked how a country like Cuba can offer its aid to Europe, because this is a shocking thing. Surprisingly, while Germany finds it refusing aid to Greece, we find Cuba providing assistance to Europe in its ordeal to confront the coronavirus [19] .

   The Cuban role began on January 25, when China chose the drug B Interferon alpha »2, produced in the Cuban state, to be one of about 30 drugs chosen by the Chinese National Health Commission to treat the respiratory system. The drug is one of the Cuban biotechnology products. It was also used against viral infections such as HIV, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and C, and then Cuban diplomatic missions were launched in most of the countries affected by the virus, presenting the status of their medical expertise and capabilities, at the disposal of countries in need [20] .

Cuban Arturo Lopez-Levy, professor of international relations at Holy Names University in the US, explains that “since the beginning of the century, there has been talk about the possibility of a global epidemic, and Cuba has prepared its army of white shirts, and this is a strategy prepared before, in a country that has made health and education. The two pillars of his socialist revolution, and he remembers that “at the end of the Cold War, Cuba developed this capacity, and thus logically it became a major tool in its foreign policy. Today this policy is bearing fruit, since the outbreak of the Covid-19 epidemic, when Havana sent 593 health experts to 14 countries, Among them is Italy, the European country most affected by the disease, with more than 15,000 deaths, and Andorra, which has reported about 12 deaths. [21]

It can be said that Cuba was one of the most prominent international players in contributing alongside several countries, such as China and Morocco, in their great solidarity with the rest of the world affected by the spread of the epidemic with an imaginative speed, and this is what astonished a group of researchers and analysts, but how will the rest of the world deal with this The virus in its relationship with the international bloc?

  Third: _ The American withdrawal from international affairs (through international crises)  

They knew since the outbreak of the SARS virus of the possible epidemic of Corona, and research has been carried out since the SARS virus, and the genetic sequence of the SARS strain to which the Corona virus belongs was determined as a possible genetic evolution of the strain that has been confirmed, what happened? Governments and giant pharmaceutical companies did not intend to manufacture treatments or vaccines to protect people. ” [22]

The Corona pandemic put the United States, as a balanced international pole, under a real test to test its strength. Contrary to expected, it appeared confused in its management, which allowed the outbreak of the epidemic in a number of states, leaving the largest international toll in terms of injuries and deaths, while some studies went to That Americans of African or Latin American descent are more vulnerable to infection and affected by the epidemic, with poor health insurance, and many of them lose their jobs. (23)

Thus, the United States, whose human, technological, scientific, and industrial potential has long been marketed, seemed vulnerable to the epidemic, whose economic and social repercussions seem to be more severe and more dangerous in the future, with the imposition of a health emergency in a number of states, and the accompanying suspension of work in A number of companies and interests, and many reports expect that the economic crisis will deepen significantly in the country, in a way that will exceed the repercussions left by the 1929 crisis, and there are even those who have warned of the possibility of growing protests that may reach the level of civil disobedience, under pressure from social dilemmas, and the situation will be complicated. Further, with the outbreak of widespread protests in a number of states, as a result of the killing of the African American citizen, “George Floyd” [24] .

Through the crisis, the United States withdrew from the World Health Organization, its partnership and financial support for it, and also, it withdrew from all international agreements, and from global institutions contributing to international and humanitarian cooperation, so it decided to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement signed in 2015 by 195 A country, on the grounds that it conflicts with America’s economic interests, and in the same year the American administration withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement,

It also withdrew from the “Global Compact for Migration,” or the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants; It aims to improve the management of the refugee situation in the world, and considered that this charter “does not conform to American sovereignty,” and also withdrew from the most important global cultural and scientific organization, which is  UNESCO , on the accusation that UNESCO’s decisions are inconsistent with American foreign policy, after accepting full membership of the State of Palestine in The organization, and President Trump’s administration has considered that accepting Palestine’s membership in UNESCO is hostile to  IsraelAnd America’s policy in the Middle East, and about two months after Trump withdrew from the Human Rights Council, (June 2018) he decided to stop any funding for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), which amounted to $ 368 million at the time, on the grounds of mismanaging those funds. Observers saw that the decision was a practical prelude to the implementation of the so-called “deal of the century,” and this was clearly evident later in 2019, when Trump asked the Palestinians to accept the deal in exchange for securing their livelihoods, the slogan of which was $ 50 billion over 5 years. [25]

Among the “achievements” of President Trump recently (4-15-2020), to achieve his slogan “America First”,

Suspending his country’s financial contribution to the World Health Organization’s budget, estimated at $ 300 million annually, on the pretext that that organization sided with China, instead of serving its largest funder, and this happened at the height of the Corona pandemic, but we believe that the suspension of the financial contribution is in line with the positions of Trump has been one of the international organizations, treaties, and agreements, in which he believes that they do not meet his undisputable ambitions, since he joined the White House on January 20, 2017 [26] .

This global pandemic exploded in our country – indeed, it seriously deepened – a health crisis that necessitated a shutdown, suffocating the economy, and transformed the lifestyle of people open to the outside into a rebound inward, a situation that made globalization into a stifling crisis, which created (globalization) forms of mutual connection, but a link There is no place for solidarity among human beings, and the worst is that it provoked – in the form of reactions – forms of ethnic, religious, and national isolation, which represented the characteristic of the first decade of this century, and in the absence of international institutions capable of protecting the solidarity activities between states, the nation-states have turned against each other. Some, as you know, the Czech Republic hijacked a shipment of protective masks on its way to Italy, and the United States of America also turned the destination of a shipment destined for France [27]According to French sources, the United States of America paid three times the price of the manufacturer in China. Which made the shipment change its course to the United States of America, and the same situation happened with Germany, which accused the United States of America of having seized its order from Thailand, although the United States of America denied this, and therefore we find that this piracy is based on a basic principle, namely, who pays the most. And whoever has cash in hand can settle the deal with the Chinese party [28] .

Hence, it is necessary to examine the US sanctions on Iran at the height of the crisis, in addition to some contributions to the affected countries that remain pale, and therefore it can be said that the crisis that the world is going through now has proven that the data on which the current international system is based, no longer exists such as International justice, integration, and integration, and this is what will make the current principles change to new frameworks based on force, conflict, interest, and a decline in the use of international law [29] .

Fourth: Moroccan soft diplomacy in providing international aid towards Europe, America and Africa 

     The ambassador, the permanent representative of Morocco to the United Nations, Omar Hilal, confirmed that the Commander of the Faithful, His Majesty King Mohammed VI, was a forerunner, long before the outbreak of the global crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, to call for a world of solidarity based on the principles of coexistence, and accepts Otherness, pluralism, and altruism. The Moroccan diplomat pointed out that religious leaders, like the rest of the concerned parties at the international level, “can contribute to the emergence of a ‘virtuous circle’ and harness their power to persuade, and their collective action is not only to confront the dire consequences of this epidemic, but, above all, to think together about it. The new world that we would like to leave for future generations. [30]

   Mr. Hilal expressed the Kingdom of Morocco’s support for the leadership role of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in combating the Covid-19 pandemic. Addressing him, he said: “Your initiatives are very relevant, as well as your numerous appeals, which made it possible to unite the international community in these difficult times, and you have proven by this that multilateralism At its core, the United Nations is an indispensable condition for overcoming this crisis. [31]

As part of Morocco’s involvement in the international community, it managed, in record time, to become the second largest producer of masks in the world, after the People’s Republic of China, where it produced more than 100 million medical masks in a short time, and in a blog post by the French journalist residing in the United States, “Alain Polomac” On his official Facebook account, the New York municipality received the first shipment of Moroccan masks, including 25,000 medical masks, in addition to 450 Moroccan-made respirators [32] .

As for the European level, and at a time when major countries such as France and Russia are struggling to find the necessary medical masks to get out of quarantine and confront the Corona virus, the Kingdom of Morocco was able to self-sufficiency in the manufacture of medical masks, as it imposed compulsory wearing of them on all citizens, and factories have become Morocco is ready to export the first shipments of masks outside the country, and several French politicians have stressed their criticism of their government for the lack of medical masks, and they are setting an example in the Kingdom of Morocco, and before this, the European Union praised and praised the measures taken by Morocco to confront the Corona virus. [33]

As for the African continent, and within the framework of Morocco’s relationship with its African neighbors, and the South-South policy, the crisis of the Coronavirus outbreak has opened a set of opportunities for Morocco to significantly enhance its African position, as the Kingdom of Morocco hastened to take advantage of  its capabilities available  in the health system,  and its  National industries , to send aid and preventive medical supplies to 15 African countries to support their efforts in combating this pandemic, and while it seems that the Kingdom of Morocco is more than ever focused on a new, soft diplomacy, in order to penetrate deep into Africa, a question is being raised today about the possibility of success. Mask diplomacy  “in support of the Moroccan diplomatic movement that integrates the economic and religious sides, in the face of the challenges posed by the discrepancy between the limited capabilities and great ambitions of its large ambitions over the shifting sands of Africa [34] .

It was evident, through the praise and praise that Morocco received for its humanitarian initiatives, during the past days, by the leaders of African countries and the World Health Organization, that Rabat did not miss the opportunity of the exceptional circumstances to send messages to the African depth by providing millions of masks and medical devices, which have become One of the most important means of expressing “political solidarity” between countries in the time of Corona [35] .

On the other hand, Morocco has not been able to manage one of the most important and humane issues (within the framework of solidarity and relations between countries regarding the opening of borders), and it is related to the issue of Moroccans stranded abroad and their suffering, but it has recently corrected the matter, and has started to bring them in batches from all parts of the world, Not forgetting the proposal of His Majesty King Mohammed VI to launch an initiative by African heads of state aimed at establishing an operational framework with the aim of keeping pace with African countries in their various stages of managing the Corona pandemic. Perhaps the best lesson for Morocco, from this experience is to try to be free from dependency on the outside with regard to medicinal and health security, and this will be reflected in public policies related to the health sector, whether with regard to infrastructure, the formation of a sufficient human element, scientific research, or the establishment of an advanced pharmaceutical industry, And able to respond to national needs in case of health emergencies.[36] .

The second axis: regional groups in the face of the coronavirus (Covid-19)

The absence of cooperation was formed with the onset of the global health crisis, represented by the spread of the emerging corona virus (Covid-19), which affected all countries of the world. Global solidarity is needed to prevent further morbidity and mortality, and examples of leadership and cooperation must be celebrated [37] , and it became clear that This virus did not give the global health systems an opportunity to arrange their papers and systems to confront this virus, which is characterized by its rapid spread, and the absence of any treatment or vaccine for it at the present time [38] , especially the countries that are under the strength of regional blocs, and in particular: the European Union, the BRICS group … and others, so that these blocs formed a single force, and a prominent position was given to solidarity and cooperation between these countries as a force in various fields, and in a range of issues such as those related to immigration, human rights, and the environment …, while these clusters witnessed clear confusion during the epidemic crisis, and this is what We’ll see it by delving into her roles.

  First: the absence of international solidarity within the European Union                           

The countries of the world began to cooperate, albeit relatively, especially with the Italian case (Austria sent 1.5 million medical masks to Italy, Denmark sent ventilators and field hospital equipment to Italy, and the Czechs sent 20 thousand protective suits to Italy) [39] , which has increased In terms of the number of injuries and deaths, as some countries began sending medium amounts of medical aid, on top of them medical masks, and here the conflict began with the acceleration of the spread of the epidemic, especially in Europe, and the entry of the European Union countries in a race towards closing themselves, instead of cooperation This caused a shock in the relations between them, and here things began to deviate from their path of cooperation to piracy, that is, the piracy of these medical masks [40] ,

The European Union has demonstrated the fragility of the principle of solidarity among the member states, as well as the divisions between the countries of the Union, so that the Corona crisis was formed, especially the delay in managing the crisis and accompanying the countries affected by it, and this is mainly due to the growing national selfishness among the member states, which will have repercussions on ties The cohesion of the Union, and on the other hand there are divisions between the countries of the North and the countries of the South, as the northern countries such as Germany and the Netherlands refused the collective assistance request that was submitted by Italy and Spain, with the support of France, Belgium, and other countries of the South, these interactions made experts And researchers prefer the hypothesis of the disintegration of the Union in the future, especially after the expected economic crisis after this global epidemic. [41]

Former Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattani explained the mistake that most European countries made in dealing with the Corona virus, as he emphasized that many European leaders initially misjudged the seriousness of the spread of the virus, and that Italy, after discovering the size of the outbreak of the epidemic, closed its borders, while it refused France followed the same procedure, while Spain considered the matter “an Italian problem” and allowed the celebration of Women’s Day in the capital, Madrid, on March 8.

The minister added that many European countries did not learn from the Italian lesson, and were not united, so that the virus reached the British Prime Minister, who personally paid the tax after being infected with it, after he denied at the beginning of the crisis that there was any danger threatening the United Kingdom, and let daily life go without No change or special precautions. [42]

For his part, the former Tunisian Minister of Culture, Al-Mahdi Al-Mabrouk, confirmed that the Corona crisis redrawn national borders within Europe, which failed some member states such as Italy and Spain, stressing that the European Union did not act as a group and a regional unit, but rather left a wide margin for the national initiatives that formed protection “Cruel” does not take into account the interests of neighboring countries.

He also warned that the Corona virus was faster than the European move to correct the errors that came late, and that “symbolic wounds” will continue to haunt this unit in the coming years, expecting geopolitical changes in the region related to the lessons learned from the pandemic crisis. [43]

As for the European Commission’s announcement of the “100 billion euros” plan to assist the countries of the Union, Frattani considered that the Italian prime minister’s response to the initiative was “insufficient” correct, because it is a first step that needs support, and indicated that the Corona virus is about to destroy the globalization that was established before Years ago, and that Europe is now calling for a real awakening to confront the imminent dangers.

Frattani expressed his conviction that Europeans have not learned from previous lessons such as leaving Italy, Portugal and Spain facing the irregular migration crisis alone, stressing the need for European leaders to work to translate their calls into actions, and to turn advertisements into concrete projects, warning of a major change for the European Union after The Corona crisis faces the “wave of selfishness and nationalism” known to several member states, which reached an unprecedented practice such as obstructing aid access to neighboring countries [44] .

Without a doubt, the recent changes in the “European Union”, and the method of “individual” treatment instead of “collective action”, in the face of the Coronavirus, make the “European bloc” lose its attractiveness, and thus it creates a new stage and new convictions, which tend to “disintegrate” instead From “clinging to” this model that is unable to manage crises and deal with them by collective action, and thus this disintegration will force some countries to follow the British path, especially those that see that they have “failed” Europeans, such as Italy, which means that “the European project has become His last days ” [45] .

And in a rare statement, Jacques Delors, the former European Commission president who helped build the modern European Union, broke his silence by warning that lack of solidarity poses “a fatal danger to the European Union.”

In the same context, Enrico Leta, the former Prime Minister of Italy, said that the European Union is facing a “deadly danger” due to the global epidemic, then expressed that “the collective spirit of Europe is weaker today than it was ten years ago,” adding that the biggest threat to the European Union It is the “Trump virus,” as he put it.

He also warned that if everyone took the strategy of “Italy first,” “Belgium first,” or “Germany first,” “we would all dive completely [46] .

According to Marie de Som R. Chairperson of the Immigration Program at the European Policy Center, a Brussels – based think tank, that ” the Schengen system in poor condition and very problematic” and restore the full functionality depends on “changing asylum rules and migration within the bloc” [47] .

Consequently, the effects of the disintegration of the European Union and the failure of the European project to maintain its attractiveness, which was an example and a model, will have repercussions on other blocs, and it will push some countries to avoid entering into new blocs after they witnessed its ineffectiveness in managing crises. [48]

  Second: the efforts of the African Union

In exchange for the disintegration of the European Union in the face of the spread of the Coronavirus, the African Union worked to establish a clear strategy aimed at pursuing the virus, containing its spread, and mitigating its social and economic impacts. Through solidarity and coordination among African countries as well as cooperation with the private sector, and global institutions, such as the World Health Organization; In order to support African countries in their dealing with the virus, and to provide the necessary expertise and technical support,

   And in light of the African Union’s endeavor towards achieving the principles of solidarity and protecting African countries due to the spread of the Coronavirus; Tend to mobilize the various health sectors in African countries, in addition to coordinating with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the African HIV Working Groups (AFTCOR), to obtain the necessary expertise to deal with the virus; This is done through the PACT initiative  [49] :  

   And in the light of what is caused by the spread of Corona virus negative effects on all economic sectors in the world, which affected African economies on the various fields, and to try to remedy the negative effects of the corona virus on the African economy, combined finance ministers efforts of Africans to contain the crisis, and mitigate the economic impacts And social activities through several initiatives, for example:

  • Create the African Response Fund; With the aim of mobilizing the necessary resources to face the challenge of the Coronavirus, providing social and economic support to the communities most in need, the ability to cover the required medical needs, and strengthening the capacity of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Africa to support the response to public health emergencies across the continent, the African Union has allocated $ 25 million From his own budget to support the fund. [50]

But the more correct, lies in the inability of the African Union to manage the crisis properly, which will affect a group of poor African countries, not to mention the weakness of grants and support allocated to African countries by donor countries and international institutions, which will result in a shortage of basic materials and medical materials to address The massive infections infected with the emerging corona virus.

Third – The role of the BRICS and ASEAN Group in confronting Corona

With the spread of the Corona epidemic in China, the New Development Bank of the economic bloc known as the BRICS, which includes Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (so that these countries participate in implementing liberal economic reforms and the individual economic growth achieved over the past decade And the development strategies that came as options expressing how to integrate into the global economy) [51] led to granting a loan to China worth 7 billion yuan within the framework of the New Development Bank’s program of emergency assistance in combating Corona. [52]

In this context, the commitment of the National Development Bank will not only be to assist China through the aid program to promote the sustainable development of its member countries, but more importantly, it will provide the emergency support needed by the member country facing serious economic challenges and human suffering.

In the same context, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov announced that the member countries of the BRICS caucus are required today to present a set of initiatives to confront the consequences of the spread of the Corona epidemic, explaining that Russia will present a set of initiatives, including the social and economic sphere, and Lavrov indicated that the main task before The countries of the group are to confront the Corona pandemic, and then formulate the answer to contemporary general challenges, such as defending the principle of multilateralism and reliance on international law, and through it, “The voice of solidarity for the BRICS countries is required today according to our conviction more than ever in support of the global system. Multipolar that is being formed today in a democratic manner, and based mainly on legal respect for the interests of all countries, and respect for all the rules and principles of the Charter of the United Nations Organization ” [53] .

While the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman, Geng Shuang, called in an electronic press release, China greatly appreciates the statement issued by the Presidency of the BRICS to support China in its war against the new Corona virus, and Geng described the other members of the BRICS group as important partners for China. , Saying that this statement conveyed positive and constructive messages, expressed support for China’s efforts, and urged greater international cooperation in protecting public health security, adding that “This proves the spirit of BRICS in helping each other in times of crisis, and also embodies the support China has obtained from The international community. [54] ”

Apart from the BRICS financial cooperation model, cooperation in information exchange has been developed within the ASEAN Economic Community or the regional intergovernmental organization that includes ten countries in Southeast Asia.

Since health officials from China shared the first information about the disease, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Emergency Operations Center (EOC) network for public health emergencies led by Malaysia, with the support of the ASEAN Secretariat, has been sharing daily status updates, as well as providing information on measures. Prevention, detection, and response to senior officials in ASEAN, for the health development of ASEAN, China, Japan, and Korea, in addition to real-time information exchange for epidemiology training, through the exchange of instant messages via mobile phone within the network consisting of prevention officials Of diseases and their control in member states. [55]

The member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations also exchanged preparedness and laboratory response procedures through the regional network of public health laboratories led by Thailand, and the current national communication procedures on risks have benefited from the dissemination of preventive and control measures, including combating false news and information circulating. In social media, from preparedness and capacity building programs to the ASEAN Center for Risk Assessment and Risk Communication.

Through the BRICS and ASEAN models, it becomes clear to us that the political will for solidarity exists among the member states in trying to find solutions to the crisis of the spread of the Coronavirus in these countries, but the economic side still dominates the human side, as the support regarding the BRICS countries was a loan only, In the absence of medical aid. The same applies to ASEAN, whose leaders focused in an official statement on intensifying efforts to save the economy, as there has not been a comprehensive closure of the borders between member states, and this has prevented from giving priority to the humanitarian aspect, as it has been proven that movement between countries is one of the most important causes of the spread of the epidemic in the world. Therefore, cooperation between the ASEAN countries was satisfied with exchanging information, and the United States government has provided about $ 18.3 million in health emergencies and humanitarian aid to ASEAN member countries, which indicates that the organization’s role is still limited in how to manage crises financially and economically. [56]

  As a conclusion, the world showed during the Corona pandemic several differences and differences in terms of managing the pandemic, as countries and blocs remained unable to understand the spread of the epidemic first, and how to develop a successful strategy similar to some countries, such as China as a model, in addition to the absence of international cooperation mechanisms. And human solidarity, which formed a widening gap between a group of blocs, most notably the European Union, which showed through some of its members, such as Italy, its overwhelming discontent and isolation in the face of the epidemic, which overthrew many injuries and deaths as a result of the rapid spread of the epidemic, which called for the removal of the Union flag The European as an expression of the absence of any support or solidarity from the latter, despite the late recovery.Nevertheless, some countries within the European Union differed in developing a strategy to confront the crisis. All these matters contributed and even accelerated the removal of the European Union flag inside Italy, the raising of the Chinese flag as a token of their solidarity, and linking strong relations in the future, in contrast to the “America First” policy abandonment The old allies, such as the European Union, which may constitute a blow to America and support the rising Chinese dragon in a steady and balanced manner.

The study concluded with a set of conclusions, for example:

  • The world has shown its brutality and selfishness in dealing with the pandemic.
  • The absence of international cooperation mechanisms stipulated in the United Nations Charter.
  • China acted cleverly, which angered the United States of America.
  • Forming stronger Sino-European relations in the future.
  • The emergence of countries capable of dealing with the pandemic positively, without others.

Hence, we can ask a question to open future studies: How will the world be after this pandemic? Will the unipolar system continue under the leadership of the United States of America, or will the balance of power change in favor of China? Where are the roles of the United Nations? Is it really time to put comprehensive reforms in place to do the work assigned to face future crises?

List of approved references:

Books

– Pascal Rego, The BRICS: Economic Forces in the Twenty-first Century, Arab Thought Foundation, Lebanon, First Edition, 2015.

– Guillaume Degan, One World: The Evolution of International Cooperation, Arab Thought Foundation, Lebanon, First Edition 2016.

– Saeed Al-Siddiqi, What effect does the “Covid 19” epidemic have on international politics? An article in a collective book , The Post-Pandemic World “Readings in the Transformations of the Individual, Society, Nation and International Relations”, Publications of the Nebras Association for Culture and Development, Fez, First Edition, May 2020, on the website,

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1q6XJ6DvYQ2ICIHAGjSP7Kk50aXUZ8ip_/view?fbclid=IwAR3mnhzqhllnHArMXcRVv0QiNL92LBUfL4iSTgznhhODEtINq6kOMfUDJ

_ Electronic articles

 Idris El-Kareni, American Leadership and Crisis Pressure, an article published on the website http://www.alkhaleej.ae

 Edgar Moran, on the Coronavirus Pandemic, Sanitary Isolation, Science, Globalization and the Future of Humanity, on the website, https://couua.com

 Mustafa Booker, Corona and the course of transformations of the international system, an article published on the Banassa website https://banassa.com

 Batoul Suleiman, besieged Cuba … the partner of Italy and the world in the fight against Corona, an article published on the website, https://al-akhbar.com/World/285732

 Jad Mustafa Al-Bustani, Muhammad Al-Sayed, The Future of the Liberal Model in a Post-Corona World, a research study on the Arab Democratic Center website  https://democraticac.de

 Khaled Al-Zaatar, Coronavirus … and the failure of clusters, a study on the website  https://thelevantnews.com

 Saeed Al-Siddiqi, the world after Corona: more international cooperation and the national state is regaining its glory , an article published on the Banassa website, https://banassa.com

 Samar Al-Khumlishi, The stakes in international cooperation in light of the Corona crisis, an article on the website https://eipss-eg.org

 Sabri Haw, the Security Council meeting opportunity for international solidarity to confront the spread of Corona? Or the beginning of China’s leadership of the world? An article published on the Banassa website  https://banassa.com

 Muhannad Ali sacrificed, Corona between US-Chinese accusations and reality, a research study on the Arab Democratic Center website,  https://democraticac.de

 Adel Najdi, “The Diplomacy of Gags” in the Service of Morocco’s African Goals, an article on the New Arab website, https://www.alaraby.co.uk

 Abdullah Boussouf, Will Corona change the map of international relations in the future? An article published on the Balad website http://lblad.com

 Aladdin Boungar, the Kingdom of Morocco provides medical masks to Europe, an article on the International Monte Carlo website, https://www.mc-doualiya.com

 Ali Al-Idrisi, International organizations and agreements with the slogan “America First” on the website, Banassa: https://banassa.com

 Ali Abd Al-Khader Muhammad Al-Mamouri, Post-Coronavirus Scientist..the Need for New Leadership, a research study on the Arab Democratic Center website  https://democraticac.de

 Fouad Gedo, Medical Mask War … the new face of piracy, article published on the website, https://www.sasapost.com

 Lavrov, BRICS countries call for initiatives to confront the consequences of the Corona epidemic, article on the website https://www.sana.sy/?p=1142734

 Muhammad al-Sharqawi, critical geostrategic foresight following the pandemic: horoscope reading for the 2070 world of the Corona crystal ball, article on the website,            https://staticalayam24.mcdn.ma

 Muhammad Warshi, The United Nations Between Effectiveness and Coercion, “Human Protection is a Model”, Article in the Journal of International Law for Research Studies, Issue 3, March – March, 2020, published on the Arab Democratic Center website, https://democraticac.de

 Noam Chomsky, Post-Corona is more dangerous than the current situation, an article published on the website

https://www.independentarabia.com

 Zainab Mustafa Roihh, limited response: the role of the African Union under the Corona crisis, a study on

Website, Sahrawi:  https://www.saharawi.net

 Abdel Fattah Al-Balamashi, Covid 19 and the crisis of the international cooperation system … What is the alternative for the countries of the South ?, an article published on the Banassa website  https://banassa.com

 Hala Hifnauy, the psychology of Epidemiology: What happens to communities when exposed to a sudden epidemic, an article published on the future site for research and advanced studies, Https://futureuae.com

_ Official sites

 António Guterres, International Day of Multilateralism and Diplomacy for Peace, April 24, 2020, on the official United Nations website  https://www.un.org

Omar Hilal, His Majesty the King was the first to call for a world of solidarity before the Covid-19 pandemic, an article on the MAP website, http://www.mapexpress.ma

_ Foreign references

Dominique Vervoort, Xiya Ma, Jessica G Y Luc ” COVID-19 Pandemic: A Time for Collaboration and A Unified Global Health Front ” , Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care, mzaa065,27 June 2020 .

– “European solidarity in action” article published on the official website of the European Union

https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/coronavirus/european-solidarity-in-action/?fbclid=IwAR0Lyo7C3pgtUDYdvS100ttfGZaRtiuV93MCoI-yHN3cSpoudDjYlV5Q6Os

[1] – Research student in the doctoral field, majoring in political studies and public law, at the University of Sidi Mohamed bin Abdullah – Fez.

[2] – Hala El-Hefnawi, The Psychology of Epidemics: What happens to societies when they are exposed to a sudden epidemic, an article published on the Future Research and Advanced Studies website, the date of the visit is 1.06.2020 at 17 pm.                                                       https://futureuae.com/en-AE/Mainpage/Item/5379?fbclid=IwAR1i4fS_-zBvv2MlI7H-6175g9CsQG10aBQgatXxfN4J_uMR-NzkHxyg9U4

[3] – Muhammad Warshi, United Nations Between Effectiveness and Coercion, “Human Protection is a Model”, an article in the Journal of International Law for Research Studies, Issue 3, March – March, 2020, published on the Arab Democratic Center website, https://democraticac.de /? p = 65746 & fbclid = IwAR2UjEHLEUWtSMzQFWHwHQIt4axSEg0R_AQSO2NKQ80k227Btl8WfNXBVF4 , visit date 2.06.2020 at 9 AM.

[4] – Hala El-Hefnawi, previous reference.

[5] – Edgar Moran, on the Coronavirus Pandemic, Sanitary Isolation, Science, Globalization and the Future of Humanity, on the website, https://couua.com/2020/04/26/%d8%a5%d8%af%d8%ba%d8% a7% d8% b1-% d9% 85% d9% 88% d8% b1% d8% a7% d9% 86-% d8% ad% d9% 88% d9% 84-% d8% ac% d8% a7% d8 % a6% d8% ad% d8% a9-% d8% a7% d9% 84% d9% 83% d9% 88% d8% b1% d9% 88% d9% 86% d8% a7-% d9% 88% d8 % a7% d9% 84% d8% b9% d8% b2% d9% 84 /? fbclid = IwAR0zzmdIWFgnsjEgazQFgtrNPOVQS_sCdqDsa0Hqlpx8eYf-a35ZGyOiBJI Date of visit: 15.6.2020 at 14.30 pm.

[6] – Abd al-Fattah al-Balamashi, Covid 19 and the crisis of the international cooperation system … What is the alternative for the countries of the South ?, an article published on Banassa https://banassa.com/orbites/20729.html?fbclid=IwAR0BZiKgd8r5scJErvL9nM2kmplicPgP_LuQWbMBQLiMyz5_7_fil on the day of the visit At 15 pm.

[7]  Antonio Guterres, International Day of Multilateralism, and Diplomacy for Peace, April 24. April 2020, on the official UN website, https://www.un.org/en/observances/Multilateralism-for-Peace-day#:~:text=%D9%81%D8%B6%D9%8A%D9 % 84% D8% AA% D9% 8A% 20% D8% AA% D8% B9% D8% AF% D8% AF% D9% 8A% D8% A9% 20% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A3 % D8% B7% D8% B1% D8% A7% D9% 81% 20% D9% 88% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% AF% D8% A8% D9% 84% D9% 88% D9% 85 % D8% A7% D8% B3% D9% 8A% D8% A9,12% 20% D9% 83% D8% A7% D9% 86% D9% 88% D9% 86% 20% D8% A7% D9% 84 % D8% A3% D9% 88% D9% 84% 2F% D8% AF% D9% 8A% D8% B3% D9% 85% D8% A8% D8% B1% 2018. The date of the visit is 3.6.2020 at 10 o’clock.

[8]  Abd al-Fattah al-Balamashi, previous reference.

 [9] – Saeed Al-Siddiqi, the world after Corona: more international cooperation and the national state is regaining its glory , an article published on the Banassa website, https://banassa.com/home/13660.html?fbclid=IwAR2vFN2B632YlpLv9wMLeK0TtLHfZCIfe9tpStQmudsm3ZSU on the date of the visit 17 o’clock.

[10] – Guillaume Degan, A Unified World: The Evolution of International Cooperation, Arab Thought Foundation, Lebanon, First Edition 2016, page 39.

[11] – Noam Chomsky, post-Corona is more dangerous than the current situation, an article published on the site

https://www.independentarabia.com/node/111151/%D8%AB%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%A9/%D9%86%D8%B9%D9%88%D9% 85-% D8% AA% D8% B4% D9% 88% D9% 85% D8% B3% D9% 83% D9% 8A-% D9% 85% D8% A7-% D8% A8% D8% B9% D8 % AF-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D9% 86% D8% A7-% D8% A3% D8% AE% D8% B7% D8% B1-% D9% 85% D9% 86-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 88% D8% B6% D8% B9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B1% D8% A7% D9% 87% D9% 86? fbclid = IwAR0JNIAR3zogXpEwKLKMr2-OYwzGR-bZ4assZQJk_6c4-6uRHgzf2jHqFYE # .XpWkgbJpaCE.facebook Date of visit: 4.06.2020 at 21:00.

[12]  – Muhannad Ali sacrificed, Coronavirus between US-Chinese accusations and reality, a research study on the Arab Democratic Center website, https://democraticac.de/?p=65453&fbclid=IwAR2Df6qRn4e9bdWJBdTQqEdXOT1wnuLayciz7sOf-IuxhX586.Uf at the time: 12:30 At noon.

[13] – Ali Abdul Khader Mohammed Mamouri, a post Alchorona..alhajh to a new leadership, a research study on the Arab Democratic Center site https://democraticac.de/?p=65975&fbclid=IwAR1OyNWGaksfFR3JuRWs9blqVw_U5YJG9wE9zJLvPiy36SAhnRc1K3LRaZU visit date on 06.05.2020 on time 15 fades away.

[14] – Jad Mustafa Al-Bustani, Muhammad Al-Sayed, The Future of the Liberal Model in a Post-Corona World, a Research Study on the Arab Democratic Center website, https://democraticac.de/?p=66230&fbclid=IwAR0vmPk-T1iw4YNPq817r2tk_NX58PmXc43ouMoIUGoLi5 : 6 day of the visit. 2020 at 20 pm.

[15] – Mustafa Bucurin, Corona and the course of transformations of the international system, an article published on the Banassa website https://banassa.com/opinions/18428.html?fbclid=IwAR3tDKeBo-s_vO3ghsyCRpA5DvKK4krTb5rS6O0xY7lxps61tGsoyN 6.0.

[16] – Abdullah Boussouf, Will Corona change the map of international relations in the future, an article published on Balad’s website http://lblad.com/%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A/%D8%B9 % D8% A8% D8% AF-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 84% D9% 87-% D8% A8% D9% 88% D8% B5% D9% 88% D9% 81-% D9% 87% D9% 84-% D8% AA% D8% BA% D9% 8A% D8% B1-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D9% 86% D8% A7-% D8 % AE% D8% A7% D8% B1% D8% B7% D8% A9-% D8% A7% D9% 84 /? Fbclid = IwAR0BZiKgd8r5scJErvL9nM2kmplicPgP_LuQWbMBQXL74z7fy_AiS_5M6  .

[17] – Sabri El Haw, is the Security Council meeting an opportunity for international solidarity to confront the spread of Corona? Or the beginning of China’s leadership of the world? An article published on the Banassa website https://banassa.com/orbites/17659.html?fbclid=IwAR2DkJpHLMhz7ZabSpXdHLTlVAxBiStAHyDD2QlgnM6qfKN4lLi5kVq1SVA , visit date 7.06.2020 at 11:00 am.

[18] – Batoul Suleiman, besieged Cuba … the partner of Italy and the world in the fight against Corona, an article published on https://al-akhbar.com/World/285732 Date of visit: 07.6.2020 at 18:00 pm.

[19] – Noam Chomsky, post-Corona is more dangerous than the current situation, an article published on the site

https://www.independentarabia.com/node/111151/%D8%AB%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%A9/%D9%86%D8%B9%D9%88%D9% 85-% D8% AA% D8% B4% D9% 88% D9% 85% D8% B3% D9% 83% D9% 8A-% D9% 85% D8% A7-% D8% A8% D8% B9% D8 % AF-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D9% 86% D8% A7-% D8% A3% D8% AE% D8% B7% D8% B1-% D9% 85% D9% 86-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 88% D8% B6% D8% B9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B1% D8% A7% D9% 87% D9% 86? fbclid = IwAR0JNIAR3zogXpEwKLKMr2-OYwzGR-bZ4assZQJk_6c4-6uRHgzf2jHqFYE # .XpWkgbJpaCE.facebook The date of the visit is 7.06.2020 at 21:00.

[20] – Batoul Suleiman, besieged Cuba … the partner of Italy and the world in the fight against Corona, an article published on https://al-akhbar.com/World/285732 Date of visit: 086.2020 at 13:00 in the afternoon.

[21] – Article on Al-Jazeera website https://www.aljazeera.net/news/politics/2020/4/5/%D9%83%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%86%D8 % A7-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% A8% D8% A7-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D9% 81% D9% 8A% D8% AF Date of visit: 08.06.2020 at 19.00 Evening.

[22] – Noam Chomsky, post-Corona is more dangerous than the current situation, previous reference.

[23] – Idris El-Kareni, American Leadership and Crisis Pressure, an article published on http://www.alkhaleej.ae/studiesandopinions/page/A5DED717-E7FC-41B4-947A-F5583E5A6AFD  Date of visit: 086.2020 at 23:00 pm.

[24] – Same as previous reference.

[25] – Ali Al-Idrissi, International organizations and agreements with the slogan “America First” on the website Banassa https://banassa.com/orbites/20309.html?fbclid=IwAR3OtyCoz9apLNcbD9RtCRtwo1YCEN8EN7gE8–sMX0de8c0Z7vTHbm.0.00Xw 09 pm on the date of the visit.

[26] – Same as the previous reference.

[27] – Edgar Moran, On the Coronavirus Pandemic, Sanitation, Science, Globalization and the Future of Humanity, an article published on the website https://couua.com/2020/04/26/%d8%a5%d8%af%d8%ba%d8% a7% d8% b1-% d9% 85% d9% 88% d8% b1% d8% a7% d9% 86-% d8% ad% d9% 88% d9% 84-% d8% ac% d8% a7% d8 % a6% d8% ad% d8% a9-% d8% a7% d9% 84% d9% 83% d9% 88% d8% b1% d9% 88% d9% 86% d8% a7-% d9% 88% d8 % a7% d9% 84% d8% b9% d8% b2% d9% 84 /? fbclid = IwAR0zzmdIWFgnsjEgazQFgtrNPOVQS_sCdqDsa0Hqlpx8eYf-a35ZGyOiBJI  Date of visit: 10.06.20 at 11.30 am

[28] – Fouad Gedo, The war of medical masks .. the new face of piracy, an article published on the website https://www.sasapost.com/opinion/war-of-medical-gags/?fbclid=IwAR3piWQPEB9rP_NmhLJeoPjEWHpdPfE21IJkqiOpWz7 . 2020 at 16.38 pm.

[29] – Same as the previous reference,

[30] – Omar Hilal, His Majesty the King was the first to call for a world of solidarity before the Covid-19 pandemic, an article on the MAP website , http://www.mapexpress.ma/ar/actualite/%D8%A7%D9% 84% D8% B3% D9% 81% D9% 8A% D8% B1-% D9% 87% D9% 84% D8% A7% D9% 84-% D8% AC% D9% 84% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85% D9% 84% D9% 83-% D9% 83% D8% A7% D9% 86-% D8% B3% D8% A8% D8 % A7% D9% 82% D8% A7-% D8% A5% D9% 84% D9% 89-% D8% A7 /% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B9% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85 /? Fbclid = IwAR0XPBmhF2izQIaEdt_Wlok6AUOqxudVdC-1HNPAvqciFJtAABvg-4Wvwis Date of visit: 11.06.2020 at 22.45 pm.

[31] – Same as the previous reference.

[32] – Alan Polmack, an article on the website via,   https://aabbir.com/10-%D9%85%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%8A%D9%8A%D9%86-%D9 % 83% D9% 85% D8% A7% D9% 85% D8% A9-% D9% 88% D8% A3% D8% AC% D9% 87% D8% B2% D8% A9-% D8% AA% D9 % 86% D9% 81% D8% B3-% D9% 85% D8% BA% D8% B1% D8% A8% D9% 8A% D8% A9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B5% D9 % 86% D8% B9 / Date of visit: 06/11/2020 at 00.00.

[33] – Alaeddin Boungar, the Kingdom of Morocco provides medical masks to Europe, an article on the International Monte Carlo website, https://www.mc-doualiya.com/articles/20200502-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85 % D9% 85% D9% 84% D9% 83% D8% A9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85% D8% BA% D8% B1% D8% A8% D9% 8A% D8% A9- % D8% AA% D9% 88% D9% 81% D8% B1-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 83% D9% 85% D8% A7% D9% 85% D8% A7% D8% AA- % D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% B7% D8% A8% D9% 8A% D8% A9-% D9% 84% D8% A3% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D8% A8% D8% A7 Date of visit: 06/12/2020 at 10.45 in the morning.

[34] – Adel Najdi, “Diplomacy of gags” in the service of Morocco’s African goals, an article on the New Arab website, https://www.alaraby.co.uk/politics/2020/6/21/%D8%AF%D8% A8% D9% 84% D9% 88% D9% 85% D8% A7% D8% B3% D9% 8A% D8% A9-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 83% D9% 85% D8% A7 % D9% 85% D8% A7% D8% AA-% D9% 81% D9% 8A-% D8% AE% D8% AF% D9% 85% D8% A9-% D8% A3% D9% 87% D8% AF% D8% A7% D9% 81-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D9% 85% D8% BA% D8% B1% D8% A8-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A3% D9% 81% D8% B1% D9% 8A% D9% 82% D9% 8A% D8% A9 Date of visit: 12.06.2020 at 15.45 pm.

[35] – Same as the previous reference.

[36] -Said Al-Siddiqi, What effect does the “Covid 19” epidemic have on international politics? An essay in a collective book, The Post-Pandemic World “Readings in the Transformations of the Individual, Society, Nation and International Relations”, First Edition, May 2020, page 273-274.

[37] – Dominique Vervoort, Xiya Ma, Jessica G Y Luc ” COVID-19 Pandemic: A Time for Collaboration and A Unified Global Health Front ” , Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care, mzaa065,27 June 2020 . على الموقع الالكتروني، https://academic.oup.com/intqhc/article/doi/10.1093/intqhc/mzaa065/5863924?searchresult=1&fbclid=IwAR2fGwbQd1G_xK0ICW0EK0jhOhq4nyhN30y7HtPbSeOWKskjxtw8d-vsQv4

[38] -vaad Gedo, war medical gags .. the new face of piracy, on Post politicians, Https://www.sasapost.com/opinion/war-of-medical-gags/?fbclid=IwAR3piWQPEB9rP_NmhLJeoPjEWHpdPfE21IJkqiOpWzPErpIk7to_9u7vMw8  visit date: Day 13.06 .2020 at 11.45 am.

[39] – European Solidarity in Action, published on the official website of the European Union,

https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/coronavirus/european-solidarity-in-action/?fbclid=IwAR0Lyo7C3pgtUDYdvS100ttfGZaRtiuV93MCoI-yHN3cSpoud DjYlV5Q6.020 . Date of visit: day 29: 006.

[40] – Fouad Gedo, previous reference.

[41] – Samar Al-Khumlishi, Bets on International Cooperation in Light of the Corona Crisis, an article on the website https://eipss-eg.org/%D8%B1%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7% D8% AA-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% AA% D8% B9% D8% A7% D9% 88% D9% 86-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% AF% D9% 88% D9% 84% D9% 8A-% D9% 81% D9% 8A-% D8% B8% D9% 84-% D8% A3% D8% B2% D9% 85% D8% A9-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D9% 86% D8% A7 / Date of visit: 12.06.2020 at 23.45 pm.

[42] – “A program for the rest of the story” on the Al-Jazeera website https://www.aljazeera.net/programs/rest-of-the-story/2020/4/7/%D9%85%D8%A7-%D9 % 85% D8% B3% D8% AA% D9% 82% D8% A8% D9% 84-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A7% D8% AA% D8% AD% D8% A7% D8% AF-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A3% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D8% A8% D9% 8A-% D8% A8% D8% B9% D8% AF-% D8 A3% D8% B2% D9% 85% D8% A9 Date of visit: 06/13/2020 at 10.45 am.

[43] – Same as the previous reference.

[44] – Same as the previous reference.

[45] -Khalid Al-Zaatar, Coronavirus..and the failure of clusters, a study on the website   https://thelevantnews.com/2020/05/%D9%81%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B3 -% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D9% 86% D8% A7-% D9% 88% D9% 81% D8% B4% D9% 84-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% AA% D9% 83% D8% AA% D9% 84% D8% A7% D8% AA /

[46] – Analytics, rich northerners and extravagant southerners … Corona revealed a 2000-year-old European division, so will the European Union collapse because of it? On the website, Arab Post, https://arabicpost.me/%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%B4%D8 % A7% D8% B1% D8% AD% D8% A9 /% D8% AA% D8% AD% D9% 84% D9% 8A% D9% 84% D8% A7% D8% AA / 2020 / 04/02 / % D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A7% D8% AA% D8% AD% D8% A7% D8% AF-% D8% A7% D9% 84% D8% A3% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D8% A8% D9% 8A-% D8% A3% D8% B2% D9% 85% D8% A9-% D9% 83% D9% 88% D8% B1% D9% 88% D9% 86% D8% A7 /? Utm_medium = advert & utm_source = Facebook.com & utm_campaign = dp & utm_term = hk & utm_content = link & fbclid = IwAR2Q7P_WYlmQsYHdzeiQbltdbuuTrgN0ZOb0J7SmSE6 .

[47] – Muhammad al-Sharqawi, critical geostrategic foresight following the pandemic: horoscope reading for the 2070 world of the Corona crystal reel, article on the website https://staticalayam24.mcdn.ma/uploads/2020/06/alayam_904_VF.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2yntJOBmYpDYP5TjME5KYR-visit : visit: 25.06.2020 at 23.55 pm.

[48] – Khaled Al-Zaatar, previous reference.

[49] -The PACT initiative, which is anchored in the African Union’s Common Continental Strategy on COVID-19 endorsed by African Health Ministers and the Office of Heads of State and Government of the African Union, is an initiative to help prevent transmission and deaths and reduce the socio-economic harm this causes to COVID- 19. It seeks to implement well-coordinated actions and strong partnerships to enhance the effectiveness of the response across Africa, at https://www.africa-newsroom.com/press/coronavirus-african-union-rolls-out-partnership-to-accelerate-covid19-testing ? lang = en Date of visit: 06-07-2020 at 22.10.

[50] -Zainab Mustafa Rouiha, limited response: The role of the African Union in light of the Corona crisis (study), study on the website, Al-Sahrawi https://www.saharawi.net/?p=46340 Date of visit: 15.06.2020 at It is 11.40 am.

[51] – Pascal Rego, BRICS, Economic Forces in the Twenty-first Century, Arab Thought Foundation, First Edition, 2015, page 13-14.

[52] – Samar Al-Khamlishi, former reference.

[53] – Lavrov, BRICS countries are calling for initiatives to confront the consequences of the Corona epidemic, an article on the website https://www.sana.sy/?p=1142734 Date of visit: 17.6.2020 at 20:30 pm.

(54) – Foreign Ministry spokesman: China appreciates the BRICS statement that supports its efforts in combating the new Corona virus, a statement on the website: http://arabic.people.com.cn/n3/2020/0213/c31664-9657275.html Date of visit : 16.06.2020 at 13:00.

[55] – Samar Al-Khamlishi, former reference.

[56] – Samar Al-Khamlishi, former reference.