• The Arab Democratic Center

Summary :

The appearance of the Corona Virus in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and its spread in most countries of the world, led to a decrease in the  price of crude oil  It arrived in the United States of America on Monday 20 April 2020 to below zero for the first time in history, as oil production companies were forced to pay money to customers to obtain oil so that their crude stockpiles did not accumulate during the coming months. The decline in the demand of the major industrialized countries for oil has an impact on the state of Algeria, whose annual budget depends on its oil revenues, given that 98% of the country’s revenues are from the hydrocarbon revenues. Energy Minister Mohamed Arqab announced that Algeria signed a preliminary agreement with the German side, beginning of April 2020 in a technical method of remote lecturing in order to launch the “Desertec” solar energy project, at a cost of 400 billion euros, to build a huge network of solar power plants and supply Europe with about 20% of its electricity needs. The Ministry of Energy is also seeking, through the project, to develop renewable energies and energy efficiency, with the launch of a program to produce 5,600 megawatts by 2027.

Abstract:

The appearance of coronavirus in the Chineese city of Wuhan in December 2019 and its worldwide spread has led to a decrease of crude oil prices which reached below zero on Monday, 20th April 2020 for the first time in the history of the united states. Manufacturing companies of crude oil were obliged to pay costumers money for getting oil to avoid the accumulation of stocks for the next months. The decrease in the demand of big manufacturing countries on oil affected Algeria as its annual budget is based on oil considering that 98% of the country’s income comes from fuel. The minister of energy Mohammed Argueb announced that Algeria signed an initial agreement with Germany in the beginning of April 2020 through remote videoconferencing to revitalize desertech project of solar energy with 400 billion euros as cost to completion, to build huge nets of solar energy generating plants and provide Europe with 20% of electricity needs. The ministery of enery also seeks from the project to develop renewable energies and energy efficiency by launching a programme to produce 5600 megawatt in 2027.

Introduction:

The quarantine caused by the outbreak of the Corona virus in Juba has resulted in a slowdown in the global economy, which has caused a severe decline in energy consumption in general and traditional energies in particular. Trump’s medical adviser, Anthony Fawcci, on the epidemic expected a scary scenario about the development of the crisis, while he estimated that the virus could lead to the death of a large number of people in the country, and according to the forecasts issued by the International Energy Agency at the beginning of this month, the global demand for oil will decrease in 2020, by a difference Record 9.3 million barrels per day compared to the previous year.

Algeria is determined to   work on energy production from  renewable sources  that may cover in the horizons of 2040 about 35 percent of the national energy demand, which leads us to give up on the window energy (oil and gas) little by little that disturbs the balance of the environment. In the time of Corona through remote dialogue, how would the Corona pandemic help encourage Algeria to establish the Desertec project? The main problematic branch has a set of sub-questions: _ What is the Corona pandemic? And how it spread? _ What are the risks resulting from low oil prices for rentier exporting countries? _ Does the country of Algeria have the natural capabilities and political will to make the Desertec project a success?

Hypotheses: _ If the Corona virus is a weapon of biological destruction, it is one of the most dangerous carcinogenic and deadly viruses of human beings, then its spread will expand and prolong its duration and oil refineries will stop working _ The country of Algeria has a large capacity of solar energy, something that will encourage the German partner to establish the Desertec project

Objectives of the study:

  • Introducing the Corona pandemic and the areas where the epidemic is widespread
  • Clarify the damages of low oil prices on the country of Algeria
  • Learn about the Desertec project and the benefits of relying on solar energy  

The methodology used:

Descriptive method: We highlight it to describe the Corona virus, and the Desertec project in the Algerian-German partnership

Historical approach: This approach is used when mentioning the successive events of the spread of the Corona virus and the global economic shocks the world has witnessed due to the low oil prices.

To present the study, it was divided into three main components:

  • Explanatory introduction to the Corona pandemic
  • Corona’s impact on the oil price crash
  • Revive consultations of the Desertec Solar Energy Project in Algeria

1. An illustrative introduction to the Corona pandemic:

Government data on new infections and deaths continues, and countries continue to enforce strict health and security measures, in an effort to contain the deadly virus. Algeria records the largest number of deaths at the level of Arab countries.

1. – Definition of the Crohna virus and the terms intertwined with it : Corona viruses are a broad group of viruses that include viruses that can cause a group of disorders in humans, ranging from a common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome, and viruses from this group cause In a number of animal diseases. Corona virus that causes the respiratory syndrome in the Middle East, this special strain of the Corona virus is not previously identified in humans. There is very limited information available on the transmission, severity and clinical impact of this virus because the number of reported cases is so far.

Corona virus is a chemical warfare with weapons of mass destruction, with experiments and shelling deadly and malicious gases such as sarin gas, as reported by leaked documents from Scripps Research site in California [1]

The Director of the World Health Organization also expressed his gratitude to more than 280 thousand individuals, companies and institutions for their contribution to the Response Solidarity Fund, which has so far raised more than $ 200 million, and I thank the Flap Foundation in particular for its contribution of $ 10 million, the road is still long way There is much work ahead of us, and WHO remains committed to doing all it can to support all countries. However, political leadership is also necessary, including the critical role of parliaments. As a former parliamentarian, I am fully aware of the important role that parliaments can play [2] .

Covid Disease-19: It is an infectious disease caused by the last virus that was discovered from the strain of corona viruses, and there was no knowledge of the existence of this new virus and its disease before its outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and Covid-19 has now turned into a pandemic affecting many From the countries of the world. [3]The most common symptoms of Covid-19 disease are fever, dry cough and fatigue.Some patients may suffer from pain and aches, nasal congestion, throat pain, or diarrhea, and these symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually, and some people become infected but only very mild symptoms appear, and most people recover (about 80%) of Illness without the need for hospital treatment, and the severity of the disease intensifies in approximately one person in every 5 people who get Covid-19 infection, who suffer from difficulty breathing, and the risk of severe complications increases among the elderly, and people who already have medical problems, such as high pressure Blood, heart or lung disease, diabetes, or cancer, but anyone who can develop Covid-19 infection with severe symptoms, and even people with very mild Covid-19 symptoms can transmit the virus to others, and all people with fever and cough Difficulty breathing in obtaining medical attention, regardless of age[4] . The infection is transmitted between people, through the direct transfer of droplet cells from the patient during coughing or sneezing.

And indirect transmission by touching surfaces and tools contaminated with the secretions of the patient, and then touching the mouth, nose or eye [5] .

2.1 – A Brief History of the Corona Virus : Corona viruses were discovered in 1960, the first viruses discovered were to cause infectious bronchitis in birds, especially chickens, and there are varieties that infect humans that can be classified as follows [6] :

1960: HCOV OC 43 ، 229_E HeCOV HCOV

2003: THE – SARS

2004: NEL-63-HCOV

2005: 1- HKU-HCOV

2012: THE-MERS

2019: (B) – THE N

Corona virus developments: further reinforces the hypothesis that the virus may have appeared in China before it was officially announced by Beijing on December 20, 2019, the statement of French heroine Elodi Cloville, specializing in the five-nation military competitions, which was announced in an interview with a French local channel in March that Many athletes who participated in the World Military Games in Wuhan in October 2019, may

They were exposed to a very difficult health problem. The French heroine said that she “may have suffered Covid-19 like many members of the French delegation”, relying in her statements on the tests conducted by a French military doctor. Cloville was one of the first mathematical heroines who talked about the hypothesis that they were infected with Coronavirus while participating in the 2019 Military Games in China [7] .

On January 20, 2020, Chinese President Xi Jinbin announced that the Coruna virus is an infectious disease that is transmitted between humans. On the 21st of the same month, the number of deaths in China reached 6, and a spokesman for the Chinese Foreign Ministry, Geng Shuang, said that his country had informed the World Health Organization and relevant countries about the epidemic since it first appeared. On January 23, Beijing reported that 614 people were infected with the epidemic, 17 people died, and China imposed quarantine in Wuhan. As the number of victims increased, the seriousness of the disease began to become clear, and the world became anxious and fearful of the spread of the epidemic, then doubted about Chinese information about it, including the date of its appearance. Australian newspaper “Saturday Telegraph” published a file, in which it said that China lied to the world about the outbreak of the Corona virus, and “silenced doctors who tried to talk about the virus early, destroyed evidence in laboratories, and refused to provide samples to scientists who were trying to find a  vaccine“. This also indicates that US President Donald Trump held Beijing responsible for the pandemic. France reached Coved-19, on December 31, 2020,It was now believed that the first case of HIV infection in Europe was a German man who contracted the disease from a Chinese colleague who visited Germany between 19 and 22 January 2020. At first, talk began about the American conspiracy, which depends on America making this virus from In order to try to limit China’s economic domination of the world, after the disease spread throughout the world even in America, Europe and other countries, while the spread of the disease was controlled in China, another scenario emerged which is that China has deceived the world in order to get rid of America’s attempt to control Its economy and limiting its spread, as it became one of the largest economies in the world, so the crisis worked to buy the shares of major technology industry companies, at prices that are almost free, and thus, China was able to nationalize the companies based on its land and benefit from its profits, after the European countries were the biggest beneficiaries.The virus has spread outside China and infected more than 160 countries (after it was on March 31, 2020, the number of coronavirus infections reached nearly one million, and the number of deaths did not reach fifty thousand)[8] , especially the top ten most affected countries: the United States of America, China, Iran, Italy, South Korea, Spain, France, Denmark, Canada, Israel. He began to pollute the Earth and the Chinese President likening him to Satan, and he is fighting a battle against him

Corona Statistics in Algeria : On May 29, 2020, 137 new infections were recorded, with 8 deaths, bringing the number of infections to 9134, and deaths to 638, confirmed cases of the virus in Algeria are distributed across all the states of the country, topped by Blida 1138 cases, then the capital 1040, Oran 598 [9]

1_3 Ways to prevent the virus: The ways to prevent Covid disease – the new 19 is: washing hands with water and soap regularly for 20 seconds, covering the mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, getting rid of used wipes in a safe manner, while avoiding direct contact with anyone, and avoiding contact with After touching contaminated surfaces, avoid eyes, mouth, and nose by avoiding joint drinking from one cup, eating healthy foods rich in vitamin C   [10] . And Dr. Timothy Zaher confirms that wearing a protective mask on the mouth and nose reduces the transmission of the virus

can a mask really keep you from caching the virus block out least 95% of small airborne particles acoording to the cd[11]

It is also preferred in the protective mask used to be of good quality, and it is made of four layers a mask made from a four layer woven handkirchief fabric of a sort that might be found in many homes [12]

For this reason, the virus prevalence rate was found in Islamic countries less than in other countries, because Muslims have purity through prayer and ablution five times a day, and it is known that prevention of the virus occurs through washing. It was noted that the prevalence of the Coron virus in Iran is high compared to other Islamic countries, because they are Shiites and perform ablution three times a day because they collect prayers, as media sources said that the number of infections in the state of Iran reached 4 million people infected with the Corona virus, and the state of Iran also records the second largest number of The deaths are a scientist. Its president stated that the epidemic has spread throughout the Iranian provinces, so that the epidemic has reached the family of Ali Khamenei, also Western countries do not use water in the bathroom used to eliminate the need, and then find individuals washing with water and soap in Western countries a little compared to Islamic countries [13]

2- The effect of the Corona pandemic on the collapse of oil prices

According to forecasts issued by the International Energy Agency at the beginning of this month, the global demand for oil will decrease in 2020, with a record difference of 9.3 million barrels per day compared to the previous year.

1.2 – Definition of oil: Oil and petroleum are synonymous words to denote the same substance, where petroleum is a Latin term and oil is a Persian term, which is one of the main sources of energy in the world, and is also considered the main material for many chemical and petrochemical products such as fertilizers, pesticides and plastics. Petroleum is an important source of energy. Rather, it ranks first in the world as an energy source, and a rich source of many compounds and chemical products, which makes it one of the most important commodities in the world [14] .

Petroleum: a word derived from Latin origin and it consists of two parts petr: means oil, olium: in the Arabic language with oil, in the English language ptroleum, in the French language pétrole, in the Spanish and Portuguese languages ​​petroleo, and oil is a dense flammable liquid, found in the layer The top of the earth’s crust, as it is a sticky substance and this viscosity is different according to the specific density of the crude oil, and this specific density is stopped and determined by the percentage of carbon atoms, the higher this percentage, the higher its density or gravity and vice versa [15] . Crude oil is present in nature despite being a homogeneous substance in its constituent elements, but it is not on one species in the world, as each type differs over the other according to its different characteristics [16]

2.2 – Price developments in recent years: The annual average price of oil in 2008 was 94.4 dollars per barrel, and due to the global financial crisis and the economic recession that affected most of the world economies, oil prices decreased in 2009, reaching 61 dollars per barrel, and then the price of oil increased in 2010, to $ 77.4 a barrel, and prices continued to rise in 2011 to reach $ 107.4 a barrel [17]. The Arab Spring of 2011 caused supply shortages and helped raise prices to $ 126.48 a barrel. On the other hand, recent technological developments have significantly changed the world oil landscape. The water crack technology pushed the United States to the top of the list again, reducing the influence of OPEC and lowering prices. And surpluses in the market of American shale oil led to a sharp drop in world oil prices, from $ 114.84 a barrel in January 2014, to less than $ 50 in the first days of January 2015 [18] , then to $ 28.47 in January 2016.

3.2 – Characteristics of oil and the hydrocarbon sector in Algeria: Hydrocarbon exports have occupied an important place in Algerian exports since independence, to the stage of plans and during the transition to a market economy, and to this day. The hydrocarbon exports were the first source of hard currency for Algeria, which enabled it to achieve significant financial surpluses at the level of the trade balance, and by this it was able to balance and stabilize the balance of payments [19] . Algeria has the third largest reserves of crude oil in Africa, all of which are located in land areas because marine exploration is limited, and according to Sonatrach, two-thirds of the Algerian lands are currently being discovered or not discovered [20].. The national oil reserves are estimated at 12.3 billion barrels at the end of 2010, and 12.2 billion barrels at the end of 2013, and after they were estimated at 10.8 billion barrels in 1999, the crude oil reserves in Algeria in 2015 reached 12, , 12 billion barrels. And the production of crude oil in Algeria in 2015, 1157 thousand barrels per day, and the consumption of crude oil in Algeria in 2015, 443.6 thousand barrels / day, and Algeria’s exports of crude oil in 2015, reached 485.6 thousand barrels / day [21] . Hydrocarbon exports occupied an important place in Algerian exports since independence to the stage of plans, and during the transition to a market economy and to this day, as long as hydrocarbon exports were the first source of hard currency for Algeria. Which enabled it to achieve significant financial surpluses at the level of the trade balance, and by doing so it managed to balance and stabilize the balance of payments [22]This was evident in 2013, when the price of a barrel of oil reached $ 109.55 a barrel [23] . The public revenues of Algeria depend largely on oil revenues through petroleum collection, which is included in the extraordinary taxation in the state budget throughout the period 2004-2014 [24]

Has Algeria reached the peak of oil production ?: Algeria reached its peak oil production in 2006, and since that year it has been noticed that the daily production rate is constantly decreasing. In 1903 King Hubert undertook a study on the oil and natural gas reserves in 1926 when he was a student at the University of Chicago. He used statistical and physical methods to calculate the total quantities of oil and natural gas in the world, and he supported the documents with the sharp increase in consumption, and then in 1956 in the light of the study that He spent his life completing it, predicting that the peak oil production of the United States of America would take place between 1966 and 1972. But at that time most economists, oil companies, and government agencies were [25]Notwithstanding this prediction, including the United States Geological Survey, the true peak of oil production for the United States of America occurred in 1970 but was not announced until 1971. Hubert devoted his efforts, after his conclusion to the peak of production for the United States of America, to forecast the peak of global production. Hubert estimated that the peak of global production would take place between 1990 and 2000, based on the amount of potential total global recoverable petroleum [26]. The Arab Spring of 2011 caused supply shortages and helped raise prices to $ 126.48 a barrel. On the other hand, recent technological developments have significantly changed the world oil landscape. The water crack technology pushed the United States to the top of the list again, reducing the influence of OPEC and lowering prices. The market surpluses of US shale oil led to a sharp drop in world oil prices, from $ 114.84 a barrel in January 2014 to $ 28.47 in January 2016. As a result, prices rebounded somewhat, but they never approached the levels witnessed during the past decade (27). ]

2_4 The impact of low oil prices on the state of Algeria: Algeria   ‘s reserves in 2014 amounted to 2500 million tons of equivalent liquid oil, of which 56% were fixed reserves, and 4,500 billion cubic meters of natural gas, of which 60% were fixed reserves. The rest of the reserves are of a possible and possible type [28] . The government decided on its 2016 budget to go to rationalizing expenditures with a small decrease of -9%, or $ 77 billion, and with a decrease of 3.3% in the management budget and 16% in equipment. This choice requires resorting to the revenue control fund, which is expected to be around $ 30 billion at the end of 2015. Important in the infrastructure, including that which started this choice, is based on the decision to preserve public investments already, the continuation of all social programs and support, including work, the decrease in imports during the granting of licenses, the easing of administration spending, and the slight increase in some of the various taxes.

2_5 Oil prices in light of the Corona crisis : they fell to record levels. In April 2020, they reached below zero, for the first time in history, as oil production companies were forced to pay money to customers to obtain the oil they produced so that their crude stocks did not accumulate during the next May. [29] . Then it settles in the range of 20 and 27 dollars a barrel due to the consequences of the Corona virus, which led to the decline in demand. To make matters worse, OPEC and Russia failed to agree to cut production and reduce supply on the world market.

High oil prices linked to the easing of quarantine measures: oil companies, refineries and traders believe that the worst part of the crisis in the collapse of demand for fossil fuels in the world has already ended, at a time when oil prices are recovering, in light of the isolation measures in a number of regions. Crude oil futures fell slightly in Wednesday’s trading, but remained near their highest level in three weeks, supported by a gradual opening of the global economy. The price of Brent crude rose 0.45% to $ 31.11, before losing some of its gains in early trading on Wednesday. It was a profit of 14% yesterday, Tuesday, the price of which exceeded thirty dollars per barrel, for the first time since mid-April. [30]

  1. Revive consultations of the Desertec Solar Energy Project in Algeria

The government of Abdulaziz Jarad has sent the Desertec solar project again, more than ten years after its debut

1.3 Algeria’s solar energy potential:   Algeria receives more than 3 thousand hours of sunlight, which can be converted using technology into thermal energy, or electric energy. In 1998, the first village of Tsirlab started with solar energy in southern Algeria, with an electrical production capacity estimated at 30, 7 thousand kilowatts, then rose to 725.5 thousand kilowatts in the year 2002, where electricity is provided to about one thousand homes in 20 villages from the south. On November 3, 2007, it was announced that Hassi Ramel’s solar-solar power plant, which is a hybrid plant, that uses solar energy and natural gas, to produce 180 megawatts in the Hassi Raml gas region, will be the first of its kind at the global level, in addition to the establishment of four other power stations. Each of them is 400 MW [31]. The solar thermal energy industry is safer than making photovoltaic cells through the production of materials, but there are some minor risks that may appear when installing, although they are usual issues we encounter daily, as is the case when installing roofs at surfaces [32]

2.3 Renewable energy policy in Algeria : Renewable energies are those resources that we obtain through energy streams, which are repeated in nature automatically and periodically [33] . Algeria launched an ambitious program to develop renewable energy and energy efficiency from 2011 to 2030, and the government’s vision through this program is based on a strategy that revolves around the valuation of endless resources such as solar resources and their use to diversify energy sources. This program is mainly based on establishing a capacity of renewable assets estimated at about 22,000 MW during the period 2011-2030, of which 2011-12000 MW is directed to cover the national demand for electricity and 10,000 MW directed to export. The National Renewable Energy Development Program, approved by the government on February 3, 2011, provides for 40% of the generation

Electricity with the prospects for 2030 from non-fossil sources [34] . The program aims to meet the national needs for electricity, and to maintain Algeria’s position as a primary energy supplier for Europe, in order to support it in the future with a clean energy electricity product, which will earn Algeria significant financial surpluses of great importance through its contribution to activating sustainable development in Algeria [35] . It will use 12,000 megawatts of project energy to meet local electricity needs, and 10,000 megawatts directed to export from 22,000 megawatts has been programmed over the next two decades [36]It is time to renew large parts of European power stations and modernize the transmission networks, knowing that the investment cycles in the energy sector take between 30-40 years, and once-effective investment hinders alternative options for decades because of the high cost, and accordingly the departure towards technology methods is considered an issue Urgent, with a view to moving the process of traditional energy systems, in the case of achieving self-determined goals for climate protection until 2050, and the moment is also favorable because the countries of the Mediterranean in the south have to devise new energy sources because of their growing consumption of electricity, and the matter is receiving policy attention European security, as a plan was developed on solar energy, given that there is serious thinking in the region of entering nuclear energy [37]

The success of the Nour Solar Project in the Maghreb also contributed to the resumption of the Desertec project consultations in Algeria. The solar project known as Nour is one of the projects developed in the framework of the MENA initiative to promote concentrated solar energy, and it is part of the Moroccan solar energy plan, which aims to produce at least 2 gigawatts of solar energy by 2020 This is equivalent to 14% of the existing energy in Morocco [38] . On November 19, 2012, the Moroccan Solar Energy Agency and the Alliance of Companies led by AquaPower signed a $ 900m power purchase agreement to sell the electricity produced in the Nour 1 project with a production capacity of 160 megawatts, and this project is located 200 km from Marrakech. And in the month of June 2013

3.3 The German experience in the field of renewable energies: The German state is considered a pioneer in the field of renewable energies, and for this we find the German economy living its “green miracle”, trading in sunlight, wind and water generating fantastic profits and achieving record export figures. It is expected that the volume of economic sales will reach one billion euros in In 2030, there are many areas in which Germany is the leader in the world, and the largest production capacity in the world for wind-powered clusters and the latest power plant technologies, the first in the world in many highly effective devices. Its installed capacity reached more than 24,000 MW, and it possesses the second largest market for solar energy through 1650 MW for maximum installed capacity in 2008. Despite the sky raining in Germany throughout the year, Germany managed to become the largest supplier of electric energy from the sun In the world [39]. There is still much room for innovation that would further improve renewable energy technologies and reduce their costs, which may include materials science in the field of photovoltaic solar cells, the integration of electric vehicles into the electric power grid, and the possibility of integrating digital technologies in the energy field [40]

1.3 Definition of the         Desertec Solar Energy Project : Desertec or Desertec is a solar energy project in North Africa proposed by the Desertec Corporation of the Club of Rome, where the investment cost exceeds 400 billion euros, and depends on solar thermal energy, provided that the electricity produced from this project is exported to Europe North Africa also benefits from it. A group of German companies intends to invest about four hundred billion euros in a giant solar energy project called “DESERTEC” aiming to transfer energy from the Sahara in North Africa to German homes and factories and Europe. A spokesman for the German Siemens Engineering and Electrical Industries Company said that electricity production from this project will start over the next ten years. [41]Although 10 years have passed since the freezing of the project, which was expected to supply all of the European continent with electricity from the Algerian desert, and in German partnership, following the completion of a similar project in Morocco, the German partners still aspire to embody the project in Algeria [42] .

Solar thermal energy is a relatively new and quite promising technology. Its resources are many and its effects on the environment are few. It provides countries that are more exposed to the sun an opportunity similar to those currently provided by wind farms in European seas with beaches most vulnerable to wind [43]. The report of the Green Peace Committee concerned with environmental affairs and the European Energy Council stated that a strong shift towards renewable energy may create many jobs in energy generation by 2030, and the report called on governments to agree on a new United Nations treaty to combat climate change, at the Copenhagen meeting to protect employment. The Minister of Energy, Muhammad Arqab, had emphasized, on the sidelines of the government’s work plan in Parliament, the resumption of the project of producing electricity through solar energy “Desertk”, and said, “We have been in consultations for three months with German partners to prepare for an agreement through the technology of lecturing on Yet, to prepare for the technical agreement, as well as to determine the natural potential and qualifications Algeria possesses from solar energy.[44] “.The government of Prime Minister Abdelaziz Jarad   resumed the project that had been failed by previous ministries during the term of the resigning president, Abdelaziz Bouteflika, where the last statements were made to him by former Energy Minister Youssef Youssef, who said at the time:“ There is no benefit in completing this The project in light of the presence of a surplus in electric power in most of the countries of Europe. ”As soon as the Algerian side retreated from the“ Desertec ”project, there were accounts of a German-French struggle to win the project, which is estimated to cost 400 billion euros, while others linked a reason Postponing the project to its high cost [45] .

Conclusions:

_ Pandemic Corona has contributed to pushing Algeria to reflect on the sources of energy safer national economy, and less damage to the environment

_ Decrease in oil prices with the Algerian state exporting about 12.2 billion barrels per day at a price lower than its production cost, something that does not cover the needs of the country’s general budget, which depends on a retroactive effect of $ 50 per barrel, according to 2020 statistics

_ The country of Algeria has a large capacity of solar energy, covering 15 times the needs of the European continent, and 15 times the world’s energy needs

_ Partnership agreements between the Algerian side and the German partner to establish the Desertec project have long been disrupted due to the absence of political will, which can be rectified with the new government of President Abdel Majid Taboun

List of references

Books

_ Nasser Muhyiddin Mallouhi, Corona Virus Plague Virus: The Communist Zionist Capital Industry , Syria: Dar Al-Ghassq Publishing, 2020, p. 110

Ali bin Al Hussein, Awareness guide on the emerging corona virus covid -19 , Jordan: Ministry of Health, 2020, p. 02

Hedaya Mahmoud Mohamed Al-Asouli, a selection of the latest articles on combating corruption in 2019 , Beirut: Amazon.com Publications, 2020, p. 154

_ Al-Douri Muhammad Ahmad, Lectures on the Petroleum Economy , Algeria: The National University Press, 1983, p. 9

_ Abdul Hassan Salem Rasan, Oil Economics , Libya: The Open University, 1999, p. 43 _ Nevin Hussein, The collapse of oil prices and its repercussions on the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council , United Arab Emirates: Ministry of Economy, 2016, p. 03

_ Richard Heineberg, The Oil Mirage: Oil, War and the Fate of Industrial Societies , translation: Antoine Abdullah, Beirut: Arab Science House, 2005, p. 127

_ Abdul Majeed Attar symposium: the implications of falling oil prices on the exporting countries November 2015 , Doha: Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, 2016, p. 124

Ayoub Aboudia, Empowering Civil Society Institutions on the Social, Economic, and Environmental Risks of Nuclear Energy vs. Renewable Energy as Energy for Peace , Jordan: Friedrich Airbat Foundation, November 2015, p. 47

_ Isabel Vernfels and Kristen Festival, Solar energy from the desert, general conditions and perspectives , February 2010, Berlin: International Institute for International Policy and Security, p. 6

Angel Gouria, Promoting Integrity in the Energy, Health and Transportation Sector in the State of Morocco , June 2018, Paris: OECD, 2018, p. 23

_ Ahmed Ibrahim Abdel-Al Hussein, Law and Environment , Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Law, Egypt: Tanta University, 23-24 April 2018, p. 27

Ahmed Saleh Adel, The role of science, technology and innovation to achieve a significant increase in the share of renewable energy by 2030 , Geneva: Report of the Committee on Science and Technology for Development, 2018, p. 6

Articles

_ Hassan Hanafi, Corona between East and West: the fall of science and the collapse of modernity in Europe and America, Al-Faisal Magazine , Riyadh: King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, Number: 523, May 2020, pp. 26_28

_ Abdul Sattar Abdul Jabbar Musa, the historical development of crude oil prices 1862_2010, Kuwait Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences , Al-Mustansiriya University: College of Administration and Economics, 2015, number: 18, p. 12

_ Bouchlit Hajar Amira, the problem of public spending in Algeria and the crisis of declining oil prices in 2014, Algerian Journal of Globalization and Economic Policy , University of Algeria 3: Faculty of Business, Economics and Management Sciences, Number: 7, 2016, p. 173

_ Al-Saeed Barika and Nour El-Hoda Amara, investing oil revenues to develop the industrial sector in Algeria, Journal of the Humanities , Biskra: Mohamed Kheidar University, Issue: 4, December 2015, p. 279 _ Bouchalit Hajar Amira, the problem of public spending in Algeria and the crisis in oil prices decline The year 2014, Algerian Journal of Globalization and Economic Policy , Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Algiers 3, Issue: 7, 2016, p. 174

_ Qaraa Bin Ali, Investments of Renewable Energies in Algeria between the geopolitical dimensions and rebuilding the rentier state, Journal of Political and Legal Sciences , Berlin: The Arab Democratic Center, Number: 1, 2017, p. 200 _ Tayyeb Saida and Senusi Bin Abbou, a national energy strategy to achieve the energy transition Over the course of 2030, Al -Moufiker Journal of Legal and Political Studies , Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, Mohamed Khader University in Biskra , Issue : 3, September 2018, p. 170

_ Faraouhat Hadda, Renewable Energies as an Approach to Achieving Sustainable Development in Algeria: A Study of the Reality of the Solar Energy Application Project in the Big South in Algeria, Al-Bahith Journal , Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, Kasadi University, Mirbah and Ouargla, Number: 11, 2012, p. 152

The Forums

_ Knowing Malika and Healing Epilepsy, the alternative strategy to exploit the petroleum wealth within the framework of the rules of sustainable development , the international scientific conference: sustainable development and the efficient use of available resources, Setif: Faculty of Economic, Commercial and Management Sciences, 7-8 April 2008, p. 7

_ Jabbar Souad and Mahi Souad, Energy in Algeria: Resources and Capacities , The Conference on the Use Policies of Energy Resources between National Development Requirements and Securing International Needs, Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, Setif University, 2015, p. 7

Dahmani Samia, the role of renewable energies as a strategic alternative to fossil energies in activating sustainable development in the Maghreb countries, solar energy as a model , the international conference of renewable energies strategies and their role in achieving sustainable development. Examining the experiences of some countries, Blida: Faculty of Economic Sciences, 23-24 April 2018, P. 17

_Ratul Ahmed, the renewable energy industry in Germany and Algeria directs to renewable energy projects as a stage for securing fossil supplies and environmental protection, “the case of the Desertec project” , the international scientific forum on the behavior of economic institutions in light of the stakes of sustainable development and social justice, Ouargla: Publications of the Faculty of Economic Sciences, 2012, p. 140

_ Nadia and Belhachemi Sudanese , ready , the reality of renewable and sustainable energy in the world and Algeria directed towards its production 2030 , the national forum on “the effectiveness of investment in – through the Algeria Renewable Energy Project renewable energies in light of the modern approach to environmental responsibility”, Algeria: Skikda University, 2014, p. 11

Graduation notes                           

Boubacar Baadache, manifestations of globalization through the activity of international multinationals, the case of the petroleum sector , PhD thesis in Economic Sciences, Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Algeria 3, 2010, 228

Websites

_ Tedros Adhanom Ghebryesus, opening remarks were made by the Director General of the World Health Organization in a briefing on Kovid- disease 19, 27 April 2020 Location: Https://www.who.int/ar/dg/ , Ta Rech Viewing: 19_05_2020, at 14:30

_ Gregory Hartle, What is Covid Disease – 19, website:  https://www.who.int/ar/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/ , access date: 20_05_2020, 23:00          

_ Enas Abdul Majeed Rashid, Corona virus or coronavirus, website:  https://www.researchgate.net/ , access date: 20_05_2020, 19:00

_ Boualam Ghobshi, the history of the appearance of the Corona virus … the mystery that baffles the world, website: https://www.france24.com/ar/ , access date: 18_05_2020, 015: 0

Associated Press, easing Corona response measures … Has the worst part of the global oil crisis ended?

https://www.aljazeera.net/news/ebusiness , review date: 25_05_2020, 13:30

Imad bin Saeed, do alternative energies pay the oil price collapse tax on the background of the Corona virus?

, Viewing date: 23_05_2019, 19:30 https://www.france24.com/en

Mohamed Abdel-Mumin, Corona virus, emerging in 48 provinces in Algeria,  https://www.elbilad.net/article/detail?id=105996 , accessed date: 29_05_2020, 21:00

Khaled Al-Qutait and Abdul Rahman Othman, a huge German project to produce solar energy in the deserts of North Africa, website: https://www.dw.com/en/ , access date: 24_05_2020, at 10:30

Rafika Ma`reesh, after 10 years of stopping by Germany, returns to the Desertec project, website:  https://www.eldjazaironline.net/Accueil/ , day: 25_05_2020, 14:30

_ Mohamed Belalaya, Desertec Algeria, the full story, website: https://m.elbilad.net/article/detail?id=104638 , viewing date: 26_05_2020, 23:00

Ultra Algeria, Algeria agrees in principle with Germany to launch the Desertec project, website: https://ultraalgeria.ultrasawt.com/ , access date: 24_05_2020, 18:00

References in the foreign language

[1] _  Timothy zohar، can masks protect you from the corona virus? ،NEW YORK: There is no publication year، p: 04[1] _ kelvin droegemeier، RAPId expert consultation on the Effectiveness of fabric mask for the covid -19 pandimec، USA: office of science and technology policy، April، 2020، p: 56

[1] _ Nasser Muhyiddin Mallouhi, Corona Virus Plague Virus of the Age: Communist Zionist Capital Industry , Syria: Dar al-Ghassq Publishing, 2020, p. 110

[2]  _ Tedros Adhanum Gebriissos, opening remarks by the Director-General of the World Health Organization in a briefing on Covid Disease-19, on April 27, 2020, website: https://www.who.int/ar/dg/ , TA The insight was: 19_05_2020, at 14:30

[3]  _ Gregory Hartle, What is Covid Disease – 19, website:  https://www.who.int/ar/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/ , access date: 20_05_2020, 23:00                                                                                                   

[4] _ Gregory Hartle, previous reference , accessed date: 20_05_2020, 23:00

[5]  _ Ali Bin Al Hussein, Awareness Guide on the New Corona Virus covid-19 , Jordan: Ministry of Health, 2020, p. 02

[6] _ Enas Abdul Majeed Rashid, Corona Virus or Coronaviruses, website:  https://www.researchgate.net/ , access date: 20_05_2020, 19:00

[7]  _ Boualam Ghobshi, the history of the appearance of the Corona virus … the mystery that baffles the world, website: https://www.france24.com/ar/ , access date: 18_05_2020, 015: 0

[8]  _ Hassan Hanafi, Corona between East and West: the fall of science and the collapse of modernity in Europe and America, Al-Faisal Magazine , Riyadh: King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, Number: 523, May 2020, pp. 26_28

[9]  _ Mohamed Abdel-Mumin, Corona virus, emerging in 48 provinces in Algeria,  https://www.elbilad.net/article/detail?id=105996 , access date: 29_05_2020, 21:00

[10] _  Ibid. , P. 05

[11] _  Timothy zohar، can masks protect you from the corona virus? ،NEW YORK: There is no publication year، p: 04

[12] _ kelvin droegemeier، RAPId expert consultation on the Effectiveness of fabric mask for the covid -19 pandimec، USA: office of science and technology policy، April، 2020، p: 56

[13]  _ Hedaya Mahmoud Mohamed Al-Asouli, a selection of the latest articles on anti-corruption in 2019 , Beirut: Amazon Website Publications, 2020, p. 154

[14]  _ Alima Malika and Kattaf Shafi, The Alternative Strategy for the Exploitation of Petroleum Wealth within the Framework of the Rules for Sustainable Development , The International Scientific Conference: Sustainable Development and the Efficiency of Use of Available Resources, Setif: College of Economic, Commercial and Management Sciences, 7-8 April 2008, p. 7

[15]  _ Al-Douri Muhammad Ahmad, Lectures on Petroleum Economics , Algeria: The National Board of University Publications, 1983, p. 9

[16]  _ Abdul Hassan Salem Rasan, Oil Economics , Libya: The Open University, 1999, p. 43

[17]  _ Abdul Sattar Abdul Jabbar Musa, the historical development of crude oil prices 1862_2010, Kuwait Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences , Al-Mustansiriya University: College of Administration and Economics, 2015, number: 18, p. 12

[18]  _ Nevine Hussein, The collapse of oil prices and its repercussions on the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council , United Arab Emirates: Ministry of Economy, 2016, p. 03

[19]  _ Bouchlit Hajar Amira, the problem of public spending in Algeria and the crisis of declining oil prices in 2014, Algerian Journal of Globalization and Economic Policy , University of Algeria 3: Faculty of Economic , Commercial and Management Sciences, Number: 7, 2016, p. 173

[20]  _ Jabbar Souad and Mahi Souad, Energy in Algeria: Resources and Capacities , The Conference on the Use Policies of Energy Resources between Country Development Requirements and Securing International Needs, Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, Setif University, 2015, p. 7

[21] _ Khaled Legdal, previous reference , p. 164

[22]  _ Boubacar Baadache, manifestations of globalization through the activity of international multinational companies, the case of the petroleum sector , PhD thesis in Economic Sciences, Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Algeria 3, 2010, 228

[23]  _ Al-Saeed Barika and Nour El-Hoda Emara, Investing the oil revenues to develop the industrial sector in Algeria, Journal of the Humanities , Biskra: Mohamed Khidr University, Issue: 4, December 2015, p. 279

[24]  _ Bouchlit Hajar Amira, the problem of public spending in Algeria and the crisis of declining oil prices in 2014, Algerian Journal of Globalization and Economic Policies , Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Algeria 3, Issue: 7, 2016, p. 174

[25]  _ Richard Heineberg, The Oil Mirage: Oil, War, and the Fate of Industrial Societies , translation: Antoine Abdullah, Beirut: Arab Science House, 2005, p. 127

[26]  _ Richard Heinberg, ibid. , P. 146

[27]  _ Abdul Majeed Attar symposium: The implications of low oil prices for the exporting countries November 2015 , Doha: Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, 2016, p. 124

[28]  _  Ibid. , P. 124

[29]  _ Imad bin Saeed, do alternative energies pay the oil price collapse tax on the background of the Corona virus?

, Viewing date: 23_05_2019, 19:30 https://www.france24.com/en

[30]  _ Associated Press, easing measures to tackle Corona … Has the worst part of the global oil crisis ended?

https://www.aljazeera.net/news/ebusiness , review date: 25_05_2020, 13:30

[31]  _ Qaraa Bin Ali, Investments of Renewable Energies in Algeria between the geopolitical dimensions and rebuilding the rentier state, Journal of Political and Legal Sciences , Berlin: The Arab Democratic Center, Number: 1, 2017, p. 200

[32]  _ Ayoub Aboudia, Empowering Civil Society Institutions on the Social, Economic, and Environmental Risks of Nuclear Energy vs. Renewable Energy as Peace Energy , Jordan: The Friedrich Ebert Foundation, November 2015, p. 47

[33]  _ Ratol Ahmed, the renewable energy industry in Germany and Algeria directs to renewable energy projects as a stage for securing fossil supplies and environmental protection “The case of the Desertec project ,  International Scientific Forum on the behavior of economic institutions in light of the stakes of sustainable development and social justice, and Ouargla: Publications of the Faculty of Economic Sciences, 2012, p. 140

[34]   _ Nadia and Belhachemi Sudanese , the reality of renewable and sustainable energy in the world and Algeria’s orientation towards its production in 2030 , the national forum on “the effectiveness of investment in – through the Algeria renewable energy project renewable energies in light of the modern orientation of environmental responsibility”, Algeria: Skikda University, 2014, p. 11

[35]  _ Dahmani Samia, the role of renewable energies as a strategic alternative to fossil energies in activating sustainable development in the Arab Maghreb countries, solar energy as a model , the international conference renewable energy strategies and its role in achieving sustainable development. Examining the experiences of some countries, Blida: Faculty of Economic Sciences, 23-24 April 2018, p. 17

[36]  _ Tayeb Saida and Senusi Bin Abbou, a national energy strategy to achieve energy transition over 2030, Journal of Legal and Political Studies , Al-Moufikr Journal of Legal and Political Studies , Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, Mohamed Khader University in Biskra, Number: 3, September 2018, p. 170

[37] _ Isabel Vernfels and Kristen Festival, Solar Energy From the Desert General Conditions and Perspectives , February 2010, Berlin: International Institute for International Policy and Security, p. 6

[38]  _ Angel Gurria, Promoting Integrity in the Energy, Health and Transportation Sector in the State of Morocco , June 2018, Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2018, p. 23

[39]  _ Ahmed Ibrahim Abdel-Al Hussein, Law and Environment , Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Law, Egypt: Tanta University, 23-24 April 2018, p. 27

[40]  _ Ahmed Saleh Adel, The role of science, technology and innovation to achieve a significant increase in the share of renewable energy by 2030 , Geneva: Report of the Committee on Science and Technology for Development, 2018, p. 6

[41]  _ Khaled Al Qutait and Abdul Rahman Othman, a huge German project to produce solar energy in the deserts of North Africa, website: https://www.dw.com/en/ , access date: 24_05_2020, at 10:30

[42]  _ Rafika Ma`reesh, after 10 years of stopping by Germany, returns to the Desertec project, website:  https://www.eldjazaironline.net/Accueil/ , day: 25_05_2020, at 14:30

[43]  _ Faraouhat Hadda, Renewable Energies as an Approach to Achieving Sustainable Development in Algeria, A Study of the Reality of the Solar Energy Application Project in the Big South in Algeria, Al-Bahith Journal , Algeria: Faculty of Economic Sciences, Kasadi University, Mirbah and Ouargla, Number: 11, 2012, p. 152

[44] _ Mohamed Belalaya, Desertec Algeria, the full story, website: https://m.elbilad.net/article/detail?id=104638 , access date: 26_05_2020, 23:00

[45]  _ Ultra Algeria, Algeria agrees in principle with Germany to launch the Desertec project, website: https://ultraalgeria.ultrasawt.com/ , access date: 24_05_2020, 18:00